Main energy source for animal cells
Energy is stored in the bonds between phosphate atomsGive off LOTS of energy when broken!
ATPATP is made from ADPA new phosphate gets added to ADP to make ATP
Enzymes catalyze these reactionsATPase: breaks down ATPATP synthase: makes ATP from ADP
The ATP and ADP molecules get reused over and over again BUT energy does NOT get reused.
Cell Respiration Energy stored in glucose is released through a process called Cell Respiration. This occurs in all living organisms.
Two types of Cell Respiration:Aerobic requires O2Anaerobic Does not require O2
Cellular RespirationThe process of transferring the energy in carbohydrates into a useable form of energy for the cell (ATP)
Occurs in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
C6H12O6 + O2 CO2 + H2O + ATP + Heat
Cellular RespirationThree phasesGlycolysisAnaerobic
Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle)Aerobic
Electron Transport ChainAerobic
Phase I: GlycolysisAnaerobic: does NOT require O2
Occurs in the cytoplasm
Series of chemical reactions that break down one glucose into two sugar molecules
Produces 4 ATP moleculesBut it takes 2 to get the reaction started for a net production of TWO ATP!
Phase II: Citric Acid CycleAlso known as Krebs Cycle
Aerobic: requires O2
Occurs in the mitochondria
Glucose is broken down even further
Products: 2 ATP and CO2
Phase III: Electron Transport ChainAerobic: requires O2
Occurs in mitochondria inner membrane
Electrons from CAC pass thru a chain of proteins
Products: 32 ATP and H2O
FermentationAfter glycolysis, if no O2 then fermentation occursFermentation is an ANAEROBIC process!Allows cell to continue using glycolysis to generate ATP
2 kinds of FermentationLactic Acid FermentationAlcoholic Fermentation
Lactic Acid Fermentation In animals and some bacteriaResults in the production of lactic acidIf too much builds up, can result in muscle soreness
Alcoholic Fermentation Yeasts, plantsUsed in bread and alcohol manufacturing
FermentationLactic Acid FermentationBacteria in a closed container of milk are in an anaerobic environment so they use fermentation to make ATP and the lactic acid produced curdles the milk. This is what produces cheese, yogurt, sour cream, and cottage cheese.
Alcoholic Fermentation Yeasts in bread dough are also in anaerobic environment. CO2 gas is produced as a by product and is what makes dough rise. Alcohol evaporates out of bread during baking.
Energy Summary(number of ATP molecules formed in each step of respiration)
PhotosynthesisMeaning making with light
Photosynthesis is the process of converting the suns light energy into stored carbohydrates (glucose)
Takes place in in the chloroplasts of autotrophs
The green pigment chlorophyll is required for photosynthesis
CO2 + H20 + Light C6H12O6 + O2
Chemical ReactionsTwo phasesLight Dependent ReactionsTurns light energy into ATP
Light Independent Reactions Conversion of CO2 into Glucose
Light Dependent ReactionsLight energy transfers to electrons in chlorophyll
Excited electrons pass through a chain of proteinselectrons loose energy at each step, creating ATP
H20 is split to replace electronsGives off O2
Light Independent ReactionsAlso known as the Calvin CycleDONT CONFUSE WITH KREBS CYCLE!!!
Series of reactions that use ATP to convert CO2 into Glucose
LOTS of enzymes usedThat Mrs. Ball is nice enough to NOT make you know!