Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis. ATP Adenosine Triphosphate Main energy source for animal cells Energy is stored in the bonds between phosphate.

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Cellular RespirationandPhotosynthesisATPAdenosine TriphosphateMain energy source for animal cellsEnergy is stored in the bonds between phosphate atomsGive off LOTS of energy when broken!ATPATP is made from ADPA new phosphate gets added to ADP to make ATPEnzymes catalyze these reactionsATPase: breaks down ATPATP synthase: makes ATP from ADPThe ATP and ADP molecules get reused over and over again BUT energy does NOT get reused.Cell Respiration Energy stored in glucose is released through a process called Cell Respiration. This occurs in all living organisms.Two types of Cell Respiration:Aerobic requires O2Anaerobic Does not require O2 Cellular RespirationThe process of transferring the energy in carbohydrates into a useable form of energy for the cell (ATP)Occurs in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of Autotrophs and HeterotrophsC6H12O6 + O2 CO2 + H2O + ATP + HeatCellular RespirationThree phasesGlycolysisAnaerobicCitric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle)AerobicElectron Transport ChainAerobic Phase I: GlycolysisAnaerobic: does NOT require O2Occurs in the cytoplasmSeries of chemical reactions that break down one glucose into two sugar moleculesProduces 4 ATP moleculesBut it takes 2 to get the reaction started for a net production of TWO ATP!Phase II: Citric Acid CycleAlso known as Krebs CycleAerobic: requires O2Occurs in the mitochondriaGlucose is broken down even furtherProducts: 2 ATP and CO2Phase III: Electron Transport ChainAerobic: requires O2Occurs in mitochondria inner membraneElectrons from CAC pass thru a chain of proteinsProducts: 32 ATP and H2O FermentationAfter glycolysis, if no O2 then fermentation occursFermentation is an ANAEROBIC process!Allows cell to continue using glycolysis to generate ATP2 kinds of FermentationLactic Acid FermentationAlcoholic FermentationFermentationLactic Acid Fermentation In animals and some bacteriaResults in the production of lactic acidIf too much builds up, can result in muscle sorenessAlcoholic Fermentation Yeasts, plantsUsed in bread and alcohol manufacturingFermentationLactic Acid FermentationBacteria in a closed container of milk are in an anaerobic environment so they use fermentation to make ATP and the lactic acid produced curdles the milk. This is what produces cheese, yogurt, sour cream, and cottage cheese.Alcoholic Fermentation Yeasts in bread dough are also in anaerobic environment. CO2 gas is produced as a by product and is what makes dough rise. Alcohol evaporates out of bread during baking. 32 ATPEnergy Summary(number of ATP molecules formed in each step of respiration)PhotosynthesisMeaning making with lightPhotosynthesis is the process of converting the suns light energy into stored carbohydrates (glucose)Takes place in in the chloroplasts of autotrophsThe green pigment chlorophyll is required for photosynthesisCO2 + H20 + Light C6H12O6 + O2Chemical ReactionsTwo phasesLight Dependent ReactionsTurns light energy into ATPLight Independent Reactions Conversion of CO2 into GlucoseLight Dependent ReactionsLight energy transfers to electrons in chlorophyllExcited electrons pass through a chain of proteinselectrons loose energy at each step, creating ATPH20 is split to replace electronsGives off O2Light Independent ReactionsAlso known as the Calvin CycleDONT CONFUSE WITH KREBS CYCLE!!!Series of reactions that use ATP to convert CO2 into GlucoseLOTS of enzymes usedThat Mrs. Ball is nice enough to NOT make you know!


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