Cell Energy Photosynthesis and Respiration. How do Cells Store Energy? Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) – the molecule where the energy is stored for cell.

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Cell EnergyPhotosynthesis and RespirationHow do Cells Store Energy?Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) the molecule where the energy is stored for cell processes.NADP+ and NADPH- carrier molecules that carry high energy electrons for reactions in the cell.ATP ModelAdenineRibose3 Phosphate groupsATP- ADP CycleWhen ATP loses a phosphate group it releases energy and becomes ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate).ATP vs. ADP compared to a batteryADPATPAdenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)PartiallychargedbatteryFullychargedbatteryATP-ADP CyclePhotosynthesisPhotosynthesis plants trap the suns energy and store it in molecules of glucose.Process of using suns energy to make food for the plant. Photosynthesis FormulaProcess of Photosynthesis sunlightCarbon Dioxide + Water glucose + oxygen chlorophyll Reactants ProductsPhotosynthesis takes place in leaves (primarily)Leaves are the major sites of photosynthesis (although any green vegetation can do so).Within cells of the leaf, photosynthesis takes place in the CHLOROPLASTSElodea cells with small, circular chloroplastsThought it didnt go any smaller?Within those crazy chloroplastsThylakoids: sacs containing chlorophyll (pancake)Grana: stack of thylakoid disks (stack of pancakes)Stroma: the region outside the grana. (syrup)So wheres the juice?Nature of SunlightLight = electromagnetic energy (radiation), travels in rhythmic waves ( wavelengths)Entire range = electromagnetic spectrumVisible light drives photosynthesisPhotons & PigmentsLight behaves like individual particles called photonsLight can be absorbed, reflected, transmittedThings that absorb called pigmentsPhotosynthesis pigments:chlorophyll a (blue-green)chlorophyll b (yellow-green)carotenoids (yellow-orange)Two Steps of Photosynthesis:Light Dependent ReactionLight Independent Reaction (also called Calvin Cycle or Dark Cycle).Light-Dependent Reactions- 1st step of PhotosynthesisTakes place in thylakoid membranes (pancakes).Requires light energySunlight and water enter the grana as reactants.Oxygen is produced.ATP and NADPH go to the Calvin Cycle.Sunlight- reactantCarbon Dioxide- reactantOxygen- productGlucose/Sugar- productLight-Dependent ReactionsCalvinCycle NADP+ADP + PATPNADPHWater- reactant2nd Step: Light-Independent Reactions(Calvin Cycle/Dark Cycle)No light requiredTakes place in the stroma (syrup)Carbon dioxide enters as reactant.Glucose is produced.For every 6 molecules of CO2, only one molecule of glucose is formed.ADP and NADP+ go to Light Dependent Step.Sunlight- reactantCarbon Dioxide- reactantOxygen- productGlucose/Sugar- productLight-Dependent ReactionsCalvinCycle NADP+ADP + PATPNADPHWater- reactantCell RespirationThe process where food molecules are broken down in the presence of oxygen to release energy.Takes place in mitochondria and cytoplasm.This process may be:Aerobic ( in the presence of oxygen)Anaerobic (without oxygen)The equation for cellular respiration is:6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy3 Main Stages of Cell RespirationGlycolysisKrebs CycleElectron Transport ChainGlycolysisOccurs in cytoplasm One molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing pyruvic acids.2 molecules of ATP are producedDoes not require oxygen (anaerobic)2 Pyruvic acidAfter GlycolysisIf oxygen is present ( aerobic) the second stage is the Krebs cycle.If oxygen is not present, glycolysis is followed by Fermentation.Krebs Cycle (also called citric acid cycle)At end of glycolysis about 90% of the chemical energy from glucose is still unused. Oxygen needed to extract that energy.Aerobic (requires oxygen)Occurs in mitochondria.Pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide.Electron Transport ChainUses high energy electrons to convert ADP to ATP 34 more ATP molecules per glucose molecule are produced in addition to the 2 ATP molecules produced during glycolysis.Water is also a product.Respiration: AnOverviewGlucoseGlycolysisCytoplasmPyruvic acidElectrons carried in NADHKrebs CycleElectrons carried in NADH and FADH2Electron Transport ChainMitochondriaMitochondriaSection 9-1Go to Section:FlowchartSection 9-2Glucose (C6H1206)+Oxygen (02)GlycolysisKrebs CycleElectron Transport ChainCarbon Dioxide(CO2)+Water(H2O)Go to Section:Cellular RespirationFermentationReleases energy form food molecules in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic)The two main types of Fermentation are :Alcoholic fermentation Lactic Acid FeremtationAlcoholic FermentationOccurs in yeasts and other microorganisms.Converts pyruvic acid to ethyl alcoholCauses bread to riseLactic Acid fermentationLactic acid is produced in your muscles during rapid exercise.Lack of oxygen to the muscles- causes muscle soreness.Pyruvic acid is converted into lactic acidChemical PathwaysGlucoseGlycolysis Krebs cycle Electron transportFermentation (without oxygen)Alcohol or lactic acidSection 9-1Go to Section:


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