Building Digital Resources: Creating Facilities at INSA

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  • Building Digital Resources: CreatingFacilities at INSAUSHAMUJOO-MUNSHI*

    ABSTRACT

    Today libraries are at a transition phase where twin processesof paper-based environment and changing information-seek-ing patterns in the electronic/digital environment go hand-in-hand. Hence, all components of the information chain are in astate of ux. The rapid growth in computer and communica-tion technologies have greatly beneted the advanced coun-tries, while the developing countries have not adequatelyreaped the benets of such facilities to the desired extent. Theapplication of information technology (IT) in India startedon a very modest scale. During the past decade or so severalIndian libraries have initiated activities to create, acquire,and provide access to electronic resources. The establishmentof networks has had a great impact on libraries and informa-tion centers (LICs) in the country, and have further buttressedthe ITapplications in the LICs to a certain extent. The emer-gence of the Internet, especially theWorldWideWeb (www),added a new dimension to information creation and delivery,which also globally triggered digitization programs. Buyingaccess or acquiring digital resources started taking root. Thedigitization of records (document management) crept in,which attracted librarians and people from other professionalbackgrounds into records management. This was followed bycontent management, (currently a popular phrase in this partof the world), also known as digitization. The digitization ofdocuments is now becoming a major activity in libraries andarchives. The Indian National Science Academy (INSA) is apremier scientic body engaged in the dissemination of infor-mation to the scientic community at large, publishing andpromoting scientic endeavors, besides having other multifa-ceted human welfare-oriented activities. The growing accep-tance of digital media has resulted in libraries buying and

    Intl. Inform.& Libr. Rev. (2003), 35, 281^309doi:10.1016/S1057-2317(03)00014-6

    *Head, Informatics Center, Indian National Science Academy, Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, NewDelhi,110 002, India. E-mail: newexp@nda.vsnl.net.in; umunshi@hotmail.com

    1057-2317/03/$ - see front matterr 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • providing access to Internet resources, acquiring CD-ROM-based data-sets, and providing services for stand alone or net-worked CD-ROM environments, and digitizing documents.TheAcademy library facilitates all three.TheAcademy has in-itiated several digitization initiatives for content developmentand management by way of the scanning of publications, im-age management, and conversion from digital documents toweb-enabled resources. The Academy has adopted a three-pronged approach of providing access to digital resources,and acquiring and creating digital resources, for which INSAsuitably augments with IT infrastructures and takes initiativesto provide links to requisite data sets for the benet of its users.INSAdeveloped and provided IT facilities at a modest scale toits users at a time when only a limited few had developed suchfacilities in the country.The facilities developed at INSAaugurwell with the initiation of pilot and sponsored projects pertain-ing to digitization of records andmaking provision for creatingdigital resource bases, thereby contributing to the nationaldigital repository on the one hand and providing access andvisibility to national resources on the other.The article dwellsupon various elements that have contributed to providingservices in the changing information seeking patterns of usersin the electronic environment, and the building of digitalresource bases, while facilitating others to get involved in digi-tal content creation activities. It is hoped that such endeavorsshall help in the building up of a national digital knowledgeresource base for the country, and INSAwould in the processact as a facilitator.

    r 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    INTRODUCTION

    Today libraries are at a transition phase where the twin processes of paper-based environments and changing information-seeking patterns in theelectronic/digital environment go hand-in-hand; hence all components ofthe information chain are in a state of ux.Over the last 50 years or so therehas been a radical change in the conduct of routine business in many orga-nizations due to the developments in computer and communication tech-nologies.These technologies havebecome pervasive in allwalks of life.Thishas buttressed the application of InformationTechnology (IT) tools andtechniques in library and information centers as well. However, it appearsthat rapid growth in computer and communication technologies havegreatly beneted the advanced countries while the developing countries

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  • have not adequately reaped the benets of such facilities to the desired ex-tent.The application of IT in India startedon averymodest scale. During the

    past decade or so several libraries in the country have initiated activities tocreate, acquire, and provide access to electronic resources. The activitystartedwith the development of the computerized catalogues, which pavedthe way for automated circulation functions with modest facilities. Asthings developed circulation systems could interact with catalogues, whichfurther paved the way for automating more services with additional fea-tures made possible by technological advances in both hardware and soft-ware. The issues pertaining to standards and formats were partly solved.Other databases were created, and functions such as cataloguing, acquisi-tions, serials, circulation, interlibrary loans, nancial control, stock man-agement, and user details were all integrated and automated to a certainextent.The electronic communication of information/data fromone libraryto another had its initiation using dial-up connections. Remote databaseaccess for providing reference/bibliographic services also began. And, achain of networks was established nationwide at all levels (local/regional/national) to promote resource sharing. These networks impacted Indianlibraries and information centers (LICs) and have further buttressedthe ITapplications in the LICs to a certain extent1.The emergence of the Internet, especially theWorldWideWeb (www),

    added a new dimension to information creation and delivery, which alsoglobally triggered digitization programmes. Buying access or acquiring di-gital resources also started taking root. By this time, the digitization of re-cords (document management) crept in, which attracted librarians,besides people from other professional backgrounds, into records manage-ment. This activity remained in vogue, but the very concept of content orknowledge management was missing because the whole process of exibil-ity and highprecision recall and relevancywere not addressed.The processwas more like nding a document or drawing some data.This gave rise tocontent management, which is presently a popular phrase in this part ofthe world, and is more often referred to as digitization.The digitization ofdocuments is now becoming a major activity in libraries and archives.The libraries and archives that contain some of these valuable resources

    are either beginning to digitize their documents or are trying to ndresources to do so.While a substantial proportion of libraries have auto-mated their basic library functions, particularly retro-conversion of theircatalogue records and circulation activities, some provide for automatedpersonalized information services, web-enabled information services, and

    1Usha, M.M. (Ed). (2002) Information management in newmillennium. New Delhi: Allied Pub-lishers, p. 679.

    BUILDINGDIGITALRESOURCES 283

  • digital content access and acquisition. Only a very few, however, have ini-tiated digitized content creation activity. The initiation of digital contentcreation is limited to digitization of theses and dissertations, Hindi gazetterecords, etc., by the libraries. And, individual organizations and publishersare now making full texts of selected journals available on the web.Mindful of the Governments concern to provide facilities for state-of-

    the-art libraries, with an emphasis on content creation, there is a denitetrend in the move from traditional to electronic/digital practices basedupon the changing information-seeking behaviour of users in the electronicenvironment. Several funding bodies have come forward to promote IT-based information generation, organization, and dissemination activities.Agencies like the former National Information System for Science andTechnology (formerlyknownasNISSAT; now in acronym limbo) Programunder Department of Scientic and Industrial Research (DSIR), wereinitiated with the objective of organizing information support facilities forresearchers and academicians. It has been continuously reorienting itsprograms and activities in tune with changing global scenarios and na-tional eorts of liberalization andglobalization of economies.Major eortsof NISSAT have been to establish linkages between information resourcedevelopers and users in India and other countries. Its current thrust is ondigitization and content creation. In addition, the Ministry of Communi-cation and InformationTechnology (MIT), the Ministry of Human Re-sources Development (MHRD), the Council of Scientic and IndustrialResearch (CSIR), the Defense Research Development Organization(DRDO), and others are also currently funding such initiatives. Theseagencies have extended grant-in-aid facilities to a number of organizationsworthbillions of rupees over the last few years to support various programsandprojects in the area of information generation, organization, and disse-mination.These facilities are and have furtherbuttressed the use of IT toolsand products by the libraries and information centers in the country.The present document attempts to focus on some initiatives taken by the

    Indian National Science Academy (INSA) pertaining to creating facilitiesfor building digital resources. All initiatives indicated belowhave been exe-cuted by the INSA Library, which was renamed the Informatics Center in1996, emphasizing the changing catalytic role the center plays in fomentingchanges in information retrieval, dissemination, andcommunication chan-nels in the Academy. However, in the present paper, both the terms Li-brary and Informatics Center have been used for entities representingthe INSA Library in general.The INSA, established in1935, is a high-level bodyof scientists represent-

    ing all branches of science and technology. INSA is chargedwith the objec-tives of promoting science in India, safeguarding the interests of Indianscientists, establishing formal tieswith internationalbodies, and harnessing

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  • scientic knowledge for the cause of humanity and the national welfare.INSA programs are staed by only 92 regular sta members and a fewprofessionals for discrete projects, serving the large, widely-dispersed In-dian science and technology community.

    IT INFRASTRUCTURE, CAMPUS LAN AND INTERNETFACILITIES AT INSA

    INSA has suitably augmented its IT infrastructure. Prior to 1994 onlya couple of stand alone computers and printers were in place. Since 1995provision has been made to provide access to computers to all.The presentinfrastructure stands at over 90 computers (of various makes and modelsK IBM, Macintosh, and the like), high-end servers, printers, (both net-worked and others), scanners, CD-writers, and related state-of-the-artequipment for carrying out thework in a changedelectronic oce environ-ment.In addition, the CD-Net systemwas the rst of its kind installed in India,

    in1995; it will soonbe upgraded.The system has12 nodes located at variouspoints where the science/technology and research/development commu-nities can access these facilities. The Academy began providing accessto CD-based information services through its CD-Net system in the LANenvironment in the Guest House as far back as 1995, when such facilitieswere almost non-existent in India.The components of this systemare givenbelow:

    CD-Net towerModel-556M-Q6680586DX@ 66MHzQuad speed150m/s SCSIdrive16MBRAM32 bitSVGA color monitor (memory1MB)1 44,1 2MB

    CD-ROM drive bays 56No. of drives 28Ethernet card (32 bit)

    660MB-capacity each153 6 kB/s data transfer rateor wide SCSI interface with300 kB/s data transfer rate150ms average

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  • Network server80586DX@ 66MHz16MBRAMexpandable to 64MB32 bitIGB (with provision for second H/D)SVGA color monitor (memory1MBVRAM)1 44,1 2MB

    CD network nodes (12 nodes)(IBMPCs) 80486 CPU@ 66MHz32-bit EISAbus4MBRAMexpandable up to 64MB1.2.1.44MB FDD320MB/HDD6 expansion slots SVGA color monitor (memory1MBVRAM)(withVGA color display card Res.1024*768, 256 colors)101keys keyboard2 serial, and1parallel portRTC with battery backupEthernet card 32 bit

    LANaccessoriesUTP (within the buildings)BNC (between the buildings)Hubs

    Modem14400/56000 KBPS error correction

    Backup network server80586DX@ 66MHz16MBRAMexpandable to 64MB32 bitIGB (with provision for second H/D)SVGA color monitor (memory1MBVRAM)1 44,1 2MB

    Network software(Novell NetWare)

    The web server is a fairly a high end Sun Solaris systemwith the follow-ing conguration:

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  • Sun re 880 server@ 750MHz.8GB memory. 6 36 GB.1.000,10 000 RPM,FC-AL disks, DVD,3 (N+1redundant)power supplies and redundant cooling fan trays17 inch entry color monitor

    PGX64 24-bit color frame buerSoftware on CD

    Type 6 USB power cord kit

    Solaris 8 standard, latest releaseEnglish-only media kit

    10/100 ethernet adapter

    20GB 4 mmDDS-4 internal tape drive

    Scholar PAC workshop compiler 6 02Includes unlimited user domain licensefor C, C++&HPC

    Sunscreen secure net 3 1Unlimited user license for rewall

    The contents of other scientic organizations are also expected to behosted on this server.The campus LAN at INSA consists of a combination of hubs and

    switched and routed networks with ber optics support; enhanced CAT-5UTP cabling and CISCO Catalyst 2924XL Layer-2 Switches with1000BASF-LX/LH Long haul GBIC, CISCO1720 Modular Routers with10/100 Base T Modular Router w/2 WAN slots; and, 8M Flash/32MDRAM. Fig. 1 illustrates the data network solution of INSA.For the present, 289 access points are provided, distributed over three

    buildings:The Informatics Center, the Convention Center, and theJubileeBuilding. Such coverage is also being extended to the canteen, besidesfurther enhancements in convention facilities and the Guest House. It hasbeen planned to provide cyber cafe-type facilities in the Guest House, thusbolstering communication, information retrieval, and information disse-mination. For the present trac scenario, only 64 kbs has been considered.However, as per the future planning for hosting the contents of other

    BUILDINGDIGITALRESOURCES 287

  • science andtechnologyorganizations, the link shall be suitably upgraded tohavebetter broadbandconnectivity.Thiswas also done to reduce the cost ofinvestment at the moment, since other related issues were to be addressedon a priority basis.It may be worthwhile to mention that one of the leading Indian ISPs,

    known asVidesh Sanchar Nigam Limited, opened up its Internet facilitiesfor the public on a commercial basis in August 1995 and INSA took upPSTN-based connectivity inOctober1995. INSAthen extended these facil-ities cost-free not only to the INSA sta and the librarys public users, butalso to transit visitors in the INSA Guest House, which was the only aca-demic center having such facilities at that time and perhaps the only GuestHouse of anyagencyKprivate or publicK in the country to have informa-tion access facilities through the CD-Net system in a LAN environmentand 24-hour Internet access.It may be worthwhile to mention here that the Academy caters to the

    science and technology community in general and its Fellows foundthroughout India. Since most of the principal users of its services are lo-cated far and wide, it became all the more imperative for INSA to makeprovision for providing services in remote mode using modern tools andtechniques. Accordingly, the INSA library constantly endeavors to stayabreast of the information needs of its users in a changing electronic envir-onment, and is making provision for more and more services.

    INFORMATICSCENTER ( TOTAL NODES=45)

    CONVENTION CENTER

    (TOTAL NODES=40)

    GND FLOOR

    IST FLOOR

    4 NODES

    36 NODES

    GND FLOOR6 NODES

    IST FLOOR17 NODES

    2ND FLOOR22 NODES

    130M 6 CORE 3DSX FIBE CABLE

    24P CHASSIS SWITCH

    4TH FLOOR48 NODES

    3RD FLOOR16 NODES

    2ND FLOOR

    17 NODES

    IST FLOOR9 NODES

    GND FLOOR26 NODES

    5TH FLOOR48 NODES

    6TH FLOOR20 NODES

    7TH FLOOR

    20 NODES

    24P HUB

    24P HUB

    24P HUB

    24P HUB

    24P HUB

    24P HUB

    24P HUB

    UTP CASCAADE CABLEUTP CASCAADE CABLE

    UTP CASCAADE CABLE

    200M 6 CORE 3DSX FIBE CABLE

    24P SWITCH

    24P SWITCHRACK-15U- 1 NO.24P PMP- 2 NOS.

    RACK-15U- 1 NO. 24P PMP- 2 NOS.

    RACK-12U- 1 NO.24P PMP- 2 NOS.

    RACK-12U- 1 NO.24P PMP- 2 NOS.

    RACK-15U- 1 NO.24P PMP- 2 NOS.

    RACK-9U- 2 NO. 24P PMP- 2 NO.

    RACK-12U- 1 NO. 24P PMP- 2 NO.

    JUBILEE BUILDING ( TOTAL NODES=204 )

    RACK-9U- 1 NO..

    FIGURE1. Data network solutionK INSA.

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  • BUILDING A DIGITAL RESOURCE BASE

    The INSA library policy, which came into force in1995, is to make all pos-sible eorts to create, acquire, and access electronic resources.

    Creation of recordsEorts have been made to create records of various resources for eectiveand ecient information, organization, management, and retrieval. Somesuch eorts are outlined below.

    Bibliographic records. The library of INSA has a special collection of booksand good resources in the areas of philosophy of science, history of science,science biographies, science and technology policy, science education,science and society, collected works of scientists, emerginginterdisciplinary areas, books published by fellows, and reference bookson science and technology. However, textbook collection does not comeunder the purview of the librarys mandate. The retro-conversion of30 000 books was initiated in 1994 on a full scale and has since beencompleted. The retro-conversion job was undertaken using the CDS/ISISK software package of UNESCO. The data is also made available on awindows platform using indigenously-developed software consisting ofsmall conversion programs. This is done because all our other modulessuch as acquisitions, serial control, and circulation are available on thisindigenously-developed software. However, CDS/ISIS continues as theINSA library is participating in the regional network systems like theDeveloping Library Network (DELNET) (earlier Delhi LibraryNetwork), and the data needs to be exported to DELNETs unioncatalogue, for which records are contributed by the participating libraries.TheOnline Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) of the library is available, forwhich several nodes have been provided.

    Database of serials received in the INSA library. The library has useful literature, asreported by eminent scientists in several dailies in their science andtechnology columns. It is also presently receiving over 1000 periodicals, asubstantial proportion of which is coming on an exchange basis from 368scientic organizations and academies worldwide. The serial databasecreation has been initiated using indigenously-developed software and iscurrently ripe for updating.

    Other databases. The other databases include the databases for thepersonalized information services such as the (1) Selective Disseminationof Information (SDI); (2) Current Awareness Service (CAS) from over380 journals; and (3) Contents Abstracts and Photocopy Supply (CAPS)

    BUILDINGDIGITALRESOURCES 289

  • service from over 800 journals, covering eight broad areas of science andtechnology. The electronic databases for such services have been createdusing indigenously-developed software fromwhich the information for theregistered users of these services is automatically generated once every 20days. However, the CAS service does require human interface as well in itsnal phase. The account keeping system for these services has also beenautomated, from which bills for payment are periodically generated andsent to users.

    Database of e-resources acquired in the library. The database of e-resources beingacquired in the library is also maintained and available to users. Asindicated above, the library has initiated building an e-resourcecollection, which it is gradually strengthening.The library has compiled adatabase of its CD-ROM collection of various resources procured by thelibrary, which has over100 records at present.

    Expert database. An expert database consisting of visionaries of IndianScience who are also fellows of the Academy from various areas of scienceand technology has been created. In addition, the database for the foreignfellows of the Academy is also available for user access. These databasesinclude detailed descriptions of the fellow, giving the name/s, presentposition, their correspondence address, residence address, contactnumbers, e-mail, FAX, area of research, awards received, and otherrecognition (e.g., membership on important committees), etc.

    Other specialized databasesThe other specialized full text databases that have been recently generatedout of funded projects by the library and are available in digital format.Some such databases are:

    * Networking and Communication for IT Jatha.* Theme pavilion on scientic inputs for promotion of informationtechnology.

    These databases are meant for general mass consumption and are beingpromoted at ITexhibitions in variousmetropolitan areas, where audiences/visitors to an exhibition at one location may participate in video-conferen-cing sessions and interact with visitors in other locations.The databases are full text databases covering areas like advancements

    in electronics and circuitry, data recording systems, communication lines,voice and optical recognition systems, and other related areas in net-working and communication. Easy and interactive access to the contents

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  • and online question/answer sessions for young visitors have also beenmade.The National Center for Science and technology Communication

    (NCSTC), Department of Science and Technology, funded both of theseprojects.

    Science education initiative. Under this program, it was proposed that INSAwould have a dedicated website on science education in the country thatwould also help in networking individuals and organizations throughknowledge exchange and experience sharing for the improvement ofscience education, with a special emphasis on taking science to the massesandencouragingwomento consider careers in science.Thiswould focus onissues such as experience sharing, improving rural science education, anddisseminating information on the use of experimental materials andinquiry-based learning modules. Based on the information received fromparticipants, strategies would be identied and implemented. As a sequel,a seminar was organized on Trends and Future Initiatives in ScienceEducation, highlighting new initiatives, methods, and models. Alsoconsidered were techniques in science education developed by bothgovernment and non-government organizations, and individuals. Theinitiatives taken by the participating institutions that were invited toparticipate in the two day seminar, May 16^17, 2002, and who presentedtheir initiatives in a variety of posters, science kits, and educational tools,were ultimately digitized and shall be posted on the web for widerdissemination. The material has already been digitized and mounted onCD.

    Database of publications received under publication exchange program. The database ofpublications received under the exchange program is maintained by thelibrary, along with the database of participating publication exchangeprogram agencies. The database gives complete details about what isbeing sent, received, the year of initiation of exchange, traces of changes inexchange scenarios, and major events and changes. The Academy haspublication exchange relations with 368 scientic organizations/academiesworldwide, with over 700 participating journals in the exchange involvingthe Academys four research journals, yearbook, and other specialpublications.

    Database of video collection of eminent scientists. INSA has prepared video strips ofvarious eminent scientists highlighting their research and developmenteorts.The activity was initiated recently and the collection is maintainedby the library, with easy access by users.This collection isbeing continuallyupdated with the passage of time.

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  • Digital resources acquisitionThe aim of acquiring digital collections is primarily to meet informationneeds as quickly andeciently as possible.The librarys collection develop-ment policy emphasizes the acquisition of e-resources and has established aseparate budget entry for this.TheAcademy started from scratch to build adigital collection. As a rst step it provides for building up a digital collec-tion consisting of (a) secondary resources in digital format only; (b) back-runs of journals on CD-ROM or online; (c) other resources and e-books.The library has since initiated collection development of e-resources in aphased manner.The library now acquires secondary sources only in elec-tronic format. The back-runs of some of the journals that are available inCD-ROM format are also being acquired. The hard copy, together withthe soft copy on CDs for books is also being purchased and maintained inthe library and users are encouraged to make use of such collections. Thefollowingare a few selected titles (Table I) acquiredby the library, and suchcollection is being strengthened on a continuous basis. Besides these, thereare over 100 titles for books and other resources available in the library inCD-ROM format for access by users to the library.

    Access to digital resourcesThe library has been rendering service to users by providing access to elec-tronic versions of journals that are being received by the library in hard

    TABLE I

    Cassell concise dictionaryClassics of Progress: Selected Papers and the General Index of the Progress of TheoreticalPhysicsDigital Multimedia ReferenceE-Commerce:The EDIWay IT Encyclopedia.ComEncyclopedia of NetworkingEncyclopedia BritannicaEyewitness Encyclopedia of Nature 2 0Eyewitness Encyclopedia of Science 2 0Family Health Encyclopediawith Interactive Diagnostic Charts to Help IdentifySymptoms, Disorders and EmergenciesInternationalWhosWho 2000Manorama KnowledgeAdventure 2001McGraw Hill Multimedia Encyclopedia of Science andTechnologyMultimedia in ActionNational Geographic1889^1999Science Citation Index1980^June 2002 (being received regularly on quarterly basis withyearly updates)World BookMultimedia EncyclopediaWorldWideWebYellow Pages

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  • copy format. Moreover, the science and technology community also hasease of access to e-journals available in the public domain. A few Indianjournals, which are in the public domain, are also being used for this pur-pose.

    Value-added e-services. Repackaged information services from e-resourcesbased on web resources in the public domain and CD-ROM-basedresources are also provided to our remotely located users electronically.Some such services also need human computer interfaces at certain stages.

    CD-ROM-based search services through CD-net system. The advent of CD-ROM-based technology in the 1980s brought about a revolution in acquiringaordable e-versions of several bibliographic databases on CD-ROM. Forinstance, accessing DIALOG databases in India a decade ago would havecost $3 (at that time, $1= Rupees 30^35) as a minimum access charge for3min or any part thereof. Only researchers with plentiful institutionalresources could have aorded the service. Hence, the research anddevelopment community in developing countries could barely aord toaccess databases unless they were well-nanced. Multifaceted CD-ROM-based databases (bibliographic or full text) became very popular indeveloping countries. Their aordability, portability, and durability (e.g.,withstanding extreme environmental conditions), and usability madethem popular. Soon online access to databases was by and large replacedby CD-ROM-based databases wherever possible.The CD-ROM-based services were initiated in the INSA library in1995

    when a CD-ROM-Net system was acquired and installed, the rst of itskind in India. The collection development policy for databases generallydoes not favor acquisition of subject-oriented databases, since suchdatabases are available in various neighboring libraries of INSA.However, the mandate of the library provides for acquisition of generaltypes of e-databases generally not procured by other libraries. An initialsubscription was to the Science Citation Index (SCI) in CD-ROMformat. The complete le from 1980 to date has been procured. Thedatabase is available at only two locations in the metropolitan New Delhiregion.Access to this database is provided to all those who do research and

    development in scientometrics/bibliometrics, and to others for generalreference search purposes. Users have been provided 12 nodes to accessthis facility, with nodes also made available in the INSA Guest House foraccess by transit guests.

    Scientic output evaluation service. The SCI is extensively used for cytoanalyticalstudies in various areas of science and technology for mapping science,

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  • identifying trends in scientic research, identifying institutions of excel-lence, and evaluating scientic output in academic competitions. Both in-dividuals and organizations are requesting such information services.However, users desirous of conducting such searches themselves are alsoaccommodated by the system.This service has become very popular.The other databases that run on this system are the databases indicated

    in this document inTable I.

    Provision for access toJ-Gate. J-Gate is an Internet gateway and portal set upnearly 2-years ago by Informatics (India) Ltd. It oers aordable accessto global electronic journal literature and provides seamless access tojournal articles through the massive database interface of 10 000+ e-journals. J-Gate as a portal covers content from thousands of e-journalspublished worldwide.Modalities have been developedwithJ-Gate publishersM/s. Informatics

    to facilitateJ-Gate access to INSA Fellows both in India and overseas.Thefellows can access the facilities provided by J-Gate. The password rightshave been extended to the fellows of the Academy to e-walk throughJ-Gate. CurrentlyJ-Gate oers two types of products/services:

    * J-Gate Portal* J-Gate Customized Services

    J-Gate Portal oers:

    * Directory of e-journals-10 000+ journals listed with links to journal/publishers sites.2

    * Table of Contents (TOC)- 9000 + journals* DatabaseKAcomprehensive searchable databaseK 1000 000 + ar-ticles added every year.

    J-Gate initially has providedJ walk through its package to INSA fellow-ship for a limited period that shall be extended further upon mutuallyagreed terms and conditions.

    J-Gate customized services oer:

    * J-Gate Custom Content (JCC) K Local Intranet solutions for li-braries for journal subscriptions.

    * J-Gate Custom Content for Consortia (JCCC) K JCCC is extendedto an homogeneous group of libraries for sharing subscribed journalresources.

    2J-GateK The e-journal Gateway. In electronic format: http://www.j-gate.informindia.co.in

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  • JCCC: Such a facility is already operational. However, the modalities arealso being developed for JCCC since this proposal is economically moreviable. Of course the drawback in this is that since all the participatinglibraries in the vicinity of this consortia have to come to a common consen-sus. It is proposed that INSAwould act as a nodal point for such consortiaandwould facilitate electronic access to other libraries.

    Buying and providing access to online journals. The INSA advisory committee hasdecided to strengthen the e-collection for remote access and hasemphasized the consortium approach. Since INSA is unique in that itsusers are found nationwide, it has recently been decided to strengthenaccess to e-journals rather than subscribing to new titles. Eorts are on inthis direction to buy e-access to both existing subscribed journal titles andalso new titles that are likely to be acquired by the library. In addition,INSA also shares a unique position among science and technologyagencies due to its being a premier scientic body catering to the needs ofthe science and technology community. INSA also promotes scienticendeavors by various means and mechanisms. Therefore, almost all theresource centers of science and technology bodies share their resourcesand serve INSA by providing direct or indirect remote access to theire-resources for INSAs users. The INSA is making all possible eorts toprovide access to users and to remove bottlenecks in information access.INSA is also bridging the gap between information haves and have notsby facilitating remote access to resources of various leading institutions.Since Internet connectivity is by and large available at all places (havingbroadband or PSTN connectivity), such facilities are being extended bysending information electronically or making provision for them to accesse-resources, thereby bridging minds over miles.Current access to over1000 + journals is available in the public domain.

    Access is also provided to some Indian journals that are available onlineat http://www.infolibrarian.com/ejls.htm.3 Thus, digital resources areavailable to fulll user requirements eectively, eciently, and in a timelymanner.Recently, participating in local/regional/national networks has proved

    to be the only viable solution in situations having static library budgetscoupled with rising serial costs. The statistics show that over the decade1986^96, journal costs have risen by an average of 148% compared toabout 44% in the consumer price index.4 What is more, libraries arespending approximately 120% more than they were in 1986 and yet get7% fewer titles. The Indian scenario depicts that roughly around 15% of

    3Infolibrarian.com. In electronic format: http://www.infolibrarian.com/ejls.htm4Malako, D. (1998) Science 282, 853.

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  • the foreign subscriptions were dropped.5 Though many of these journalsare available online, many institutions are nonetheless not in a position(economically) to buy access. However, some consortia like the CSIRhave been successful. INSA is also moving in this direction, playing aproactive role and strengthening the consortia approach for online accessto journals, thereby enabling the research and development community tohave timely access to awider resource base.

    Provision of bibliographic/abstract/full article services. The INSA library has alsomade provision for compiling bibliographies from e-resources andmailing them electronically to end-users. In many cases, bibliographiesare complemented with abstracts as well, while full article services aregenerally restricted to fellows of the Academy only.

    Access to DELNETdatabases. The library is actively participating in regional/national networks. INSA hasbeen participating in the Developing LibraryNetwork (earlier Delhi Library Network) activities from almostDELNETs inception in 1988. As a participating institution, INSA iscontributing its data in e-form for DELNETs databases on books,journals, and other similar resources. INSA also participates in documentlending services in a very proactive manner. INSA is facilitating accessto the following DELNETdatabases and services ( http://delnet.nic.in)6

    and is also allowing access to resource base of 460 libraries by INSA(Table II).

    DIGITAL INITIATIVES: CONVERSION OF EXISTING PRINTMEDIA INTO DIGITAL FORMAT

    The digitization of valuable original materials is often undertakenwith thedual goals of both improved access and enhanced preservation. The mostimportant parameter of a digital library is the digital collectionKeither itsacquisition, or provision to its access, or creation for present use and forarchival purposes.The ease of creation, use, and access has led libraries tostart initiatives pertaining to various aspects (access, acquisition, creation)of digital resources.Content developers, be they academics (at universities or colleges), pub-

    lishers, or information generators and disseminators, have developedstrong interests in electronic publishing. For example, many universities intheWest are producing their publications in electronic format and hosting

    5Personal Communication.6Delnet^Developing Library Network: In electronic format: http://delnet.ni.in

    296 U. MUJOO-MUNSHI

  • them online for wide, global, and 24 hour access on the one hand, and forpreservation purposes on the other. Important endeavors in this eld havebeenundertakenby theDigital Library Federation of theUS, including theUniversity of Pennsylvania Project forArchiving and Preservation of Elec-tronicJournals, Project Harvest of the Cornell University Library, the Di-gital Preservation Collaboration between Yale University and ElsevierScience, the Harvard University Library Electronic Journals ArchivingProject, and the MIT Dynamic e-journal project. On the publishing side,thousands of journals have been hosted online. It appears that many jour-nals are only coming in the digital format with no print versions and thetrend seems to be accelerating.The digitization of valuable original materials is often undertaken with

    the dual goals of both improved access and enhanced preservation.What-ever strategies or techniques are adopted to preserve digital data, they willonly be successful if the data is fully documented throughout its lifecycle. Anumber of bodies and projects are currently grappling with the issues ofpreservation of metadata and publishing detailed recommendations as toits implementation. For instance, the CEDARS project (www.leeds.ac.uk/cedars/) has produced a specication for preservation of metadata that isrequired to support meaningful access to the archived digital content andincludes descriptive, administrative, legal, and technical information.7

    CEDARS closely follows the reference model for an Open ArchivalInformation System (OAIS) in its metadata schema, and has implemented

    TABLE II

    Delnet databases No. of records

    Union Catalogue of Books K CCF 16 65634Union Catalogue of Books KMARC 44132Union List of Current Periodicals 20777Union Catalogue of Periodicals 19228Databases of Periodical Articles 4 22217CD-ROMDatabase 1669Union List of Video Recordings 3376Union List of Sound Recordings 748Database of UrduManuscripts 210Databases of Theses and Dissertations 32553Indian Specialists Databases : aWhosWho 2000Devinsa Database 20 000

    7Lupovici, C. & J. Masanes, (2000) Metadata for long term preservation of electronic publications. TheHague: Koninklijke Bibliotheek.

    BUILDINGDIGITALRESOURCES 297

  • the schema in XML. The Networked European Deposit Library (NE-DLIB) is also using the OAIS reference model. The PANDORA (Preser-ving and Accessing Networked Documentary Resources of Australia)Project at the National Library of Australia has developed a logical datamodel which integrates all the metadata for digital objects consistently(www.nla.gov/pandora/1dmv2.html).8

    The costs of digital preservation are high. But the cost of not preservingour heritage will be even higher in terms of lost data and lost history, andthere is no time to waste in putting strategies and practices in place to pre-serve key materials. Many individual projects and institutions are workinghard on this problem, and there are also national and international initia-tives collaborating to nd long-term solutions.We are in the midst of a second revolution in scholarly communication,

    viz., the era of electronic publishing and the advent of e-journals.Web pub-lishing has broken all the barriers between the creators, users, and provi-ders of scientic information. Today there is turmoil in the scholarlycommunication system and there is accordingly an opportunity for Indianjournal publishers to break free of the existing systemby producing electro-nic versions of journals and hosting themonline for global access.There areonly a few eorts in this direction such as the IndMed database (by theIndian MEDLARS Center, New Delhi), was the rst web-based Indianbiomedical database covering titles and abstracts of about 40 Indian jour-nals such as Indian Pediatrics, DownTo Earth, Bombay HospitalJournal, IndianHeartJournal, IndianJournal of CommunityMedicine.The dearth of similar in-itiatives is due to:

    * fear of long-term visibility;* no encouragement of previous experiences;* lack of experience;* loss of independence;* duplication of work; and,* perhaps fear of loss of the subscription base, itself a questionable pro-spect.

    In India, the IT Task Force set up by the Government of India has re-commended the need for content creation in digital formats, at all levels. Asindicated above, there have been a few endeavors made by both the institu-tions and publishers in this direction.With the thrust and impetus comingfrom various sectors, the e-culture is gradually rooting itself in India andmany institutions are coming forward to initiate digital content creationactivity. However, it may be mentioned that no other library in India has

    8In electronic format: www.nla.gov/pandora/1dmv2.html

    298 U. MUJOO-MUNSHI

  • initiated digitization of its organizations journals with the same alacrity asthe INSA library.Many libraries have gained experience with aspects of digital resource

    management. Some have public access to the Internet, others have substan-tial numbers of networked CD-ROMs, while a few have scanning capabil-ities. INSAs Informatics Center facilitates all three of these activities. INSAhas also undertaken several digital initiatives for content development andmanagement by way of scanning publications, and managing conversionfrom digital to web-enabled resources.

    INSAs initiativesTo meet its objectives, INSA has developed various specialties such as thepublication of scientic research. INSA is publishing both regular and spe-cial publications, and has produced over 200 special publications. In addi-tion, INSA publishes four science and technology journals and two otherregular serials. For the past several years these publications havebeen avail-able digitally.The INSA library also has a rich resource base pertaining tofellowship records, containing highly valuable information unlikely to beavailable elsewhere in the country.INSA has been deeply involved with the development of contents regard-

    ing science and technology publications in associationwith other academies.In this direction, INSA has taken several initiatives in content creationusing the digital technology on amodest scale. Such initiatives include:

    * Digitization of Library Records;* IndianJournal Server Initiative;* Initiatives in Pipeline;* Others.

    Digitization of library records. The Library and Informatics committeesdecision to digitize library records was made in 1997. As a rst steptowards that goal, it was decided to digitize journals in brittle condition.These vulnerable pieces included popular science titles, fellowshiprecords, and older INSA journals and council minutes. The initial phasebeganwith the digitization of fellowship records.

    Digitization of fellowship records. This project was taken upbasically to preservethe important information content of fellowship records available in printform in les. Since most of these les dates back to the 1930s, the quality ofthe paper has really deteriorated andwas dicult tomaintain andpreserveproperly.Secondly, in this electronic environment, it is more eective and ecient

    to access such documents without infringing/compromising on the originalformat and details.

    BUILDINGDIGITALRESOURCES 299

  • The academy in 1999 initiated this project to digitize fellowship records(the rst project of its kind by an Indian library) consisting of importantpersonal, professional, and academic details about fellows of the Academy,together with their research and development achievements. It may bementioned here that the Academy is engaged in promotion and excellenceof science in the country, and also of projecting the endeavors of leadingscience and technology scholars overseas. Since digital technology at thattime was not as advanced as is it is now, the job of digitizing fellowshiprecords was initiated. For this particular job, it was decided to capture thedata and create an image-base for the full contents of these fellowshiprecords. The DataScan software is being used for creation, organization,and retrieval of information. The software was customized according toINSAs requirements.For the data manipulation and eective access to the image-base, a

    database was created containing keys to the full text.This database has 16key searchparameters for search and retrieval purposes (Table III). Nine ofthese elds allow the use of keywords. This database also allows theaddition of annotations. The image-base in this case has been also madeavailable on the CD-ROMs.While it is very important to keep the indexthat is stored in the database as indicated above for all documentscaptured digitally for archival purposes on the hard disk), the contentscan be mounted on CD-ROMS as well. In case all the index is notavailable on the hard drive, it may not be possible for the system toaddress the users query, as the indexing terms that act as an interfacebetween the index database and the actual document stored in the

    TABLE III

    Fellowship code numberNameDate of birthCitySectional committeeYear of electionPhotographSubject/research areaAwards (annotations) (more details are given at Research Prole)Academic recordList of publicationsBrief biographical sketch (annotation: for detailed research contribution go to keywordResearch Prole)Research prole (annotation: for complete list of publications go to list of publications)Updated informationPersonal informationKeywords

    300 U. MUJOO-MUNSHI

  • image-base is not readily accessible; hence, it gives rise to a missing link.Therefore, it is important to keep an entire index database on the harddrive while an image-base containing actual full text documents can bemounted on CDs. Since the data is massive and cannot be contained onone CD-ROM, in such situations the interface between the index and thedocument needs to be provided so that while users access the informationthey learn onwhichCD-ROMthe data is stored.This happens in situationswhen the user is looking for information on a specic item; he/she receivesthe information about the availability of X number of documents thatmatches his/her request. Once such information is displayed on the screen,the user can access the full contents of such documents. In case the desireddocument is not available on the hard disk drive, but is available on theCD-ROM, the system alerts the user to the documents location, i.e., theCD-ROM containing the full data. It may, however, also be stressed herethat the system demands that each mounted disk has to be provided withunique numbering. This unique numbering also forms part of the index.The project has since been completed and the data mounted on CD-ROM; however, the index is on the hard disk for wider access. Thisdatabase made available on the Intranet may also be put partially on theInternet in the future. Eorts have also been made to provide CD-ROMswith limited search capabilities to Fellows of theAcademy.

    Indian journal server initiative. The Indian National Science Academy is apremier scientic body representing all branches of science andtechnology and always strives to promote and disseminate scienticknowledge globally, eectively, and eciently. In addition, the Academyalways tries to tap the best personnel and resources to foster its activities.The academy recognizes the importance and impact of electronicpublishing on science. International publishers like the ICSU Press havebeen deliberating on issues of electronic publishing in science, particularlyfromthe perspective of practicing scientists worldwide, withbenets for thescientic information chain, and thus more progress for science.The ICSUPress has issued a call regarding the electronic publishing of Indian scienceand technology journals. The project basically would encouragedeveloping nations to use electronic means to gain access to westernliterature and also to put their journals in electronic format so as topromote usability (and visibility) of their publications9 INSArepresentatives have been involved with the ICSU Press from the verybeginning, promoting such activities at the national level also. The

    9Margaret, B. (1999) E-mail to INSA datedJune 17, containing a message from Sir Roger Elliott,Chairman, ICSUCommittee ontheDissemination of Scientic Information (usuallyknown as ICSUPress).

    BUILDINGDIGITALRESOURCES 301

  • academy has also joined hands with another entity: The Indian Academyof Sciences, Bangalore.These two academies initiated the hosting of scienceand technology journals on a national level on the pattern of Latindex,which provides information about Latin AmericanJournals, and mounteda number of African journals online (www.oneworld.org/inasp).

    Building a digital resource-base of science and technology journals and hosting themonline. The two leading scientic academies in India have a 60-year recordof consistent publication of journals in India. It was therefore natural andappropriate that the two academies combine their eorts to electronicallypublish journals. As a result, a Joint Academys Committee for ElectronicPublishing (JACEP) was established to develop plans and programs for thetwo academies to cooperate in putting their research journals on theWorldWideWeb on Indian servers. As part of the recommendations of this jointventure, eachAcademy is to set up aweb server for hosting journal contentsonline.The two servers will mirror each other.The infrastructure for high-availability web servers was to have high-bandwidth connectivity. And, athird mirror server would be installed at the Supercomputer Educationand Research Center (SERC) at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc.),Bangalore.Funding for the project and training of the sta were additional critical

    issues. The infrastructure has since been procured, and sta have beentrained in various facets of electronic publishing. The Indian Academy ofSciences, Bangalore, has made some headway and now has the full contentof most of its journals online.The IndianAcademyhasmade available its11journals online ( http://www.ias.ac.in/journals.html),10 as per the list giveninTable IVcoveringback issues from1999.However, issues prior to1998^99are not yet available on-line.The following paragraphs provide an overview of INSAs initiatives in

    this regard, pertaining to the project of building digital resources for In-dian science and technology journals and hosting them online:

    (1) Objectives. The present project has been initiated by INSAwith the fol-lowing objectives:

    * To nurture a national digital resource base with global visibility andaccessibility;

    * To produce electronic versions of Indian science and technology jour-nals and to make them available on aweb server;

    * To support research activities by providing global 24-hour access tothe full texts of scientic information.

    10Indian Academy of SciencesJournals: In electronic format: http://www.ias.ac.in/journals.html

    302 U. MUJOO-MUNSHI

  • (2) INSA publications. The project involves digitization of all the back vo-lumes of the following science and technology journals published by INSA(TableV).

    (3) Training. A training program providing exposure to the INSA sta inthe area of electronic publishing was organized at the Indian Institute ofSciences (IISc), Bangalore, coordinated by SERC, Bangalore, along withIAS, Bangalore. From March 13th to the 15th, 2002, several staers wereagain sent to IISc, Bangalore, for further training.

    (4) Converting from print to digital. The conversion from print to digital formatencompasses a whole set of activities. For existing copies of journals all the

    TABLE IV

    Name of journal No. ofissuesa year

    Volumenumberin 2002

    E-mail address

    1 Proceedings K Chemical Sciences 6 114 chemsci@ias.ernet.in2 Proceedings KMathematical Sciences 4 112 mathsci@ias.ernet.in3 Proceedings K Earth and Planetary

    Sciences4 111 epsci@ias.ernet.in

    4 Sadhana (Academy proceedings inengineering sciences)

    6 27 sadhana@ias.ernet.in

    5 PramanaK Journal of Physics 12 58, 59 pramana@ias.ernet.in6 Journal of Biosciences 4 27 jbiosci@ias.ernet.in7 Bulletin of Materials Science 6 25 matersci@ias.ernet.in8 Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy 4 23 jaa@ias.ernet.in9 Journal of Genetics 3 81 jgenet@ias.ernet.in10 Resonance K Journal of Science

    Education12 7 resonanc@ias.ernet.in

    11 Current Science (published by theCurrent Science Association incollaborationwith theAcademy)

    24 82, 83 currsci@ias.ernet.in

    TABLEV

    Name of Journal Yearstarted

    No. ofissuesa year

    Currentvolume

    1 IndianJournal of Pure &Applied Mathematics 1970 12 332 Proceedings of INSA AK Physical Sciences 1959 6 683 Proceedings of INSA BK Biological Sciences 1959 6 684 IndianJournal of History of Science 1966 4 36

    BUILDINGDIGITALRESOURCES 303

  • data since the inception of their publications have been processed for con-version to digital format. These journals are available for online access(http://www.insa.ac.in) with intensive search parameters. Presently, thePortable Document Format (PDF) is generated from hard copy afterscanning that uses fairly versatile scanning software. For the search, themetadata or structure is created which includes the bibliographic detailsabout the article, together with several keywords and other search para-meters for ecient and eective searching. For instance, the search para-meters include searching by the elds indicated inTableVI.

    (a)Organization of data. Organization of images and corresponding metada-ta into a DatabaseManagement System (DBMS) is done usingOracle andalso on MySQL because the co-servers make provisions for MySQL andOracle.

    (b) Software. The content management system software being used in thiscase is DXWarehouse-Archive Enterprise Server (developed using OpenStandards like EJB, Java Servelets, andJSP), having the following compo-nents:

    * Media RepositoryManager (includes storage andmanagement of allles required for DXReader);

    * DPSXMLIndex (database index used by the DPS Search Engine);* DPS Connection Interface Component (required for connection tothe DXReader Interface);

    * DPSRemote Administrator (administrative functions like data man-agement, le management, and user access management);

    * DPS Inter-server Communication and QueryModule;* Unlimited user connection license.

    TABLEVI

    Author/sJournalTitleVolumeIssueInitial pagesYearArticle titleKeywords (7)

    304 U. MUJOO-MUNSHI

  • (c) Retrieval interface (web-based browse and search capability). The PDF has beenoptimized for online delivery.ThoughXML is the current standard inwebmarkup languages, such provision would be incorporated in future vo-lumes. To facilitate searching online journals in a highly interactive wayand providing eective interfaces between the user and the system, so as tofacilitate ecient and eective global searching and retrieving, is of utmostimportance.The design and development of an eective search strategy ispossible with the14 parameters (seven elds and seven keywords) for eec-tive handling of data manipulation, suitably addressing the users queriesand fullling user needs and requirements. Undergirding this eectivesearching is data organization of images and corresponding metadata intoDatabase Management Systems (DBMS) such as Oracle and MySQL. Inthe present project Oracle would be preferred, since the Sun Solaris system(the systemprocuredby INSA) fully supports this RDBMS.However, pro-vision has also been made for MySQL as a co-server. For wider dissemina-tion of the journal contents, it is important to mount the data on the CD-ROMs as well.Therefore, provision has also been made to mount the dataonCD-ROMsas abackupaswell as for facilitating electronic searching forthose people who do not have access to Internet and/or do not have ade-quate connectivity facilities. The CD-ROM version will have adequatecapabilities for information searching and retrieval. The schematic repre-sentation of a completeworkow fromcapturing data to converting to PDFand eventually to XML is depicted in the ow diagram given in Fig. 2.

    (d) Outsourcing of the job. Retro-conversion: Since this is a massive job and theAcademy does not have so much infrastructure in place, outsourcing wasthe only viable solution for the initial digitizing of the entire contents fromAcademy journals. The job included conversion of journals from print todigital format, metadata creation, organization of data, retrieval interfaces(web-based browsing and search facility), hosting of journals online on apublic server, and maintenance of the site until the procedure stabilizes.INSAwould eventually take up the entire activity of processing journals

    for online publishing by its own sta in-house. However, it will require helpfrom the outside agency, and the processing of current journals which areborn digital for online hosting would be carried on simultaneously.

    (e) Financial support. The project has been funded by the National Informa-tion System for Science andTechnology (NISSAT), of the Department ofScientic and Industrial Research, Government of India.

    (f) Expected output. Digitization of all the back volumes (starting from 2002andgoingbackwards) of all the Science andTechnology journals publishedby INSA.

    BUILDINGDIGITALRESOURCES 305

  • (g)Present status. The project is functioning and is progressing;The contentshave been uploaded for global access and are available at: http://www.insa.ac.in.

    Digital initiatives in pipelineDigitization shall soon be undertaken for the following projects:

    Biographicalmemoirs. INSAconceived the idea of producing the BiographicalMemoirs as ameans of providingan authentic account of the inspiring livesand achievements of the past Fellows of the Academy. These Fellows had

    Book in LogisiticsAssign Book ID

    Book inProduction

    (Assign batchID)

    If Hard Copy is Input

    If E-file is Input

    Book Cutting

    Book Matrixrecording

    Cover Scanning

    Page Scanning

    Cover Manipulation

    Page Positioning11"8.5"

    Archive11"8.5" scans

    dscan.mdb

    PQA

    PQA

    PQA

    PQA

    CHASE QA

    RQAScan PDF(Format)

    Media Archive

    Analyse Input

    Notfit

    for produc-

    tion

    Print PDF

    Trim this information

    Evalua-tion

    PDF to Book DNA

    processing

    Content Editing

    Structure Editing

    Compar-ison

    dBookProofing

    dBookProofing

    DictionaryCreation OCR

    ComprehensiveStyling

    Export DX XML

    Evaluation

    Gray Box removal

    Crop to Trim

    Media cutting

    Audit QA

    Format Compilation

    FormatArchivedbook DNA.md

    b

    1. Text PDF2. Custom XML3. OX Reader

    Float Cutting

    Create Book

    Positional and master

    media creationFormat Media

    Creation

    Output Archive

    Content (Extraction)

    Content Scan OCR

    Structure Tagging

    Media

    FIGURE 2. Process flow for INSA journals online.

    306 U. MUJOO-MUNSHI

  • specialized in dierent spheres of science and played signicant roles inadvancing the frontiers of their chosen elds.There are at present 22 suchvolumes.

    Fellows of the Indian National Science Academy (1935^93): Diamond JubileeCompendium. The two-volume publication is a valuable resource givingbrief biographical sketches (including photographs) of 1137 distinguishedscientists admitted to the Fellowship of the Academy from its inaugurationin 1935, up to 1993. These publications are being produced at regularintervals. Eorts shall be made to put forthcoming volumes on the web.

    Books and monographs. The Indian National Science Academy has beenproducing books and monographs on areas of topical interest from thepast six decades.The Academy has published a ne selection of books andmonographs, some very highly rated and in great demand by the scienceand technology community. As part of its content creation programme,INSA is going to digitize books and monographs brought out by theAcademy during its over 60 plus years of existence.

    Creating and hosting science and technology publications of other organizations. Asindicated earlier, the IndianJournal Initiative applies to INSA journals asprototypes. However, it is proposed that INSAwould subsequently providea platform to other organizations for hosting their journals and providerequisite help in content creation.Science publications in developing countries lack visibility and

    accessibility; the results are poor quality and little credibility. The IndianScience Journals that meet international standards nonetheless faceproblems of poor visibility. The solution is e-publishing. INSA isproposing to address these issues by selecting quality journals in the areasof science and technology from various Indian scientic academies/institutions and providing technical assistance, server space and training,etc. It is hoped that such endeavors shall help in the building up of anational digital knowledge resource base for all of India.

    Dissertations and thesis. Tobuild up a repository of the dissertations and thesescollections, some universities have been approached to undertakedigitization of such collections. The requisite activities to this end havebegun.

    Other initiativesEorts are underway for creating state-of-the-art facilities for training pro-fessionals in the use of emerging technologies. The funding agencies arebeing tapped for providing nancial inputs. A similar type of Internet

    BUILDINGDIGITALRESOURCES 307

  • School that is located at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (in theSouthern Part of India), shall be created on the INSA campus. Presently,training programs are conducted in collaborationwith other organizationson various aspects of information technology for information organiza-tions, with special emphases on processing and dissemination of digitalcontent creation. The response to these programs is quite encouraging. Itis with this objective that the initiatives are being taken to suitably augmentthe IT lab on a regular basis and train sta and prospective informationmanagers, indeed all who are keen to get exposure to the new informationtechnology tools and techniques.

    CONCLUSION

    The INSA Informatics Center has endeavored to provide for the buildingof e-resource collections and for access to the entire science and technologycommunity.The Center has intensied its digital archive activities by initi-ating various projects, made possible by managements support and byfunding agencies that have readily considered and accepted INSAs projectproposals. The Center is further promoting content creation activities bycollaborating with other organizations and providing a platform to organi-zations keen on participating in such activities.The preservation of Indias heritage literature, regardless of format, is

    critical to civilized society.Thus, mindful of the many strategic factors andcosts involved, preservation is an areawhere there are many uncertainties.Issues are hotly debated and dierent strategies have passionate adherentsor opponents. The costs of infrastructure and information provision areparticularly heavy for developing countries. The Government of India,through its various agencies like DST, CSIR, ICMR, andDRDO, can sup-port such e-publishing ventures through one time grants and technical sup-port. The dividends of enhancing the global visibility of Indian scienceshould be well worth the eort. And, librarians nd themselves expectedto manage increasingly technical projects to achieve their goals of deliver-ing valuable information to their ever-growing user base. It is a challengethatmustbematchedwithpractical skills.The key is goodproject planningand riskmanagement for success in aproject-based information technologyenvironment.The range of skills needed is expanding, and there is a short-age of experienced sta for digital library and digitization projects.There-fore, there is a need to nurture talent and transferable skills to ensure thatskills are developed in a supportive environment with sucient trainingopportunities made available in a holistic way.There needs to be a cohesiveapproach for taking up digitization work at Indias local, regional, and na-tional levels. It is important to knowand share the experiences of thosewho

    308 U. MUJOO-MUNSHI

  • have already undertaken such activities in their organizations.This will beof immense help for determining particulars before initiating a project.This will also help overcome the bottlenecks that agencies have encoun-tered during and before the execution of the digitization projects.Thus, weavoid that all too common pratfall of re-inventing the wheel.

    BUILDINGDIGITALRESOURCES 309

    Building Digital Resources: Creating Facilities at INSAIntroductionIT Infrastructure, Campus LAN and Internet Facilities at INSABuilding a Digital Resource BaseCreation of recordsBibliographic recordsDatabase of serials received in the INSA libraryOther databasesDatabase of e-resources acquired in the libraryExpert database

    Other specialized databasesScience education initiativeDatabase of publications received under publication exchange programDatabase of video collection of eminent scientists

    Digital resources acquisitionAccess to digital resourcesValue-added e-servicesCD-ROM-based search services through CD-net systemScientific output evaluation service

    Provision for access to J-GateJ-Gate customized services offer:

    Buying and providing access to online journalsProvision of bibliographic/abstract/full article servicesAccess to DELNET databases

    Digital Initiatives: Conversion of Existing Print Media into Digital FormatINSAs initiativesDigitization of library recordsDigitization of fellowship recordsIndian journal server initiativeBuilding a digital resource-base of science and technology journals and hosting them online(1) Objectives(2) INSA publications(3) Training(4) Converting from print to digital(a) Organization of data(b) Software(c) Retrieval interface (web-based browse and search capability)(d) Outsourcing of the job(e) Financial support(f) Expected output(g) Present status

    Digital initiatives in pipelineBiographical memoirsFellows of the Indian National Science Academy (1935-93): Diamond Jubilee CompendiumBooks and monographsCreating and hosting science and technology publications of other organizationsDissertations and thesis

    Other initiatives

    Conclusion

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