Cellular Energy Photosynthesis & Respiration. Energy Flow Sun Glucose (photosynthesis) ATP (Respiration)

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Cellular Energy

Cellular EnergyPhotosynthesis & RespirationEnergy FlowSun Glucose (photosynthesis) ATP (Respiration)

Cell EnergyEnergy ~ The ability to do work.Main source of energy in living things: Glucose! C6H12O6Glucose is a monosaccharide.Glucose is made by photosynthesis for autotrophs.Glucose is part of food eaten by heterotrophs.Glucose is powerful it must be turned into a gentler form of energy called ATP to be used by a cell.

Glucose

C6H12O6How do you get glucose?Autotroph ~ Organism that makes its own food (glucose) by photosynthesis.Ex: plant

Heterotroph ~ Organism that must eat food (glucose) from an outside source.Ex: humanEnergy Storing CompoundsNADPHATPATPAdenosine TriphosphateATP is an energy storing compound made in the mitochondria. It is made when glucose is broken down.

ADENOSINEPO4PO4

PO4

ATPhttp://www.biologyinmotion.com/atp/index.html

Be sure to watch!Cellular Organelles Chloroplasts: plant cells; energy from the sun is converted into glucose

Mitochondria: glucose is converted into ATPChloroplast StructureOuter and Inner membranes contain and protect the inner partsStroma: area where reactions occur and sugars are createdThylakoids: have chlorophyll molecules on their surfaceChlorophyll pigment that uses suns energy to create glucoseStroma lamella: act like the skeleton of the chloroplast, keeping all of the sacs a safe distance from each other and maximizing the efficiency of the organelle.

MitochondriaOuter membraneCristae: the foldsMatrix: contains high number of enzymes; several steps of cellular respiration are performed hereDNARibosomes

PhotosynthesisA chemical reaction in which light energy is converted into bond energy stored in a glucose molecule.

Photosynthesis Reaction

Requirements for photosynthesis:Carbon dioxide (CO2)Water (H2O)LightChlorophyllProducts of photosynthesis:Glucose (C6H12O6)Oxygen (O2)Plant PigmentsChlorophyll - greenXanthophyll - yellowCarotene - orangeAnthocyanins

*Plant Pigments absorb energy and pass on to chlorophyll

ChlorophyllChlorophyll is green in color, meaning that green light is reflected, not absorbed.Chlorophyll absorbs primarily red and blue light for photosynthesis.

What is happening?Red Light: Green Light:

Light ReactionsStarting molecules: CO2, H2OEnding molecules: O2, NADPH, ATPe-

Dark Reactions (Calvin Cycle)Starting molecules:Ending molecules:C6H12O6CO2C5Cellular RespirationChemical reactions that convert glucose into ATP.May or may not use oxygen.Occurs in mitochondria.

Aerobic RespirationMaterials Needed:OxygenGlucose

Materials Made:36 ATPWaterCarbon dioxide

Anaerobic RespirationBreaks down glucose without using oxygen.Produces a poisonous waste product.Only produces 2 ATP molecules from one glucose molecule.Two types of anaerobic respiration: Alcoholic fermentation Lactic acid fermentationLactic Acid FermentationC6H12O6 CO2 + lactic acid + 2ATPProduces lactic acid as a waste product.Carried out by bacteria.Causes milk to go sour.Carried out by human muscle cells (reason you are sore after a workout)Used in industry to make cheese and yogurt.

Alcoholic FermentationC6H12O6 CO2 + alcohol + 2ATPYeasts and other microorganisms carry out alcoholic fermentationFormation of ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide as wastesCauses bread dough to rise

Aerobic vs. Anaerobic RespirationAerobicUses O2.Breaks down glucose.Produces 36 ATP.Carried out by plants and animals.

AnaerobicDoes not use O2.Breaks down glucose.Produces 2 ATP.Alcoholic fermentation is carried out by yeast.Lactic acid fermentation is carried out by bacteria.

Aerobic organismsAn organism that requires oxygen

Anaerobic organismsAn organism that does not require oxygen

Photosynthesis vs. RespirationPhotosynthesisProduces C6H12O6 (glucose).Occurs in the chloroplasts.Produces O2 (oxygen gas).Carried out by autotrophs.

RespirationProduces ATP.Occurs in the mitochondria.Produces CO2 (carbon dioxide).Carried out by heterotrophs and autotrophs.Aerobic respiration produces 36 ATP, anaerobic 2 ATP.

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