CELLULAR RESPIRATION  Cellular Respiration - The chemical breakdown of glucose (usually uses oxygen) to release energy.  The energy released is used.

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CELLULAR RESPIRATION Cellular Respiration - The chemical breakdown of glucose (usually uses oxygen) to release energy. The energy released is used to make ATP. EQUATION FOR CELLULAR RESPIRATION C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP Slide 2 G LYCOLYSIS Glycolysis the production of ATP by changing glucose to 2 molecules of pyruvic acid. Occurs in the cytoplasm. Does not require oxygen so is considered anaerobic. 4 ATPs are produced but two are used during the process NET GAIN of 2 ATPs Slide 3 GLYCOLYSIS CONTINUED Glucose is split into two molecules of PGAL. Each molecule of PGAL then loses hydrogen atoms and becomes a molecule of pyruvic acid Hydrogen atoms are given off during the formation of pyruvic acid. The hydrogen atoms are bonded to NAD+ forming NADH. NOTE: two NADH are produced because you have two pyruvic acids. This entire process requires the energy from 2 ATPs (to split glucose into PGAL) but produces 4 ATP molecules. Net GAIN of 2 ATPs Slide 4 GLYCOLYSIS CONTINUED GLUCOSE / \ PGAL PGAL | | | | NAD+ H H NAD+ NADH NADH Pyruvic Acid Pyruvic Acid Requires energy from 2 ATP molecules for the process but 4 ATP molecules are produced. There is a net gain of 2 ATP molecules Slide 5 BREAKDOWN OF PYRUVIC ACID Pyruvic acid is changed to a two carbon substance called acetic acid (or an acetyl group) by removing carbon dioxide and a hydrogen ion. The acetyl (or acetic acid) group is bonded to coenzyme A forming acetyl Co-A. The hydrogen removed from pyruvic acid along with the eletrons will bond to NAD+ and forms NADH. The CO 2 is released from the organism NOTE: Since you have two pyruvic acid molecules you will have 2 NADH produced. Slide 6 PYRUVIC ACID PYRUVIC ACID C o 2 co 2 NAD+ HH NAD+ NADH NADH ACETYL GROUP/ACETIC ACID ACETYL GROUP/ACETIC ACID Slide 7 KREBS CYCLE OR CITRIC ACID CYCLE Named after Hans Krebs Occurs in the Mitochondrion of a cell. Slide 8 KREBS CYCLE CONTINUED Acetyl coenzyme A transfers the acetyl group to a 4 carbon compound (called oxaloacetic acid). This forms a 6 carbon substance called citric acid (hence the name citric acid cycle.) Coenzyme A leaves the cycle to pick up another acetyl group. Slide 9 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) Krebs Cycle 1 Acetyl CoA (2C) - acetyl group (one turn) OAA (4C) Oxaloacetic acid Citric acid (6C) Slide 10 KREBS CYCLE CONTINUED The 6 carbon citric acid has two carbon atoms removed by enzymes (in the form of carbon dioxide) occurs in two stages. Go to a five carbon then to a 4 carbon substance. Slide 11 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) Krebs Cycle 1 Acetyl CoA (2C) acetyl group (one turn) OAA (4C) Citric acid (6C) 2 CO 2 Slide 12 KREBS OR CITRIC ACID CYCLE (CONTINUED) Each time the Krebs (Citric Acid Cycle) occurs hydrogen atoms go to coenzymes. Hydrogen atoms go to NAD+ forming 3 NADH; hydrogen goes to coenzyme FAD forming 1 molecule of FADH 2 REMEMBER there are two acetyl Co As (each from the two pyruvic acid molecules) so the process happens twice. TOTAL OF 6 NADH produced and 2 FADH 2 Produce ATP for the citric acid cycle one ATP for each of the two acetyl Co-A molecules so a total of 2 ATPs. Slide 13 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) Krebs Cycle 1 Acetyl CoA (2C) acetyl group 3 NAD + 3 NADH FAD FADH 2 ATP ADP +P (one turn) OAA (4C) Citric acid (6C) 2 CO 2 Slide 14 The original 4 carbon substance (oxaloacetic acid) can now unite with another acetyl group and start the Krebs cycle over again. Slide 15 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) Krebs Cycle 2 Acetyl CoA (2C) 6 NAD + 6 NADH 2 FAD 2 FADH 2 2 ATP 2 ADP +P (two turns) OAA (4C) Oxaloacetic acid Citric acid (6C) 4 CO 2 Slide 16 DO NOT COPY Here is the Real Story Slide 17 ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN Most of the energy from the breakdown of glucose is still in the electrons carried by NADH and FADH 2. The molecules of the electron transport chain are located in the inner cristae membrane of the mitochondrion and are electron carriers. Slide 18 ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN (CONTINUED) As the hydrogen atoms (or electrons) are passed down the electron transport chain they lose energy. The energy lost is used to produce ATP. The role of oxygen in cellular respiration is to accept the hydrogen at the end of the transport chain. This will produce water molecules at the end of the chain. Slide 19 ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN (CONTINUED) 10 NADH X 3 ATP = 30 ATP 2 FADH 2 X 2 ATP = 4 ATP TOTAL ATP FOR ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN = 34 Slide 20 Grand total of ATP produced by aerobic breakdown of 1 Glucose molecule: Grand total of ATP produced by aerobic breakdown of 1 Glucose molecule: GLYCOLYSIS2 ATP KREBS CYCLE 2 ATP ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN 34 ATP **** TOTAL38 ATP **** TOTAL38 ATP ****HOWEVER, it requires energy to transport the 2 NADH made during glycolysis into the mitochondria so we subtract 2 ATP from our total. ****The true total ATP production is 36 ATP per one glucose molecule. Slide 21 FERMENTATION Occurs in the cytoplasm of a cell. Anaerobic process does not use oxygen. The breakdown of glucose in which organic substances (remember oxygen is INORGANIC) are the final electron acceptor. Fermentation only produces a net gain of 2 ATP (compared to 36 in cellular respiration.) Slide 22 FERMENTATION (CONTINUED) The first part of fermentation is GLYCOLYSIS. After pyruvic acid is made during glycolysis there are two types of fermenation depending on the organism: 1. Alcoholic Fermentation yeast do this process. 2. Lactic Acid Fermentation many organisms including humans Slide 23 ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION Anaerobic The conversion of pyruvic acid (made during glycolysis) to ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. Most of the energy is still in the ethyl alcohol makes it a vital fuel. When yeast go through fermentation the carbon dioxide given off makes bread dough rise. Slide 24 Lactic Acid Fermentation Anaerobic Conversion of pyruvic acid (from glycolysis) to lactic acid Important in the making of dairy products such as cheese, buttermilk, and yogurt. Humans can do this when oxygen levels are low and energy is required. The build up of lactic acid in the muscles produces muscle fatigue and a burning sensation. To recover return to aerobic respiration using oxygen. The lactic acid will be carried by the blood to the liver and changed to glucose. Slide 25 CHLOROPLASTS AND MITOCHONDRIA CHARACTERISITCS IN COMMON 1. BOUNDED BY A DOUBLE MEMBRANE 2. INNER MEMBRANE FOLDS WITHIN THE STRUCTURE 3. Both contain DNA Slide 26 CHLOROPLASTS AND MITOCHONDRIA 1. SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR ATP PRODUCTION. a. CHLOROPLASTS - SUN b. MITOCHONDRIA - CHEMICAL BONDS DIFFERENCES 2. COLOR a. CHLOROPLASTS - GREEN b. MITOCHONDRIA - COLORLESS 3. SIZE CHLOROPLASTS LARGER AND MORE IRREGULAR IN SHAPE 4. FUNCTION a. CHLOROPLASTS - PHOTOSYNTHESIS (PRODUCTION OF CARBOHYDRATES) b. MITOCHONDRIA - RESPIRATION (BREAKDOWN OF CARBOHYDRATES)

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