Catering Guide for Older Vegans and Vegetarians

  • Published on
    22-Mar-2016

  • View
    213

  • Download
    1

DESCRIPTION

A Vegetarian for Life guide to catering for older vegetarians and vegans. Includes recipes and handy meal planner. With an introduction by vegetarian cook and writer, Rose Elliot. Please consider making a donation to Vegetarian for Life www.vegetarianforlife.org.uk/vfl.aspx?page=582

Transcript

  • A practical guide for care homes, retirement schemes,

    and others catering for older people

    Catering for older vegetarians and vegans

    VegetarianffoorrLLiiffee

    www.vegetarianforlife.org.uk

  • CONTENTS3 / Introduction by Rose Elliot

    4 / Older Vegetarians & Vegans

    6 / Catering for Older Vegetarians

    12 / Vegetarian for Life UK List

    15 / Menu Planner

    18 / RecipesTofu ScrambleLentil & Vegetable SoupSweetcorn ChowderNutty Carrot SoupPasta SaladBlackberry, Raspberry & Fennel SaladCurly Kale & Potato CakeBean Potato CakesMushroom StroganoffCountry Garden Cottage PieMushroom Pate en CrouteAlmond & Vegetable KormaCheese & Parsnip RoastHerby Sunflower PuddingTofu LoafVegan Shepherds PieSpaghetti with Roast Vegetables & LentilsEasy Nut RoastVegan Banana, Apricot & Walnut MuffinsBanana Yoghurt

    30 / Appendix Health & Nutrition

    31 / Acknowledgments

    32 / Useful Contacts

    2

  • Vegetarian for Life originated out of theVegetarian Housing Association, which, untilrecently, operated retirement communities forolder vegetarians and vegans. In VHA homesthe residents lived independent lives in self-contained flats, but they came together for theirdaily main meal.

    Changes in society particularly with olderpeople being encouraged to stay in their ownhomes for longer meant that the VHAconcept became unviable. So, withconsiderable regret, VHA decided that itsremaining homes had to be closed.

    Nevertheless, the trustees of VHA weredetermined that the associations assets wouldbe put to good use for the benefit of oldervegetarians and vegans throughout the UK.And so Vegetarian for Life was born.

    Over the years VHA had realised the need foran advocacy charity to work in the interests ofolder vegetarians and vegans. Problems wereobserved when some residents moved fromVHA into care, and were highlighted by themany individuals and families who contactedVHA for advice.

    The difficulty of finding a care home which caterssatisfactorily for vegetarians or vegans seems tobe a widespread problem. Several times VHAwas told of life-long veggies, in the final years oftheir lives and no longer able to look after theirown interests, having meat forced upon them bydisinterested care staff.

    But, it neednt be like this. Its not difficult tooffer good vegetarian food and its greenand healthy! Treating older vegetarians andvegans ethically needs to be a natural objectiveof a good Diversity policy. This guide aims tomake it easier for those who would like toachieve this objective.

    Serving older vegetarians and vegans overseveral decades has given VHA considerablepractical experience, and this experience is builtinto the guide. Please read it; use it practically;and seriously consider joining the VfLUK Listof establishments which welcome oldervegetarians.

    Committed vegetarians have chosen to showkindness to other beings please be kind tothem in their later years. Thank you.

    Rose

    Vegetarian for Life / 3

    INTRODUCTION I am thrilled to be thepatron of Vegetarian forLife, because the charityswork is so important to thevegetarian and vegancommunity. We may be aminority in society, butthere are lots of us, andwe are proud to bedifferent.

    Rose Elliot, the UKs leading

    vegetarian cook and writer, has led

    the way in revolutionising vegetarian

    cooking and has played a key role in

    transforming the image, taste and

    popularity of vegetarian food.

  • A survey in 2007 by the FoodStandards Agency showed thatpeople who are completely vegetarianmake up around 2% of thepopulation which is about 1.5million and a further 7% are partly

    vegetarian, making around 5.5million in total.

    Furthermore, Food Industry researchshows that 45% of the population canbe classified as meat-reducers. So,providers of support to older peoplewill definitely encounter service userswho are interested in the vegetarianoption.

    Those catering for older people willbe familiar with trying to serve mealsreflecting preferences, choice, andindividual needs. The Commission forSocial Care Inspections 2006 BulletinHighlight of the Day? was very usefulin highlighting the general issues. Butit only touched tangentially onvegetarianism.

    This guide aims to give care homesand others catering for older peopleuseful guidance to help them respondto the specific needs of vegetariansand vegans.

    There is a growing recognition of theimportance of nutrition in caresettings. In November 2006 theGovernment launched its Dignity inCare campaign and this states:

    High quality health and social careservices should be delivered in aperson-centered way that respectsthe dignity of the individual receiving

    4

    OLDER VEGETARIANS & VEGANSThis guide provides information and advice for thoseproviding meals for older people who are vegetarians and vegans.

    It is particularly aimed at:

    Care homes

    Retirement villages and similarschemes with on-site catering

    Supported accommodation,such as very sheltered housingfor frail older people

    Older vegetarians and theirrelatives and friends

    But it may also be useful for:

    Day support and lunch clubs

    Home support e.g. domiciliarycare and meals on wheels

    The Commission for Social CareInspection

    Councils who commissionsocial care services for olderpeople

    Hospitals and hospices (althoughVfL plans to publish a guide forhospitals in the future)

  • them. Unfortunately, older people arenot always treated with the respectthey deserve.

    Being vegetarian can mean receiving amonotonous and unbalanced diet ofomelettes and macaroni cheese. Useof this guide should prevent thathappening. Vegetarian for Life iscommitted to ensuring that oldervegetarians and vegans receive anutritionally balanced and enjoyablediet of their choice.

    This publication is aimed primarily atresidential settings, but most of theguidance is transferable to settingswhere older people receive just onemeal a day, such as lunch clubs.

    Why does anyone becomevegetarian or vegan?The main reasons why someonechooses to be vegetarian or veganare:

    Animal welfare The environment Health Religious, spiritual and moral beliefs

    Intensive farming methods can bevery cruel; there is no doubt that avegetarian diet is kinder to theenvironment; and theres mountingevidence that vegetarians arehealthier than meat-eaters, thereforemaking less call on the health service.Any principle that is central to apersons belief-system should berespected. Vegetarianism isparticularly important in the Hindu,Buddhist, Rastafarian and Jain faiths.Also, considerable numbers ofQuakers are vegetarian.

    Older vegetarians and vegans havechosen their lifestyle for goodreasons. They decided to live a lifethat is kinder: kinder to animals,kinder to the planet and kinder tothemselves.

    If you are interested in finding out more,including the research backgroundsupporting the vegetarian choice,please contact either The VegetarianSociety or The Vegan Society, who willbe very pleased to help you. Contactinformation is given at the end of theguide.

    Vegetarian for Life / 5

    If youre in charge of catering, and despite yourbest intentions, these words are likely to cause an

    immediate response: one that is quite possiblynegative!

    But, dont despair. With a little thought and planning,vegetarians and vegans need not create a lot of extra work. This guidemakes it easier to make meals an enjoyable experience for yourvegetarian or vegan diners. Perhaps youll get a few tips to help incatering for your non-vegetarians too?

    Oh, by the way,the new arrivalsa vegetarian...

  • OK so this is what vegetarians andvegans dont eat but it leavesplenty of choice.

    Variety in food really is the spiceof life. Thats true for all of us,including vegetarians. When it comesto catering for older veggies the samesensible considerations apply aswhen catering for older meat-eaters:

    Acceptance that our bodies, tastesand appetite change as we growolder

    Following Care Home Regulations Communication Presentation Balance and planning

    This guide expands on thesesubjects, with specifics relevant toolder vegetarians and vegans.

    The ageing bodyOur bodies change as we age.

    AppetiteOlder people tend to be less activeand have smaller appetites. There isoften a gradual decline in smell andtaste. But these senses trigger thebody for food so hunger isntexperienced so acutely. This makesgood presentation really important.

    Teeth Many older people have dentures ormissing teeth, so please establish theareas of difficulty for individuals, suchas al dente vegetables or seeds.

    DigestionVegetarians often have more robustdigestive systems than meat-eaters.But some foods become moredifficult to digest as we get older e.g.radish, raw cabbage, beans andcucumber skin. Go easy with theknown culprits. But talk to those youcater for and be aware of theirindividual needs.

    CATERING FOR OLDER VEGETARIANS

    VEGETARIANS DONT EAT

    MeatFishShellfishProducts derived from deadanimals (e.g. gelatine, suet,aspic)

    VEGANS DONT EAT

    Everything on the vegetarian listor anything else from an animalsource, including:Milk, cheese and other dairyproductsEggsHoney

    Vegetarians do not eat fish! People who eat fish but notmeat make a reasonable choice, but they are notvegetarians even if thats how they describe themselves.

    6

  • Fibre Constipation tends to be a problemfor older people generally, but, on theplus side, veggies tend to suffer lessthan meat-eaters. A balancedvegetarian diet contains plenty offibre. Wholemeal bread, brown riceand pasta are better health-wise, butif an older veggie prefers the whitevariety, you dont have to worry toomuch about fibre intake. Alongside ahigh fibre diet it is important to ensurea plentiful intake of fluid.

    RegulationCare homes in England must registerwith the Commission for Social CareInspection and are required to followthe Care Homes Regulations 2001.

    The regulations and NationalMinimum Standards include:

    Taking into account service userswishes and feelings

    Ensuring the dignity of serviceuserswith due regard to religiouspersuasion and cultural background

    Recording the food provided insufficient detail to enable aninspector to determine whether thediet is satisfactory

    Recording details of any specialdiets prepared for individuals

    Providing adequate quantities ofsuitable, wholesome, nutritious foodwhich is varied and properly prepared

    Catering for religious or culturaldietary needs as agreed atadmission and recorded in the careplan

    Offering a choice of meals, with aregularly changed menu which is

    given, read or explained to serviceusers

    Ensuring that mealtimes areunhurried

    The aim of this guide is to build onthese standards, which are equallyapplicable throughout the UK, withparticular reference to oldervegetarians and vegans.

    CommunicationGood communication makeseveryones life easier.

    A vegetarian does not automaticallylike all vegetables and fruit.

    Its a simple matter of respect todiscuss individual preferences

    Food intolerances and medicalrestrictions should be recorded inthe individuals care plan

    A blackboard or printed menugiving notice of meals is important so that potential problems can besorted out in advance

    If service users are no longer ableto communicate clearly, it isimportant to take advice fromrelatives or friends and to try torespect principles held in healthiertimes without over-riding theservice-users right of choice.

    PresentationIt is essential that meals lookappetising to counter reducedappetites.

    PortionsTo someone with a small appetite ahuge pile of food can be off-putting so dont overfill plates.

    Vegetarian for Life / 7

  • Colour Macaroni cheese, potato andcauliflower may taste delicious, but,on the same plate, its a visualdisaster. A mix of colour tells thebody to be hungry. Use parsley,tomatoes, strawberries, blackberries,or mint leaves to add colour. And notall vegetables are green.

    Surroundings Fresh flowers, pretty table mats, fruiton the side are little touches that canmake a difference to a dining room.

    Relaxation Why not serve coffee and teas afterthe meal, and encourage your dinersto linger and socialise over mints andchocolates (checking they arevegetarian or vegan)?

    Highlight of the day? In the best-run homes mealtimes canbe the highlight of the day withrelatively easy attention to detail.

    Balance & PlanningIt is important for all of us includingvegetarians or vegans to be given awell-balanced diet. Following theadvice in this guide will help, andgenuine variety should achieve areasonable balance of protein,carbohydrate, fat and fibre, with goodvitamin and mineral content.

    It is important that older people eatenough to cover their energy andnutritional requirements. So, in viewof reduced appetite, a nutrient-densediet is the caterers challenge.Fortunately this is one which isprobably easier to rise to for oldervegetarians than for meat-eaters.

    Its a good idea to have a written planof menus for, say, the week ahead.For really good variety you can workto a four week plan repeated overthree months. (Not longer, as youshould make seasonal changes.)

    Its worth remembering that dairy andsoya products provide completeprotein, whereas nuts, seeds andpulses dont. These need to becombined with grains to complete thenecessary amino acid profiles. Thiscan be done over a period of 24hours, however, so porridge or toastin the morning and chickpeas orlentils in the evening count as makingup complete protein.

    In a typical weeks menu try toensure that you include a goodmixture of:

    Root vegetablesGreen vegetablesSalads & other vegetablesFruit fresh & driedBreadRice & pasta

    Pulses (beans, lentils etc)Nuts & SeedsMeat substitutes (soya protein, tofu & Quorn*)Cheese*, milk* & other dairyproducts*Eggs**not for vegans

    8

  • Tips for busy cooks Keep it simple, and avoid dishes

    that have to be served instantly. Some vegetarian dishes require

    soaking of legumes etc. Forgetthem. (But remember most beansare readily available in cans.)

    A vegetarian recipe may be enjoyedby your meat-eaters. Variety isgood for everybody.

    There are many ready-madevegetarian meals available. But a lotof these do include eggs or dairy,so are not suitable for vegans.

    Vegan ready meals are alsoavailable they just require morecareful sourcing.

    If serving meat pie and veg, whynot put a vegetarian pie in the ovenat the same time (on a separatebaking tray, please). The list ofveggie alternatives is endless, andcan often tie in with your meat-eaters choice, using the same

    accompaniments. Even Sundaylunch can be easy, using vegetariansubstitutes for roast meats.

    Some older vegetarians and veganstry to avoid vegetarian alternativesto meat preferring food that doesnot pretend to be something else.So, again, please communicate.

    Many recipes can be modified toproduce a vegetarian alternativewith little extra work. Substitutemushrooms for ham in quichelorraine; use soya mince or lentils incottage pie; use vegan fats orvegetarian mincemeat.

    Make full use of your freezer. Makelarger quantities and freeze extraportions to save time on anotherday.

    Fresh and seasonalEven when serving a ready-madedish, the vegetable or saladaccompaniment can be fresh. Try to

    Vegetarian for Life / 9

    The VegetarianSociety publishesThe Plate of GoodHealth showinghow much foodshould come fromeach food group fora well-balancedvegetarian diet.

  • use seasonal produce, especially ifits local. The bonus is that itscheaper, and tastes better. Of course,seasonality in produce relates to whatthe body wants: salads when its hot,and mashed potato and swedeswhen its cold.

    Dairy over-loadA problem vegetarians often face isthe caterers tendency to see cheeseas the obvious source of protein in ameal with no meat or fish.

    There are so many alternativesources of protein nuts, pulses, tofuetc that the omnipresent cheeseshows a lack of imagination as wellas discrimination against vegans!

    Dairy produce should not be eaten toexcess: whilst they have nutritionalvalue many dairy products have ahigh degree of saturated fat (althoughusing skimmed or semi-skimmed milkreduces fat intake).

    World CuisineWhen vegetarians in their 80s or 90sare asked what sort of food they like,the answer often includes nice, plainfood. People whose formative yearswere in the UK before the 1970s hadlittle exposure to the internationalinfluences which now enrich our diet.

    Many vegetarians tend to beadventurous in their food; but someolder vegetarians, like older peoplegenerally, can view more exotic foodswith suspicion. Hot spices can bedifficult for some older people so itsworth finding out the preferences ofthose you are cooking for.

    The Asian community traditionallycares for its older generation withinthe extended family, but, in the UK,this community is making increasinguse of care facilities. A higherproportion of Asians are vegetarian,so this will lead to a growing demandfor ethnic vegetarian meals. And overthe next few decades more careservice-users generally are likely towant ethnic food regularly. VfL willinclude world cuisine choices withinits Recipe Service see later.

    Tofu its wonderfulTofu is top of the class for proteinvalue and digestibility and is readilyavailable. Its made from soya beansand absorbs flavours around it. It cantake on meaty qualities or creamy,dairy-like qualities and can be addedto vegetable dishes to boost proteinintake or liquidised into soups. Its abrilliant ingredient when catering forvegans and well worth getting toknow.

    DrinksThe effects of too much caffeine fromtea or coffee are well known, andmany older people find sleepingdifficult. Decaffeinated alternatives arereadily available and manyvegetarians like fruit and herbal teas.

    Please, always have water available.Liquid intake is very important forolder people who may becomedehydrated even though not feelingthirsty.

    Remember, vegans do not havecows milk in their hot drinks. Soya

    10

  • milk is a wonderful alternative, andthere are others, like rice and oatmilks. Choose brands with addedcalcium and vitamin B12, which areespecially good for older vegans. Alittle care is needed in adding soyamilk to hot drinks as it may curdle.

    PuddingsA common misconception is thatveggies are such health freaks thatthey turn up their noses at stickytoffee pudding. Not so! Generallyfood with high nutritional content ispreferable so stewed fruits, fruitsalad, yoghurt are good regularpuddings. But a little of what youfancy does you good occasionally.Its a case of a sensible balance.

    A cautionary note: jellies are oftenmade with gelatine, which is derivedfrom bones or hooves. Excellentveggie jellies and gelatine alternatives(for mousses etc) are readily available.

    Please dont cheat!Please, please, please dont everthink Oh, theyll never know I madethis pastry with lard or Ill use thistasty meat stock for the tomatosoup. It is much better to be honest,and if the mince pies have animalsuet in them, please say so. It is a

    betrayal of trust to slip in aningredient which you know wouldcause upset.

    In conclusionVegetarians and vegans are a loteasier to cater for now than 20 yearsago. There are so many productswidely available and easy to prepare.Vegetarianism is now much moremain-stream, and the health benefitsof a good veggie diet are wellrecognised. So, expect to see moreand more relatively healthy, oldervegetarians and vegans and pleasedo your best to keep them that way!

    Vegetarian for Life / 11

    Diversity & Inclusivity The world partyThe vegan diet is the most universally acceptable. If you hosted a party witha representative from each of the worlds religions and cultures, you couldbe fairly sure of not offending any dietary codes by offering vegan food. Sowhy not feed everyone a vegan meal once in a while? Its genuinely healthy;youll add to variety and youll be well within budget.

  • The Code is shown below. AnApplication Form was probably sentwith this guide, but can also bedownloaded from our website ormailed on request.

    The VfL UK List will be widelyavailable to vegetarians and vegans,their families and carers throughoutthe UK, including on the VfL website.Apart from helping you to achieveyour diversity targets it can also bringextra business! Remember thestatistics quoted in the Introduction.A lot of people want vegetarian food.And if they need a care home or aretirement community they will beattracted to those on the list.

    CODE OF GOOD PRACTICE

    This advice is provided as a bestpractice guide. Members of theVegetarian for Life UK List undertaketo operate within its spirit, in order toprovide ethical catering for oldervegetarians. They may also choose toinclude provision for older vegans.

    Vegetarian dishes must not contain:

    animal flesh (meat, fish or shellfish) meat, fish, or bone stock, or stock

    cubes containing same animal carcass fats (including suet,

    lard or dripping)

    gelatine, gelatine-based jelly, oraspic (jelly made from meat stock)

    products with ingredients derivedfrom slaughterhouse e.g. lard, orcalf rennet in cheese.

    Battery or intensively produced eggsshould be avoided wherever possible.Please consult individual residentsregarding their attitude on eggs.

    Vegan dishes must not contain:

    anything on the vegetarian listabove

    dairy products including cheese,milk, butter, cream and yoghurt

    eggs honey

    VEGETARIAN FOR LIFE UK LISTWe hope you may consider joining the Vegetarian for Life UK List. Its free, and all you have to do is to follow the VfLCode of Good Practice, which ensures that you cater wellfor older vegetarians, and in an ethical way.

    12

    So, catering for older vegetariansand vegans can be:

    Good for business (higheroccupancy levels)

    Good for improving yourDiversity

    Good for health

    Good for the environment

    Good for animal well-being.

    That cant be bad!

  • Kitchen HygieneWork surfaces, chopping boards,utensils and other kitchen equipmentshould either be kept separate fromthose used for non-vegetarian foodpreparation, or cleaned thoroughlybefore being used to prepare meals

    for vegetarians and vegans. Crosscontamination should also be avoidedbetween vegetarian and vegan foods.

    Please ensure that fryers, grills andgriddles used for preparing meat andfish are thoroughly cleaned. Fryersmust be filled with fresh,

    Vegetarian for Life / 13

    Stumbling Blocks

    Cheese Traditionally cheese was made using rennet, an enzyme extracted fromthe stomach of slaughtered calves. But today most UK cheese isvegetarian. If in doubt, please ask your supplier. Cheese products arenever suitable for vegans. Vegan cheese-alternatives are available in somestores.

    Fats, Oils and Margarine Butter is suitable for vegetarians, but not for vegans. Other animal fatsand fish oils, and products containing them, are unsuitable for either.There are many margarines suitable for both vegetarians and vegans usually clearly indicated on the container.

    Gravies and StockCubes or powders containing meat, poultry or fish extract are notacceptable. Please use vegetable stocks and stock cubes.

    HoneyRoyal jelly is not vegetarian. Honey is acceptable to vegetarians but notvegans.

    Milk and CreamMilk and cream are acceptable to vegetarians, but not to vegans. Soyamilk is readily available in supermarkets and is good for most vegans.Rice, nut and oat milks are also available for those who do not like soya.

    Worcester Sauce Usually contains anchovies, but vegetarian versions are available.

    ToiletriesThe majority of vegetarians and vegans have adopted their lifestyle due toconcern for animal suffering. If you provide soap, shampoo and similarproducts, please try to ensure that they are animal-free and have notbeen tested on animals.

  • uncontaminated oil before vegetarianor vegan food is cooked.

    Choice For each meal you should offer at

    least one vegetarian option. Good communication with your

    vegetarian residents or service-users should ensure that individualpreferences are observed. (Ifnecessary for frail or vulnerablevegetarians family or friendsshould be consulted to ascertainpreferences).

    Menu planning should ensure agood variety of food of highnutritional value with anappropriate mix of carbohydrate,protein, fat and fibre providing atleast 5 portions a day of fruit orvegetables. Dairy-overload shouldbe avoided. (More guidance iscontained elsewhere in this guide.)

    We would encourage you to offer

    your meat-eaters the vegetarianoptions which will be good forthe variety and nutritional needs oftheir diet.

    14

    Listing OptionsAll Members of the VfL UK Listaccept our guidelines forvegetarian provision. We wouldencourage Members to alsoagree to their listing including thefollowing symbols:

    (Vg) Members agree to adhere tothe guidelines for vegan provision

    (F) All eggs used are free rangeand, wherever possible, anyready-made products usedcontain free range eggs

  • Vegetarian menu ideas for a 4 weekcycle are shown in the tables on thefollowing pages. Please note:

    We are not suggesting that youfollow this planner specifically. It isintended to show how easy it is tocater for vegetarians, with varietyand nutrition taken into account.

    The menus are examples only, andcover a mixture of seasons

    A good daily nutritional balance,and great food variety over eachweek, is aimed for.

    Alternatives can be substituted,including ready-made foods

    All the meals can be served to non-vegetarians and many aredesigned so they can be preparedalongside similar non-veggie meals

    Items such as shepherds pie,sausage, bolognese etc mean thevegetarian versions!

    The meals marked * are featured inthe Recipes section of this guide

    If the evening meal is the main one ofthe day, the menus can be reversed.

    Breakfast Ideas

    If you offer cooked breakfasts eventhe full British vegetarian andvegan alternatives are not a problem.Veggie sausages and bacon combineperfectly with mushrooms, beans,hash browns, grilled tomatoes andeggs or tofu scramble*.

    More likely you normally serve acereal-based breakfast, perhaps with

    toast and fruit juice. Its easy to havesoya milk and vegan margarineavailable for vegans. Breakfast can bemade more interesting by including:

    Instead of regular branded cereals granola, good quality mueslis,soaked (overnight) oat flake andfruit mixes, porridge

    Instead of fruit juice grapefruit,prunes, fruit salads, dried fruitcompote

    Salads

    So often, in Britain, a mixture oflettuce, tomato and cucumber isserved as salad and is thrown awaybecause it is bland and boring.Salads can be varied and attractive,and should be a regular feature ofgood catering. They should alwaysinclude raw foods, but can alsoinclude cooked vegetables, pastaand grains. Salad recipes are a littleprescriptive and restrictive. Just varysalads endlessly no two need bethe same.

    Vegetarian for Life / 15

    MENU PLANNER

    The following planner is forvegetarians, not vegans.Nevertheless, many of the mealsmentioned are vegan, or havevegan versions, and a number ofthe foods mentioned, like yoghurtand cheese have veganalternatives. A 100% veganversion of the planner is availablefrom the VfL Recipe Service (viaVfL website, phone or mail).

  • WEEK 1

    Lunch Evening Meal

    Monday Mushroom stroganoff with herb topping, Baked potato, cottage cheese,rice, peas. Chocolate clairs date & orange salad. Fresh fruit

    Tuesday Vegetable quiche, chips, mixed salad. Tomato & basil soup, croutons.Stewed apples & raisins Lemon meringue pie

    Wednesday Cheese & parsnip roast*, new pots, Hummus, pitta bread, raw veg strips.broccoli. Jam sponge & custard Date & walnut slice

    Thursday Country Cottage Pie*, cabbage. Scrambled egg & baked tomatoes,Yoghurt & mixed berries or tofu scramble*, toast. Fruit pie

    Friday Baked bean omelette, chips, Macaroni soup, bread roll. green salad. Rice pudding Banana split, ice cream

    Saturday Stuffed peppers, green bean salad. Vegetable pastyPear & cinnamon crumble, custard Melon boats, fruit cocktail.

    Sunday Nut roast, roast pots, carrots, sprouts. Ham & salad sandwiches.Apple pie, ice cream Victoria sponge

    WEEK 2

    Lunch Evening Meal

    Monday Vegetarian pizza, side salad. Carrot & coriander soup, crusty bread. Fruit yoghurt Banana, apricot & walnut muffins*

    Tuesday Pasta bolognese, sweetcorn & Avocado & egg salad. beetroot salad. Ginger cake Fruit trifle

    Wednesday Bean burgers, chips, green salad. Macaroni cheese.Fresh fruit salad Eccles cake

    Thursday Vegetable lattice, potatoes, broccoli. Lentil & vegetable soup*,Strawberries & cream bread roll. Cheese & biscuits

    Friday Cauliflower cheese, baked pot, peas. Vegetable samosas, coleslaw.Apricot & blueberry crumble Carrot cake

    Saturday Tofu loaf*, ratatouille. Pasta salad*, garlic bread.Stewed rhubarb, yoghurt Egg custard

    Sunday Mushroom pate en croute*, pots, Egg & cress sandwiches.beans, carrots. Chocolate sponge Fruit tart

    The meals marked * are featured in the Recipes section of this guide

    16MENU PLANNER

  • WEEK 3

    Lunch Evening Meal

    Monday Florida cocktail. Mushroom goulash, Potato wedges, hummus & salad.rice, peas Toasted teacake and jam

    Tuesday Toad in the hole, mash, carrots, peas. Mixed Berry & Fennel Salad.*Stewed apple & blackberry, custard Fruit cake

    Wednesday Almond & vegetable korma*, rice. Curly kale & potato cakes with carrot Chocolate chip ice cream & cabbage salad.* Fruit pancakes

    Thursday Lasagne, mixed salad. Baked potato, baked beans.Spiced apple cake Apple flapjack

    Friday Roasted Mediterranean vegetables & Cheese & onion pasty, tomato salad. cashews, oven chips. Kiwi fruit salad. Apricot fool

    Saturday Herby sunflower pudding*, chips, Salad stuffed ciabattas.baked tomato. Poached figs Pecan pie

    Sunday Roast turkey, roast pots, carrots, peas. Cheddar ploughmans, celery, tomatoes.Fresh fruit Apricot mousse

    WEEK 4

    Lunch Evening Meal

    Monday Shepherds pie*, cabbage, butter beans. Sweetcorn chowder*, bread roll.Dried fruit compote Parkin

    Tuesday Moussaka, broccoli, baked tomatoes. Nutty carrot soup* with savoury biscuits. Strawberry shortcake Fruit loaf

    Wednesday Big salad with egg/cheese or nuts, Garlic mushrooms on toast.new potatoes. Sultana sponge Meringue nest with raspberries

    Thursday Bean potato cakes*, broccoli, carrots. Baked sweet potato with natural yogurtChocolate mousse & cinnamon. Fresh fruit

    Friday Spaghetti with roast veg & lentils*, Poached egg, baked beans, toast.sweet pepper salad. Grilled grapefruit Fruit scone & jam

    Saturday Nut roast*, courgettes. Vegetable ravioli.Baked apple with dates & marmalade Banana yoghurt*

    Sunday Vegetable crumble, roast parsnips, Cheese & tomato toasted sandwich.peas, carrots. Fruit flan Cherry cake

    Vegetarian for Life / 17

  • TOFU SCRAMBLE

    Serve on toast by itself, as a lightmeal, or as part of a cookedbreakfast.

    Ingredients1 pack firm tofu, about 350g 1 onion chopped2 peppers, diced (mixed colours)Handful of chopped mixedvegetables. A recommendedselection is: mushrooms, tomatoes,diced cooked potato, and sweetcorn.2 tbsp chopped fresh herbs(parsley, basil or coriander)2 tsp soy sauce1 tbsp nutritional yeast flakes(optional) *Pinch of turmeric

    Method1. Saut onion in a little oil, add

    peppers and other vegetablesand continue until lightly cooked.

    2. Crumble tofu through hands intopan. Add soy sauce, turmericand yeast flakes. Cook for about5 minutes until water from tofuhas largely cooked off andconsistency is like scrambledeggs.

    3. Add herbs and season to taste.

    * Nutritional yeast flakes is a vegan food with cheesy, nuttyflavour, rich in vitamins and minerals. It is very versatileand can be added to liquids such as milk, fruit andvegetable juices. Its useful for making vegan cheesesauces and to add to soups, casseroles and salads.

    18

    We only have space in thisguide to give a few recipeideas. More recipes areavailable from the VfLRecipe Service, whichincludes lists ofrecommended vegetarianand vegan cookery books,and some recipes suitablefor one person.

    Special thanks go to Rose Elliot andher publishers BBC Books forpermission to reproduce the recipestaken from Roses Low-GI VegetarianCookbook. Other useful recipes anddetails of Roses books can be foundat www.roseelliot.com

    And to Patricia Perry and herpublisher Jon Carpenter forpermission to reproduce recipes fromher book Meals for Older People Recipes with the Health of the Elderlyin Mind.

    RECIPES

    SERVES

    4

  • Rose ElliotsLENTIL & VEGETABLE SOUP

    Here, for a change, is an English-stylelentil soup, and very comforting it istoo. This makes a huge pot so youcan keep some in the fridge or freezeit. But by all means reduce thequantities if you wish.

    Ingredients2 onions, chopped2-3 carrots cut into small dice2 celery sticks, cut into small dice1 small leek, chopped2 tablespoons olive oil500g (1lb 2oz) split red lentils250ml can sweetcorn (no addedsugar) 2 tablespoons tamari or soy sauce1-2 tablespoons freshly squeezedlemon juice

    Method1. Fry the onion, carrots, celery and

    leek in the oil in a large saucepan,covered, for 10 minutes, untilbeginning to soften, stirring often.

    2. Add the lentils and 2.5 litres (4pints) of water. Bring to the boil,then leave to simmer gently for 15-20 minutes until the lentils are paleand soft.

    3. Remove 2-3 cupfuls of the soupand blend the rest, roughly, in afood processor or with a stickblender. Put the reserved cupfulsof soup back.

    4. Add the sweet corn, tamari or soysauce and lemon juice, salt andpepper white pepper is nice inthis to taste.

    SWEETCORN CHOWDER

    Ingredients1 sliced onion225g / 8oz sweetcorn1.2 litres vegetable stock1 tbsp vegetable oil1 clove garlic pressed2 medium potatoes2 sticks celery1 tsp celery salt1 tbs chopped parsley1/2 tsp paprikaCream or soya cream

    Method1. Gently fry the onion and garlic in

    the oil for 2 minutes.

    2. Add the celery, raise the heat andcook for 5 minutes.

    3. Add the stock, sweet corn andpotato and boil until tender.

    4. Liquidise; reheat; add paprika,chopped parsley and seasoningand serve with a little cream.

    Vegetarian for Life / 19

    SERVES

    10

    SERVES

    4-6

  • Vegan SocietysNUTTY CARROT SOUP

    Ingredients2.8 litres / 5 pints vegetable stock400g / 14oz chopped onion1.25kg / 2.5lb chopped carrot285g / 10oz peanut butter5+ tbsp lemon juiceSalt and pepper to taste

    Method1. Bring vegetable stock to the boil in

    a pan.2. Add onion and carrot and bring

    back to boil.3. Simmer for 20 minutes or until

    carrot is very soft.4. Stir in peanut butter until dissolved.5. Liquidise, then add lemon juice,

    salt and pepper to taste. Serveimmediately.

    PASTA SALAD

    Ingredients175g / 6oz penne or fusilli(cooked potato or rice are suitablealternatives)2 tbsp mayonnaise1 tbsp finely chopped onion4 sticks finely chopped celery2 skinned chopped tomatoesChopped watercress or mixed freshherbs1 chopped red pepper (can be tinnedor roasted)

    Method1. Cook the pasta according to

    instructions.2. Add the onion to the mayonnaise

    and mix this into the pasta with theremaining ingredients.

    3. Season with celery salt, pepperand lovage leaves (optional).

    20

    SERVES

    10SERVES

    4-6

  • Cordon VertsBLACKBERRY, RASPBERRY & FENNEL SALAD

    Ingredients 50g walnuts1/4 cucumber1/2 fennel, very thinly sliced / shredded85g / 3oz watercress, thick stalksremoved1 round green lettuce, washed anddried 150g / 5oz blackberries, washed anddried150g / 5oz raspberries, washed anddried150g silken tofu*51/2 tbsp good quality French dressing1slightly rounded tbsp caster sugar

    Method1. Preheat oven to 200C / 400F /

    Gas mark 6. Spread walnuts outon a baking tray and put in hotoven for about 4 minutes until

    lightly roasted. Remove from ovenand cool.

    2. To make the dressing: Drain thesilken tofu by putting it in a bowllined with kitchen paper andpatting dry. Transfer Frenchdressing to a small liquidizertogether with the silken tofu andthe caster sugar. Blend for about30 seconds until creamy. Put into abowl ready to serve.

    3. Continue with the salad: Cut thecucumber in half lengthways, andthen thinly slice to make half-moonslices. Mix these with the fenneland watercress

    4. Arrange whole green lettuce leaveson four plates, and pile thecucumber mixture on top. Scatterwith the blackberries, raspberriesand roasted walnuts and serve,passing the dressing roundseparately.

    *available from larger supermarkets and health stores

    Vegetarian for Life / 21

    SERVES

    4

  • Cordon VertsCURLY KALE & POTATO CAKE

    Ingredients500g / 18oz bakingpotatoes, peeled, cut intolarge pieces200g / 7oz trimmed leek(s) finelychopped75g / 2.5oz curly kale, finelyshredded50g / 2oz butter2 tsp caraway seeds1 tsp paprika3 tsp wholegrain mustard2 medium free range egg yolks2 tbsp crme fraiche100g cheddar cheese, thinly sliced

    Method1. Bring the potatoes to boil in a

    medium sized saucepan and then

    simmer slowly for 30 minutes untilcooked. Drain and dry slightly inthe pan before mashing or puttingthrough a potato ricer.

    2. Saut the leek and kale in half thebutter until soft. Add the spicesand cook for a further 2 minutes.

    3. Mix together the potato,vegetables, mustard, egg yolk andcrme fraiche in a large bowl, andthen form into 4 large cakes (or 8small ones).

    4. Heat the remaining butter in a largenon-stick frying pan and gentlycook the potato cakes on bothsides until dark golden and crispy.

    5. Top the cakes with the cheese andplace under a hot grill until melting.

    Serve with a shredded white cabbageand carrot salad (or as a side dishwith veggie sausages).

    22

    SERVES

    4

  • Rose ElliotsBEAN POTATO CAKES

    Ingredients1 large can of white beans (withoutadded sugar) 1 chopped onion1 tablespoon of olive oil1 tablespoon of water or soya milkSeasoning

    Method1. Make some Bean Mash as

    described below. Vary the mixtureas you wish with chopped parsley,drained canned sweet corn(without added sugar) or evenchopped cooked cabbage for abeany bubble and squeak.

    2. Form into cakes: you will get aboutthree from one can. They holdtogether best if you bake them.

    3. Place them on an oiled bakingsheet, and then turn them over sothat the tops are coated with oil.

    4. Bake at 200C / 400F / Gas Mark6 for about 25 minutes, turningthem after about 15 minutes.

    Bean mash method1. Drain can of beans well, butter

    beans work particularly well

    2. Fry chopped onion in olive oil andpuree with beans in foodprocessor or simply mash

    3. Add one tablespoon of water orsoya milk for each can of beans(quantities can be easily varied tosuit numbers served)

    4. Add salt, pepper, herbs etc totaste and whiz or beat again untilthick and creamy

    Vegetarian SocietysMUSHROOM STROGANOFFWITH HERB CRUMBTOPPING

    Ingredients675g /11/2 lb potatoes, peeled and cutinto chunks150ml / 1/4 pint full fat milk15ml / 1 tbsp fresh herbs of yourchoice i.e. parsley, sage, thyme etc15g / 1/2 oz butter or margarine450g / 1lb assorted mushrooms,roughly chopped2 cloves garlic, crushed150ml / 1/4 pint double creamSeasoning to taste25g / 1oz butter or margarine50g / 2oz fresh white breadcrumbs30ml / 2 tbsp fresh parsley

    Method1. Boil or steam the potatoes.2. For the filling, melt the butter or

    margarine in a frying pan, add themushrooms and garlic and cookgently for 5 minutes. Stir in thecream and season to taste. Keepcovered, on a gentle heat.

    3. For the topping, melt the butter ina pan and stir in the breadcrumbs,herbs and seasoning. Stircontinuously for 5 minutes untilbreadcrumbs are golden brown.

    4. When the potatoes are cooked,drain and return to the pan. Heatthe milk, pour over the potatoesand mash well. Season to tasteand stir in the herbs.

    5. Serve individually by placing equalmounds of mash on each plate,spoon the mushroom stroganoffon top and finish by sprinkling overthe golden herbed breadcrumbs.

    Vegetarian for Life / 23

    SERVES

    4SERVES

    4-6

  • Vegetarian SocietysCOUNTRY GARDEN COTTAGE PIE

    Ingredients900g / 2lb potato, mashed2 tbsp vegetable oil1 medium onion, chopped175g / 6oz green lentils1 clove garlic, crushed110g / 4oz grated vegetariancheddar cheese2 carrots, diced1tbsp tomato puree1 medium green pepper, diced110g / 4oz mushrooms, sliced1 tsp dried basilpinch cayenne pepper (optional)salt and pepper

    Method 1. Cook the lentils in plenty of water

    until just soft, drain, but save 1/2pint of the cooking liquid.

    2. While the lentils are cooking sautthe onion, garlic, basil and cayennein the oil until soft but not brown.

    3. Add the carrot, pepper andmushrooms. Cover and cook overa low heat for 10 minutes or untilthe carrot has softened.

    4. Add the cooked lentils, tomatopuree and seasoning. If the mixtureis very thick add a little of thereserved cooking liquid from thelentils.

    5. Cook for a further five minutes,transfer to an oven-proof dish,cover with mashed potato andsprinkle the grated cheese on top.

    6. Bake for 30 minutes at 190C /375F / Gas Mark 5, until the top isgolden brown.

    Rose ElliotsMUSHROOM PT ENCROUTE

    A pt or terrine of mushrooms andnuts wrapped in puff pastry iswonderful for a special meal.

    Ingredients2 large onions, chopped2 tablespoons olive oil2 garlic cloves, chopped250g / 9oz chestnut mushrooms,sliced roughly225g / 8oz cashews, powdered in afood processor or coffee grinder225g / 8oz ground almonds225g / 8oz whole meal breadcrumbs(stone-ground or very high fibre) 2 tablespoons soy sauce2 tablespoons lemon juice2 teaspoons dried tarragon1 teaspoon yeast extract500g / 1lb 2oz puff pastryBeaten egg or soya milk, for brushing

    Method1. Preheat the oven to 200C / 400F /

    Gas Mark 6.2. In a large saucepan, fry the onions

    in the olive oil for 7 minutes, untiltender, then add the garlic andmushrooms and cook for a further5 minutes, or until the mushroomsare tender.

    3. Then tip the mixture into a foodprocessor and blend to a pure.

    4. Put the ground cashew nuts andalmonds into a bowl with thebreadcrumbs, the mushroompure, soy sauce, lemon juice,tarragon and yeast extract and mixwell. It will be quite stiff. Seasonwell with salt and pepper.

    24

    SERVES

    4SERVES

    8

  • 5. Roll the puff pastry out on a lightlyfloured board to make a squareabout 38 cm (15 in) in size.Transfer the pastry to a bakingsheet and heap the mushroommixture in the centre, forming itinto a loaf shape.

    6. Make diagonal cuts in the pastryabout 1 cm (1/2 in) apart on each

    side of the mushroom mixture,then fold these up over themushroom pt to make a kind ofplait effect. Tuck in the ends neatly,trim off any extra bits and brushwith beaten egg or soya milk.

    7. Bake for 40 minutes or until thepastry is puffed and golden brown.

    Vegetarian for Life / 25

  • ALMOND & VEGETABLE KORMA

    Ingredients750g / 1.5lb mixedvegetables (e.g. broccoli,green beans, peas, cauliflower,courgettes)1 onion2 tbsp vegetable oil2 cloves of garlic1 tsp ground cumin1 tsp ground coriander1 tsp turmericFew cardamom pods2-3 cm / 1 inch piece root ginger400 ml / 0.7 pint water50g / 2oz creamed coconut2 tbsp lemon juice100g / 4oz ground almondsSalt & pepper to taste

    Method1. Add the mixed vegetables

    (chopped if appropriate) to boilingwater and cook for about 5minutes until tender. Drain.

    2. Chop the onions; crush the garlicand saut in the oil until the onionsare soft.

    3. Stir in the cumin, coriander, andcumin, crushed cardamom podsand the grated ginger and cook ona low heat for a few minutes.

    4. Add the water to the pan and bringto the boil, gradually adding thecreamed coconut, cut into thinslices, and heat until the coconuthas melted.

    5. Add the lemon juice, and groundalmonds and cook for 2 minutes.

    6. Pour the sauce over the cookedvegetables, heat gently and seasonto taste.

    CHEESE & PARSNIP ROAST

    Ingredients750g / 1.5lb parsnips110g / 4oz cheese1 egg (optional)40g / 1.5oz margarine1 tsp of mixed herbs

    Method1. Cook parsnips in boiling water for

    approx 10 minutes.2. Mash with margarine, egg, cheese

    and herbs.3. Place in greased dish and bake for

    approx 30 minutes at 150C /300F / Gas Mark 2 until brown

    HERBY SUNFLOWER PUDDING

    Ingredients175g / 6oz whole wheatbread crumbs1 large onion chopped115g / 4oz sunflower seeds300ml / 0.5 pint milk60g / 2.5oz sunflower margarine2 tsp mixed herbsSea salt to taste

    Method1. Mix the bread crumbs, onion and

    seeds together.2. Heat the milk and margarine until

    the margarine is melted, and mixwith the crumbs.

    3. Pour into a greased casserole andbake for 1 hour in oven at 150C /350F / Gas Mark 4.

    26

    SERVES

    4SERVES

    2

    SERVES

    4

  • TOFU LOAF

    An attractive loaf that isgood hot with vegetables orcold the next day in sandwiches

    Ingredients400g / 14oz tofu, mashed50g / 2oz wheat germ3 tablespoons of chopped parsley1 medium onion, chopped2 tablespoons soy sauce2 tablespoons nutritional yeast(optional) 1/2 tablespoon Dijon mustard1 garlic clove, chopped1/4 teaspoon black pepper

    Method1. Oil a loaf tin. Mix all the ingredients

    together and press into the tin.

    2. Bake at 180C / 350F / Gas Mark4 for 1 hour.

    3. Cool for about 10 minutes beforeremoving from the pan.

    4. Garnish with tomatoes and parsley.Serve with mashed potatoes andgreen leafy vegetables.

    Adapted from Tofu Cookery by Louise Hagler with kindpermission of The Book Publishing Company, Summertown,Tennessee

    VEGAN SHEPHERD'S PIE

    Ingredients700g / 1.5lb floury potatoes100g / 4oz brown lentils100g / 4oz soya mince1 onion, diced2 carrots, diced1/2 swede, diced100g / 4oz peas200ml / 0.35 pt stock2tbsp tomato ketchup1tbsp soy sauce1 bay leaf2 tsp thyme1 tsp sage1 tsp dried or 2 tbsp fresh parsley 1 heaped tbsp soya margarine100ml / 0.175 pint soya milk

    Method1. Boil chopped, peeled potatoes

    until well done. Mash withmargarine and milk, addingenough milk to achieve a fairly softconsistency. Season to taste.

    2. Rinse lentils, cover with cold water,and add bay leaf. Bring to boil andsimmer until cooked 20-25 mins.

    3. Saut onion in a little oil. Add driedherbs, carrots and swede. Cookon a low heat for 5 minutes.

    4. Add soy mince and stock, ketchupand soy sauce. Cook further 10mins, then add peas and lentils(drained of any excess cookingliquid) and cook another 5 mins.

    5. Check vegetables cooked throughand taste to adjust seasoning.

    6. Place mix into oven dish and top withthe potato. Bake at 200C / 400F /Gas Mark 6 for about 35-45 mins.

    Vegetarian for Life / 27

    SERVES

    6-8SERVES

    4

  • Vegan SocietysSPAGHETTI WITH ROASTVEGETABLES & LENTILS

    Ingredients285g / 10oz green lentils1.15 litres / 2 pints light vegetablestock285g / 10oz sliced onion680g / 1.5lb cubed courgette680g / 1.5lb chopped tomatoes4 tbsp rapeseed or other vegetableoil5 crushed garlic cloves2 tsp dried rosemary565g / 1.25lb spaghetti (preferablybrown)

    Method1. Boil lentils with vegetable stock

    until they are just cooked: about30 minutes.If extra water is required add justenough to cover lentils. Oncecooked drain off any excess water.

    2. Meanwhile place onion, courgette,tomatoes, rosemary, vegetable oiland garlic in an ovenproof dish.Mix well and bake in pre-heatedoven at 220C / 425F / Gas Mark7 for 20 minutes. Turn halfwaythrough with a spatula.

    3. Mix the roasted vegetables in withthe lentils and cook gently for 5-10minutes.

    4. Serve over cooked spaghetti.

    EASY NUT ROAST

    Ingredients150g / 5oz chopped mixed nuts75g / 3oz wholemeal bread crumbsSmall onion chopped1 tbsp soy sauce1/2 tsp dried thyme2 tbsp vegan margarine1 tsp olive oil1 tsp yeast extract150ml / 1/4 pint hot water

    Method1. Grind the nuts finely and mix in a

    bowl with crumbs, onion, soysauce, thyme, margarineand oil.

    2. Dissolve the yeast extractin the water, and add to themixture.

    3. Mix well and press into a greasedloaf tin.

    4. Bake at 190C / 375F / Gas Mark5 for 30-40 minutes.

    28

    SERVES

    10

    SERVES

    4

  • VEGAN BANANA,APRICOT & WALNUT MUFFINS

    Ingredients175g / 6oz white self-raising flour175g / 6oz wholemeal self-raisingflour100g / 4oz caster sugar1 tbsp baking powder2 tsp mixed spice30g / 11/4 oz soya flour125g / 41/2 oz dried apricots, choppedroughly50g / 2oz walnuts, chopped roughly2 medium bananas120ml / 1/4 pint sunflower oil310ml / 0.55 pint soya milk

    Method1. Add all the dry ingredients in a

    bowl and mix thoroughly.

    2. Blend bananas, oil and milk withblender / hand blender.

    3. Mix dry with wet. Fold togetherand mix, but only untilincorporated. Don't over mix.

    4. Place in muffin cases in muffin tin.Bake at 180C / 350F / Gas Mark4 for 25 minutes.

    BANANA YOGHURT

    This is delicious, nutritious and veryeasy to eat, making it excellent forsomeone who is under the weatheror disinterested in food

    Ingredients1 banana3 tbsp live yoghurt or soya yoghurt1 tsp honey or maple syrup1 tbsp soft fruit (e.g. strawberries,peaches, or plums) or soaked driedfruit (e.g. apricots or prunes)

    Method1. Mash the banana thoroughly, add

    the yoghurt and honey and mixwell.

    2. Mash the other soft fruit, or chopthe dried fruit, and add this to theyoghurt.

    Vegetarian for Life / 29

    SERVES

    1

    MAKES

    12

  • Health benefits of a vegetariandiet

    At one time, the case for a vegetarian or vegandiet may have appeared problematic but, overtime, it has proved to be good for all stages oflife.1 Indeed, over recent years research hasshown that vegetarians and vegans are veryhealthy and may even be healthier than theirmeat-eating peers. Vegetarian diets aregenerally rich in fruits and vegetables, high infibre and low in saturated fat,2 a dietencouraged by the Department of Health. Incontrast, the general population consumes toomuch saturated fat, salt and sugar, with intakesof vitamins and minerals below recommendedlevels.3,4 Studies have shown that, overall,people who follow a vegetarian diet have alower risk of a number of chronic diseasesincluding heart disease, hypertension andcancer,5 whereas populations who consumediets high in meat and fat and low in fibre, fruitsand vegetables are at risk.6

    Surveys suggest that typical older vegetarianshave a more nutrient-dense diet than meateaters (i.e. more nutrients per portion),7 benefitfrom being leaner than omnivores8 and havegood bowel regularity due to a high fibre diet.9

    In short, a plant-based diet offers potentialhealth benefits and can help to slow the agingprocess.

    Nutritional guidelines

    Although energy requirements generallydecrease as we get older, the basic dietaryguidelines are the same as for younger adults.Therefore, whatever the age, whether meat-eater or vegetarian, the recommendations forfat, fibre and carbohydrate are the same10 so itis important that enough food is eaten to coverenergy (calorie) requirements. Some olderpeople have to modify their diets to help controlillnesses such as diabetes and heart disease

    but if the older person is in good health, it isrecommended that they follow the generaldietary guidelines for the population.11

    For those wishing to look at nutritionalstandards in more detail, standards for macroand micronutrients from each meal have beenset by the Food Standards Agency.12

    Vitamin and mineral supplements

    There is a lack of specific recommendations forolder people for many of the micronutrients(vitamins and minerals), although it is knownthat the ability to digest, absorb, metaboliseand excrete nutrients changes with age. Forexample, we get most of our vitamin D from theeffect of sunlight on our skin but, as we getolder, we have a reduced efficiency of itssynthesis in the skin. People aged 65 years andover (vegetarian and non-vegetarian) are at riskof vitamin D deficiency if they rarely ventureoutside. Vitamin D is necessary for calciumabsorption (important for bones) so if a personis not having regular exposure to sunlight, adaily supplement of 10mcg is recommended.13

    Vegans and vegetarians who eat limited dairyproducts should regularly include a source ofvitamin B12. Absorption of vitamin B12decreases with age, so regular use of reliableB12 sources is important e.g. eggs and milkproducts, fortified non-dairy milks, yeastextracts and fortified cereals. The VeganSociety recommends a daily intake of 3mcgfrom food or a supplement of 10mcg once aday or 2000 mcg once a week.

    Fruit and vegetables 5 A DAY

    The Department of Health recommends that aminimum of 5 portions of fruit and vegetablesshould be eaten each day, because:

    They're packed with vitamins and minerals.

    30

    APPENDIX Health & Nutrition

  • They help in maintaining a healthy weight.

    They're an excellent source of fibre andantioxidants.

    They help reduce the risk of heart disease,stroke and some cancers.

    They taste delicious and there's so muchvariety to choose from.

    5 A DAY portions should include a variety ofbrightly coloured fruit and vegetables to get themaximum nutritional benefits. This is becausethey each contain different combinations offibre, vitamins, minerals and other nutrients.

    References

    1 Mangels AR, Mesinna V, Melina V (2003)Position of the American DieteticAssociation and Dietitians of Canada:Vegetarian Diets. J Am Diet Assoc 103748-65

    2 Key TJ, Davey GK, Appleby PN (1999)Health benefits of a vegetarian diet.Proceedings of the Nutritional Society 58271-275

    3 Henderson et al (2002) National Diet andNutrition Survey: adults aged 19-64 years.The Stationery Office

    4 Finch S (1998) National Diet and NutritionSurvey: older people aged 74 years +. TheStationery Office

    5 Thomas B (2001) Vegetarianism andveganism pp 305 in Manual of DieteticPractice 3rd edition Blackwell Publishing

    6 Brants HA, Lowik MR, Westenbrink S et al(1990) Adequacy of a vegetarian diet in oldage. Journal of the American College ofNutrition 9 292-392

    7 Dwyer JT (1991) Nutritional consequencesof vegetarianism. Annual Review ofNutrition1161-91

    8 Thomas B Bishop J (2007) Vegetarianismand veganism pp 383 in Manual of DieteticPractice 4th edition Blackwell Publishing

    9 Bingham SA (2000) Diet and colorectalcancer prevention. Biochem Soc Trans Feb28 (2) 12-6

    10 Department of Health 1991

    11 British Nutrition Foundation 2004

    12 Food Standards Agency Nutrient andFood Based Guidelines for UK institutions(2006)

    13 British Nutrition Foundation 2004

    Vegetarian for Life / 31

    Acknowledgements

    Vegetarian for Life is grateful for thevaluable input to this guide made bySandra Hood [BSc (Hons) RD] who is apracticing dietitian with wide experience ofvegetarian and vegan diets.

    VfL would also like to express appreciationto the following individuals andorganisations for their contribution to theguide. We speak on behalf of the verymany older vegetarians and vegans in theUK, and those who care for them, insaying a very big thank you to: BBCPublications, Rose Elliot, Christine Heron,Sandra Hood, Helen Lakey, Jim Lakey,Chris Olivant (Vegetarian Society), PatriciaPerry, Annette Pinner (Vegetarian Society),Irene Purser, Christine Tilbury (Cordon VertCookery School) and Nigel Winter (VeganSociety).

  • The Vegetarian Society UKParkdale, Dunham Rd,Altrincham, Cheshire, WA14 4QG 0161 925 2000 www.vegsoc.org

    The Vegan SocietyDonald Watson House, 21 Hylton St, Hockley,Birmingham B18 6HJ 0121 523 1730 0845 4588244 www.vegansociety.com

    International Vegetarian Unionwww.ivu.org

    Cordon Vert Cookery SchoolAddress as Vegetarian Society UK. Cordon Vert offers a wide rangeof cookery courses on vegetarianand vegan cuisine includingcourses for professional cooks

    Age Concern 0800 00 99 66 www.ageconcern.org.uk

    Help the Aged020 7278 1114 www.helptheaged.org.uk

    Vegetarian for Life, 182 Higher Bebington Road, Bebington, Wirral CH63 2PT

    0151 608 1595tina@vegetarianforlife.org.uk www.vegetarianforlife.org.uk

    Vegetarian for Life is an advocacy and educational charity working onbehalf of older vegetarians and vegans throughout the United Kingdom.

    If you would like to make a donation to VfL or consider leaving a legacyto fund our work, please contact the office: all contributions will be verygratefully received.

    Charity Number: 1120687

    Registered Company Number: 6294709

    Patron: Rose Elliot MBE

    Useful Contacts

    VegetarianffoorrLLiiffee

Recommended

View more >