Buddhist Thought in Tibet

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Un studiu istorico-religios despre sistemul teologico-filosofic al budismului tibetan

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  • Buddhist Thought in Tibet: an Historical Introduction

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    PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2015. All RightsReserved. Under the terms of the l icence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in OxfordHandbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy).Subscriber: OUP-Reference Gratis Access; date: 13 November 2015

    PrintPublicationDate: May2011

    Subject: Philosophy,Non-WesternPhilosophy

    OnlinePublicationDate: Sep2011

    DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195328998.003.0023

    BuddhistThoughtinTibet:anHistoricalIntroduction MatthewT.KapsteinTheOxfordHandbookofWorldPhilosophyEditedbyWilliamEdelglassandJayL.Garfield

    OxfordHandbooksOnline

    AbstractandKeywords

    TheintellectualhistoryofTibetanBuddhismisonlyimperfectlyunderstood.Althoughabundantnewtextualsourceshavebeendiscoveredinrecentdecades,itwilltakesometimebeforescholarshaveassimilatedthisgrowingdocumentation,which,consideringonlywhatispertinenttothehistoryofphilosophicalthought,amountstomanythousandsofindividualworkscomposedoveramillennium.ThisarticletouchesuponselectedtopicsthatarenowgenerallyagreedtobeofimportanceforthehistoryofTibetanBuddhistthoughtoverall.ItdiscussesthebeginningsofTibetanBuddhism,theformationofthemajorBuddhisttraditions,Tibetanscholasticism,Buddha-natureandtheluminosityofmind,andTsongkhapaandhiscritics.Keywords:TibetanBuddhistphilosophy,TibetanBuddhism,Tibetanscholasticism,Buddha-nature,Tsongkhapa

    THEintellectualhistoryofTibetanBuddhismisonlyimperfectlyunderstood.Althoughabundantnewtextualsourceshavebeendiscoveredinrecentdecades,itwilltakesometimebeforescholarshaveassimilatedthisgrowingdocumentation,which,consideringonlywhatispertinenttothehistoryofphilosophicalthought,amountstomanythousandsofindividualworkscomposedoveramillennium.Accordingly,wecandonomoreherethantofurnishaconciseintroduction,touchinguponselectedtopicsthatarenowgenerallyagreedtobeofimportanceforthehistoryofTibetanBuddhistthoughtoverall.

    TheBeginningsofTibetanBuddhism:ItsIndian,Chinese,andIndigenousSourcesTraditionconsidersBuddhismtohavebeenfirstadoptedinTibetbythemonarchSongtsenGampo(Srong-btsansgam-po,reignedca.617650),whounifiedhisnationandsetitonthepathofimperialexpansioninCentralAsia.HisChineseandNepalesebridesaresaidtohaveencouragedthekingandhiscourttoadheretotheBuddha'steaching.Nevertheless,thereislittleevidencethatthenewreligionhadmuchsuccessinTibetuntiltheearlyeighthcentury,whenanotherChineseprincess,(p.246) Jincheng(d.739),marriedSongtsen'sdescendantTriDetsuktsen(KhriLde-gtsug-btsan,reigned712755)andsponsoredamonasticcommunityfromKhotan,aBuddhiststatethenunderTibetanrule.Despitethisroyalsupport,ananti-BuddhistreactiononthepartofnobleswhofavorednativeTibetanreligioustraditions(laterreferredtoingeneralasBn)ledtotheexpulsionoftheKhotanesemonksfollowingtheprincess'sdeath.

    ItwasTriDetsuktsen'ssonandheir,TriSongdetsen(KhriSrong-lde-btsan,reigned755ca.797),whofirmlyadoptedBuddhismasthereligionofhisdynastyandcommittedconsiderablestateresourcestoitspromotion.Severaloftheedictspromulgatedbythisremarkablerulersurvive,andinthemwefindindicationsofhisunderstandingofandinterestinBuddhistdoctrine.Hewrites,forinstance,that

    Allthosewhoarebornandrevolveamongthefoursortsofbirth, frombeginninglessoriginstotheinfiniteend,becomeastheyareowingtotheirowndeeds(karman).Thatwhichisneithergoodnorevilisunspecified.

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    Theresultofwhatonedoestoanotherripensupononeself.Onemaybebornasagodamongtheheavenlystages,orasahumanonearth,orasananti-god,ahungryghost,ananimalorasubterraneancreatureofthehellsallborninthesesixhavedonesoowingtotheirowndeeds.

    TranscendingtheworldarethosewhobecomeBuddhas,andthosewhomakeprogressasbodhisattvas,self-awakenedones(pratyekabuddha),andpiousattendants(rvaka)allofthemhavedonesoowingtotheprovisionsofmeritandgnosisthattheythemselveshaveamassed.

    BesidestheadherencetoBuddhistnormativedoctrinethatisevidenthere,itisstrikingthatTriSongdetsenwasparticularlyinterestedinthemeanswherebywemayknowthetruthofreligiousclaims.Forhegoesontosay:

    IfoneinvestigateswhatisfoundintheDharma[theBuddha'steaching],somepointsareimmediatelyevidentintheirgoodorevilconsequences,whileothersthatarenotimmediatelyevidentmayneverthelessbeinferredonthebasisofthosewhichare,andsoarealsofittobeheldwithcertainty.

    Inotherwords,hewasfamiliarwith,andsoughttointroducehissubjectsto,theviewoftheIndianBuddhistepistemologiststhatknowledgemayhavetwovalidsources(prama):directperception(pratyaka)ofwhatisevidenttothesensesandintellectualintuition,andinference(anumna)ofwhatishidden,thatis,notdirectlyevident.

    TriSongdetsenestablishedTibet'sfirstfull-fledgedmonastery,calledSamy(Bsam-yas),inabout779,whichhousedanimportanttranslationacademy.Itsscholars,includingTibetansandforeignBuddhistmonks,renderedlargenumbers(p.247) ofIndianBuddhistscripturesandtreatisesfromSanskritintoTibetanandachievedanoutstandinglevelofaccuracy,animportantresultofwhichwastheformationofawell-standardizedphilosophicalvocabularyinTibetan.TheprojectofcreatinginthiswayacanonicalliteraturewascontinuedunderTriSongdetsen'ssuccessors,untilthecollapseofthedynastyduringthemid-ninthcentury,bywhichtimemanyhundredsofIndianreligiousandphilosophicaltextswereavailableinTibetanversions.Atthesametime,TibetantranslatorsalsobegintoauthormanualsintroducingthenewvocabularytogetherwithelementsofBuddhistthought.Someoftheseworksarenotablyphilosophical,suchasthetreatiseentitledDistinctionsofViews(Ltaba'ikhyadpar)bytherenownedninth-centurytranslatorYesh-d(Ye-shes-sde),inwhich,forexample,hesummarizesakeyargumentoftheMadh-yamakaschool:

    InaccordancewiththesystemformulatedbycryaNgrjuna,allouterandinnerentitiesareexplainedtobeinterdependentlyoriginated.Relatively,becausetheyhavearisenfromcauseandcondition,theyexistjustapparitionally,whereasultimately,entitiesarewithoutproduction,[asisdemonstrated]bythefourfoldproofthatstatesthattheyarenotbornfromself,other,both,orcauselessly.

    Notbornfromselfmeanspreciselynotbornfromitself.Forifentitieswerebornfromthemselves,theywouldhavetobesaidtobebornfromaselfwhoseowncoming-into-beingwascompleted,orelsefromonethathasnotcomeintobeing.Ontheonehand,wereitbornfromwhathadalreadycomeintobeing,itcouldneverbethecasethatitdoesnotcomeintobeing,andthisleadstoanendlessregression.Butontheotherhand,wereitbornfromwhathadnotcomeintobeing,thentherabbit'shornandthebarrenwoman'ssonmightalsocomeintobeing! Therefore,itisnotbornfromself.

    Itisalsonotbornfromother,forthatimpliesthefaultofeverything'scomingintobeingfromeverything.Norisitbornfrombothselfandother,forinthatcasebothoftheaforementionedfaultsarecombined.Neitherisitborncauselessly,forinthatcasetherearethesefaults:itwouldalwaysarisewithdependenceonanythingatall,everythingwouldemergefromeverything,andallpurposefulundertakingswouldbefruitless.

    Thus,becausethebirthoftheentityisnotestablished,thereforetherecanbenobirth.Birth-talkisnomorethanconventionalutterance.

    TibetanthinkersthusbegantobecomefamiliarwiththemajortraditionsofIndianBuddhistphilosophy:Vaibhika,Sautrntika,Yogcra,andMadhyamaka.Yesh-drecognizedtwomaindivisionsofthelatter:one,followingBhvaviveka,adheredtoSauntrntikaconventionsintheirtreatmentofrelativereality,whiletheother,followingntarakita,adoptedtheidealistapproachoftheYogcra.BothwouldbelaterclassifiedasdivisionsoftheSvtantrika-Mdhyamika,theschool(p.248) thatsoughttodemonstratethethesisofuniversalemptinessbymeansofdirect,orautonomous,proof.ThePrsagika-Mdhyamika,whichfavoredindirectproofandwouldlaterbecomethedominanttrendinTibetanMadhyamakathought,wasasyetunknown.

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    Duringthesameperiod,ChineseBuddhismmadeinroadsinpartsoftheTibetanworld.TeachersaffiliatedwiththeteachingofChan(meditation,orZeninJapanese)introducedTibetanstotheideathatenlightenment,orawakening,wasimmediately,intuitivelypresent,withoutstrivingfornumberlesslifetimesasthemainstreamofIndianBuddhismaffirmed.ThisledtoaprotracteddisputeinTibetbetweenpartisansofsuddenversusgradualenlightenment,theformersometimesassociatedwithateachingofmysticalintuition,andthelatterwiththemethodicalapplicationofreasonedanalysis.Thecontroversyresurfacedrepeatedlyinlatertimesowingtoitsimplicationsforconceptsofourprospectsforspiritualprogressand,indeed,ourverynature:areweessentiallyflawedcreatures,forwhomself-perfectionisafardistantgoal,orarewe,andallcreatures,alreadyinfactBuddhas?Doesthelatterpositionentailakindofgnosticism,accordingtowhichignoranceandknowledgeareallthatreallymatter,andmoraleffortmerelyanillusion?

    TraditionalsourcesrecountthatthefirstactualdebateovertheseissuestookplaceatSamyduringthelateeighthcentury,andthatthedisputantsweretheChineseChanmasterMoheyanandtheIndianphilosopherKamalala.Theaccountsthathavecomedowntousaremostlylate,andtendtocaricaturetheChanperspective:

    WhenmasterKamalalaaskedforhisopponent'sposition,saying,WhatistheChinesereligioustraditionlike?theChineseresponded,Yourreligioustradition,beginningwithgoingforrefugeandthecultivationofanenlightenedattitude,isanascentfrombelow,likeamonkeyclimbingatree.BecauseonewillnotbeawakenedasaBuddhabysuchcontriveddoctrines,itisinthistraditionofours,havingmeditativelycultivatedthenonconceptual,thatonebecomesawakenedbyrealizingthenatureofminditself.Sothisisliketheeagle'salightingfromtheskyuponthetopofatree;itisapurepanaceabecauseitisadoctrinethatthusdescendsfromonhigh.

    Tothisthemastersaid,Yourexampleanditssignificancearebothinvalid.Fortheeaglealightsuponthetree,eitherspontaneouslygeneratedintheskywithitswingsfullygrown,orborninitseyrie,whereitswingshavegraduallymatured.Onlythendoesitalight.Thefirstisanimpossibilityandthesecondshouldbeagradualistexample,butisinappropriateasanexampleofsuddenenlightenment.

    Thoughthisexchangemaybeapiousfiction,itdoesreflecttheimportantrole,inheritedfromIndiansystemsofargument,ofexemplificationandcounterexampleintheacceptedproceduresofreasoning.Atthesametime,itunderscoresthegreatgulfthatseparatedrationalistfromintuitionistapproachestoBuddhistinsight.

    (p.249) ThecurrentsenteringTibetfromIndiaandChinaprovokeddynamicresponses,bothharmoniousandhostile,onthepartofindigenousTibetantraditionsaswell.ItwasthisprocessthatgavebirthtothenativereligionofBn(Bon),which,fromaboutthetenthcenturyon,establisheditsownmonasticcommunitiesandscripturalcanons,inmanyrespectsresemblingthoseofBuddhism.Nevertheless,theelaborationofBnliterarytraditionsalsoencouragedeffortstogivewrittenformtoautochthonoustechniquesandbeliefs.ThoughBonthinkersoftenusedtheBuddhistphilosophicalapparatus,theyalsodevelopedanalmostanthropologicalinterestindocumentingthepracticalmeanswherebyTibetanshavetraditionallyinteractedwiththenaturalworld,seenasanabodeofbenignandmalignantspirits.Here,atwelfth-centuryauthorsummarizesthepriestlywayoftherealmofappearance(snang-gshen):

    Thefourgatesofincantationarethegateofworshipofthedivinespirits,thegateofexpulsionandcleansing,thegateofliberationandransom,andthegateofcreation,fortuneandpower.[]Oneenters[thispriestlyway]unerringly,inaccordwiththechantsofthanksgivingandthemethodsofplayingthedrum.

    Asforpracticalaction:becauseallthatappearsandcomesintobeingispresentasgodsanddemons,inordertodealwithobstaclesandspirits[]oneamassesthestipulatedrequisitesandritualitems.Havingdistinguishedbetweenbeneficialdeitiesandharmfulspirits,onebeseechesthedeitiestofulfillone'sfinalpurposes,andoffersarefugeasbefitsthelordsandpatronsofthepriesthood.

    Intime,theancienttraditionsreflectedhere,whichsoughtnottranscendence,butinsteadamasteryoftheforcesinheringinthephenomenalworld,wouldbecomepartandparcelofTibetanBuddhistthoughtandpracticeaswell.Inclinationstowardholismandaviewoftheworldastheplayofdivineandquasi-divineenergieswouldberegularlyreassertedthroughoutthehistoryofTibetanreligiousthought.Thus,esoteric(ortantric)Buddhism,withitsemphasisonritualagencyanditsphilosophicalgroundingintheMahynaconceptionoftheultimateidentityofworldlyexistence(sasra)andtranscendentpeace(nirva),introducednotjustanIndianpantheon,butembracedalsothenativegodsanddemonsofTibet.

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    TheFormationoftheMajorBuddhistTraditionsThecenturyorsofollowingthecollapseoftheTibetanempireistraditionallyrememberedasadarkage,whenBuddhismwassuppressedandlearningandletterswerenomore.Althoughrecentscholarshipshowsthistobemuchexaggerated,translationactivityandthescholarshipassociatedwithitwereseverely(p.250) reduceduntiltheendofthetenthcentury,whentheWestTibetankingdomofGugbegantopatronizeBuddhistartandlearningonalargescaleonceagain.Henceforth,conditionsfavoringdoctrinalandphilosophicalinvestigationsgraduallyreemerged.

    Centraltothisrevivalwasthelong,influentialsojournoftheBengalischolarandsaintDpakararjna,betterknownasAtia,firstinGug(10421045)andthenincentralTibetuntilhisdeathin1054.AtiasoughttoemphasizeabovealltheethicalgroundingofMahynaBuddhism,andhisteachingsbecamethebasisforsubsequentTibetaneducationwithrespecttotheMahynapath,includingthesubstantialliteratureontrainingthemind,orspiritualexercise(blo-sbyong).Theessentialframeworkforinstructioninthisareawasamoralanthropologythatrecognizedthreegradesofaspirant,asdefinedbyAtiainhiswidelyreadLamponthePathofEnlightenment(Bodhipathapradpa):

    WhoeverbywhatevermeansstrivesforhisownsakeOnlyforsasra'spleasuresthatoneisthelesserperson.Turninghisbacktoworldlypleasure,andshunningsinfuldeeds,Thesoulwhostrivesforhisownpeaceiscalledthemiddlingperson.Onewho,owingtothepainofhisownexistence,wholeheartedlyseekstoendAllthepainofothersthatisthesuperiorperson.

    Atia'soverridingconcerntoencouragethepracticeofsuchsuperiorpersonsisevident,too,inhisreservewithrespecttoaspectsofphilosophicalactivity.WhilehepromotedthestudyofMadhyamaka,andinparticulartheworkofCandrakrti,hewishedtoemphasizemeditationonemptinessasanecessarycomponentofthepathofpractice,andnotdialecticalreasoningperse.Thus,hefamouslywrote:

    [Investigationsof]perceptionandinferenceareunnecessary.Theyhavebeenformulatedbythelearnedtorefutethedisputationsofextremists.

    Nevertheless,ananalysisofthephenomenaofeverydayexperienceisessential,soastoarriveattheinsightthat:

    Thereisneitherseeingnorseer,butpeacewithoutbeginningorend,Abandoningsubstantialityandinsubstantiality,freefromconceptions,freefromobjectives,Neitheranabode,northatwhichabides,nocomingorgoing,unexemplified,Ineffable,nottobeviewed,unchanging,uncompounded(p.251) Iftheadeptrealizesthat,theaffectiveandcognitiveobscurationsareabandoned.

    Inbrief,Atia,followingCandrakrtiinwhatbecameknownasthePrsagika-Mdhyamika(theMadhyamakaschoolthatadmitsonlyindirectproof,prasagainSanskrit),heldthatrelative,orostensiblereality(savtisatya),isbestdescribedinaccordwiththeconventionsofeverydaylanguage.Thespecialroleofphilosophicaldiscourseisnotsystembuilding,butthecriticismofourassumptionsaboutreality,dismantlingthemuntilwearriveattheprofoundrealizationofemptiness.

    Atia'sdisciplesestablishedadistinctivemonasticorder,calledKadampa(Bka'-gdams-pa),meaningtheadherentsofthecanonandpracticalinstructionsoftheMahyna.Duringthesameperiod,anumberofotherneworderswerefoundedthatwouldsimilarlyshapethelaterhistoryofTibetanBuddhism.ForemostamongthemweretheKagypa(Bka'-brgyud-pa)adherentsoftheorallineage,stemmingfromthefollowersofthetranslatorandtantricadeptMarpaChkiLodr(Mar-paChos-kyiblo-gros,10121096),andtheSakyapa(Sa-skya-pa)adherentsofSakya,referringtothemonasticcenterfoundedbythearistocraticKhnfamilyin1071.Thedifferencesamongtheseandothercontemporaneousordersreflectedprimarilydifferinglineagesandtraditionsofesotericritualandyogaratherthanphilosophyanddoctrine,thoughastheydevelopedthroughthegenerationstheyalsobegantoelaboratedistinctivedoctrinalpositions,aswillbeseenbelow.Atthesametime,linesofteachingthattracedtheirantecedentsbacktotheearlierimperialperiodsoughttoretaintheirdistinctidentityoverandagainstthenewerorders,andsocametobeknownasNyingmapa(Rnying-ma-pa),theAncients.Thelatter,togetherwiththeBn,consideredthehighestrealizationstobeembodiedbytheGreatPerfection(rdzogschen),asystemofabstractcontemplationthatwassometimesattackedasaresurgenceoftheChanteachingofsuddenenlightenment.TheKagypa,fortheirpart,promulgatedtheMahmudrthegreatsealdelimiting

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    theparametersofallpossibleexperienceanesotericapproachtomeditationthat,insomeofitsformsatleast,becametheobjectofsimilarcriticism.Bothofthesesystems,however,servedasimportantstimuliforlaterdoctrinalinvestigations.

    TibetanScholasticismFromthelateeleventhcenturyonward,TibetanmonasticcollegesemphasizedahighlyrationalizedapproachtoBuddhistdoctrine,overandagainstonedominatedprimarilybyfaith.AttheforefrontofthisdevelopmentwasthecollegeofSangpu(p.252) (Gsang-phu),establishedin1073byoneofAtia'sforemostdisciples,NgokLekpSherab(RngogLegs-pa'ishes-rab),whosenephewNgokLodenSherab(RngogBlo-ldanshes-rab,10591109)wasresponsibleforitspreeminenceinphilosophicaleducation.TheyoungerNgokwasanexcellentscholarofSanskrit,whostudiedBuddhistphilosophyinKashmirandwho,despiteAtia'sreservations,wasmuchinspiredbytherigorofIndianepistemologicaltheories.Thecurriculumheformulatedrequiredthecarefulstudyofphilosophicalwritings,withtheepistemologicalandlogicalworksofDharmakrti(c.600)supplyingthemajormethodologicalorgan.OtherrequiredtopicsincludedthemonasticcodeorVinaya(dul-ba),themeta-doctrineorAbhidharma(chos-mngon-pa),thePerfectionofWisdomorPrajpramit(phar-phyin),andtheteachingoftheMiddleWay(dbu-ma),thatis,theMadhyamakadialecticoftheIndianphilosopherNgrjuna.Henceforth,thiswouldbecomethecorecurriculumofTibetanmonasticcolleges,regardlessoftheordertowhichonebelonged.

    InstructionatSangpuemphasizedthepracticeofdebate.PrecisedefinitionofkeytermsandtheunderstandingoftheirrelationswithregardtoanumberofbasiclogicaloperationsformedthefoundationsoftheTibetandebatelogic.Relationsamongtermsweredefinedintermsofinvariableconcomitance,orpervasion(Skt.vypti),atechnicalconceptderivedfromIndianlogicthatreferstotheextensionofterms(i.e.,whatthetermcovers).Whentwotermsaremutuallypervasivetheycoverthesameground,aswewouldsaycolloquiallytheyaretreatedhereassynonyms.Understandingsuchrelationswhethertermsaresynonyms,contradictories,orcontrariesallowsonetodrawouttheirimplications.Whatthissystemofreasoninginfactseekstodoistoexploretheimplicationsofthetermsproposeduntilonearrivesattherecognitionthatone'sinitialpremiseswereinconsistentorotherwisedefective,orelseonereachesthosefundamentalassumptionsthatmustbeacceptedasintuitivelyvalid,withoutfurtherpossibilityofdispute.Thedebateisthusatonceaninquirythatseekstoarriveatsoundandvalidconclusionsandatthesametimeagame,inwhichonedeploysallthedialecticalskillonecanmusterwiththesoleobjectiveofdefeatingone'sopponent.Inthisrespect,thedebatebecomesalsoadramaticperformance,inwhichexaggeratedmovements,verbaltricks,andsometimeshumorousasidesaredeployedtodrivehomethepoint.

    Eachargumentispartofalargerdiscussionandintroducesfurtherpossiblelinesofinquiry,inaccordwiththeoverallarchitectureoftheBuddhistphilosophicaledifice.Ontheanalogyofagame,theindividualargumentmaybeseenasasingleroundorinnings.Thedialecticalmethodthatisemployedhereisoftendescribedasathreefoldprocedure,consistingof,first,arefutationoferroneouspositions(dgag),followedbythedefinitionofthepositiononewishestodefend(bzhag),and,finally,therefutationofchallengestothatposition(spong).Asthedebatersdeveloptheirskillthroughpractice,likechessplayerswhothriveonconstantcompetition,theypursuetheanalysisoftheentirerangeoftopicstreatedinthemonasticcurriculum,examininginfulldetailtheconceptsoffundamentalreality,thepathtospiritualawakening,andthenatureoftheBuddha'senlightenmentitselfasthesewere(p.253) elaboratedinthefourprincipalschoolsofIndianBuddhistphilosophymentionedabove.Thepracticeaimstosharpenanddeepenone'ssenseoftheconceptualrelationsamongBuddhistideas,andsoreinforcesareadyfamiliaritywiththeconceptualschemeasawhole,fixingitasone'swayofspontaneouslyengagingwiththeworld.

    TheSangpucurriculumwasrefinedbyasuccessionofbrilliantteachers,includingChapaChkiSengg(Phya-paChos-kyiseng-ge,11091169),whoisoftencreditedwithgivingdefinitiveformtothesystemofdebatelogicoverall.OneofthescionsofSakya,famedasSakyaPaita(11821251),alsoreceivedhisearlyphilosophicaleducationatSangpu,andthen,after1204,continuedhisstudieswiththeKashmirimasterkyarbhadra,whoarrivedinTibetaccompaniedbyanentourageofIndianscholars.SakyaPaitawasoneofanumberofTibetanclericswhowereinspiredbythisopportunitytolearndirectlyfromknowledgeableIndianteachersandheappliedhimselftomasteringSanskritgrammarandotheraspectsofIndiclearning,atrainingthatwouldlendanotablyIndologicalperspectivetohisscholarshipinlateryears.Inhistreatise,theScholar'sGate(Mkhas-pajug-pa'isgo),hesetsforthageneralprogramrepresentinghisscholarlyideals,detailingatriviumbasedonthemasteryofcomposition,rhetoric,anddebate.

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    IndiantraditionsoflogicandepistemologyfiguredprominentlyamongSakyaPaita'smajorconcerns.HiskeycontributionsincludedthefinalredactionoftheTibetantranslationofDharmakrti'smasterwork,thePramavrttika,andhisownsynthesisofIndianBuddhistepistemology,theTreasuryofEpistemology(Tshad-marigs-gter),whichenjoysasingularlyextensivecommentarialtradition.Inotherwritingshecommentedatlengthoncurrentdoctrinaldebates,voicingtrenchantcriticismsofvariousdevelopmentsinTibet.Amonghisforemosttargetswasthenotionofsuddenenlightenment,whichheoftencharacterizedastheChineseGreatPerfection(rgya-nagrdzogs-chen).Buthefoundmanyotherissuestobeproblematicaswell,includingtheclaimsofeverydaylanguagephilosophy:

    Somesophists,conformingwithmasterCandrakrti,establishtherelativeasaccordingwithordinaryworldlyconventions,andtheysaythat,thoughtheindividualmaynotbeaworldling,heneverthelessengages[inactivity]conformingtotheunanalyzed,unexaminedengagementofaworldlymind.Butifthisbeexamined[intermsof]thelogicandepistemologyofconventionalsigns,itis[showntobe]unsound.For,toamindthathasnotinvestigatedthem,therearenoengagementsinvolving[well-formednotionsof]perception,inference,proof,eliminationoftheexclusion, andsoon,andthereforetheentireorderofepistemiccriteriaandtheiropposites,thatareexplainedintheseventreatises[ofDharmakrti],arebroughttodecline.Ifyouwishtofollowthosewhothusaffirmaworldlyphilosophy,then[youarealreadyrefuted],becauseamong(p.254) theobjectsofknowledge[youmayadmit]thereareonlyentitiesandnonentities,andamongtheentitiesonlyinanimatematterandawareness,andeverywayofaffirminginanimatematterhasalreadybeenrefuted,while,asforawareness,exceptforMindOnlynothingelseissound.

    Inshort,everydayconventionsareinevitablyunsustainable.Toelaborateasoundapproachtorelativerealitysomesystembuildingmustbecountenanced,eventhough,likeeverydaydiscourse,thiswillultimatelygivewayundertheassaultoftheMadhyamakadialectic.

    ThetraditionsofSangpuandSakyawerelargelyresponsibleforthecontent,style,andmethodofsubsequentTibetanBuddhistscholasticism,whichcametobecharacterizedbyclosestudyofthemajorIndianBuddhistphilosophersNgrjuna,Asaga,andDignga,andtheircommentatorsCandrakrti,Vasubandhu,andDharmakrti,aboveallrigorousadherencetothecanonsofargument,andpreciseandelegantuseoflanguage.Nevertheless,despitetheresultingedificationofexegeticalsystemsinwhichtheBuddha'steachingwassubjecttothoroughgoingrationalization,skepticalundercurrentsstillsometimesrosetothesurface.Thus,thesecondKarmapahierarch,KarmaPakshi(12061283),authoredacatalogueofdisputedopinions,inwhichhewrites:

    Itisheldthatsasrahasabeginningandend,anditisheldthatsasraiswithoutbeginningorend.Itisheldthatmindsareofidenticalnaturethroughoutallsasraandnirva,anditisheldthatallmindsareofdifferingnatures.Itisheldthatsentientbeingsarenewlyproduced,anditisheldthatsentientbeingsarenotnewlyproduced.Butwhateversuchtenetswhethergood,bad,ormediocreonemightharborarethecausesofgood,bad,ormediocre[conditionsof]sasra.Theyaredevoidofthelife-forceofnirva.Therefore,whatevertenets,hankeringsorparticularphilosophicalpositionsyouhold,theycauseyoutobebuddhaless,andmakeyoumeetwithsasra.Youshouldknowinthiswaythewholemassoftenets,[eachone]inparticular.

    Buddha-NatureandtheLuminosityofMindThefourteenthcenturysawdeepeninginterestintopicsassociatedwiththeso-calledthirdturnofthedoctrinalwheel:Buddha-natureorthematrixofthetathgata(tathgatagarbha),theconsciousnessoftheground-of-all(layavijna),andtheluminosityofmind(cittaprabhsa)foremostamongthem.Therecanbelittledoubtthattheefforttoelaboratesatisfactoryintellectualframeworksfortheinvestigationoftheseandrelatedtopicsreceiveditsimpetusinpartfromthespreadof(p.255) contemplativeandyogictechniques,whichmadeuseofthesesameconceptsinthepracticalcontextofspiritualdisciplines.ThepresenceofsimilarterminologyinsomebranchesoftheIndianscholasticliteratureandincertainofthestrasledagrowingnumberofscholarstoarguethatthehighestteachingsoftheBuddhaweretobefoundinsuchtextsandtoelaborateanexegeticalprograminsupportofthatposition.ThedebatestowhichthisgaverisebecamesomeofmosthotlycontestedareasofTibetanBuddhistthought,andamongtherichestintermsoftherangeofperspectivesthatemerged.Astrongcurrentofidealistinfluencemaybedetectedinmanyauthors,thoughmost,whowerewellawareofthecritiquesofidealismonthepartoftheIndianMadhyamakaphilosophers,steeredclearofanycommitmenttotheultimateviabilityofmetaphysicalidealism.

    TheeffortsexpendedbyIndianBuddhistwritersinordertodistinguishtheteachingsoflayavijnaand

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    tathgatagarbhafromvariousdoctrinesofself(tmavda)demonstratethattheywerefelttobeproblematicalmostfromthetimethattheywerefirstintroduced.D.S.Ruegghasarguedthatinterpretiveapproachestothemexhibitedtwobroadtendencies:ontheonehandtherewerethosewhosoughttoshowthatthedoctrinesinquestionwerenotliterallyintended,butregardedasderivingfromasoteriologicalstrategytailoredfortheneedsofthosenotyetreadytoapprehendthegenuinepurportoftheBuddha'steaching;andontheothertherewerethosewhomaintainedthattheyhadbeensointended,addingonlythattheirproperrelationshipwithotherdiscoursesontheabsolute,especiallytheconceptofemptiness,hadtobeunderstoodcorrectly. Itwasthislatterapproachthatwasmostobviouslyproblematic,asitseemedtosuggestthat,onceemptinesswascomprehended,therewasneverthelesssomethingmoretobeknown.

    TheThirdKarmapaRangjungDorj(Karma-paRang-byung-rdo-rje,12841339)wasoneofthemostinfluentialfiguresinconnectionwiththedevelopmentswithwhichweareconcerned.Hisviewsaresetforthinhiscelebratedtreatise,ProfoundInnerMeaning(Zabmonangdon),summarizedhereintheremarksofJamgnKongtrl(Jam-mgonKong-sprul,18131899):

    Thatreality,orsuchness,thatisthegroundofallsasraandnirva,isreferredtobymanynames,suchastheprimordial,indestructible,greatseminalpoint,Prajpramit,inborngnosis,andordinarycognition.Whenitisstirredbytheagitatingvitalenergyofintellect,extraneousthoughtsgrowactive.Owingtotheappearanceofdichotomizedphenomena,oneadoptstheconvention[ofdistinguishingbetween]thegnosisoftheground-of-all(layajna)andtheconsciousnessoftheground-of-all(layavijna).

    Regardingthegnosisoftheground-of-all:itisbuddha-nature,andinthePrajpramitandtheUttaratantrastraitiscalledthenatureofmind.That,moreover,isthehomogeneouscausalbasisofnirva,andthedominantorappropriatingcausalbasisofsasra.Andbecauseitabideslatentlyintheconsciousnessoftheground-of-all,inthemannerofwaterandmilkmixed(p.256) together,thosewhoarebewilderedaboutthedefinitivesignificancedonotrecognizethegnosisoftheground-of-all,andmaintainthatthereareonlythesixaggregatesofconsciousness;andeveniftheymaintaintheretobeeightaggregates,theyapprehendtheground-of-allasconsciousnessalone.

    Passagessuchasthis,takenoutofcontext,mayleadonetosupposethatKarmapaRangjungDorjfavoredasubstanceontologysimilartothatsometimesassociatedwithidealisttraditions.OtherpassagesfromtheKarmapa'swork,however,suggestthatthefundamentalground,asheunderstoodit,wassomethingfarmorediaphanousthansomesortofmind-stuff.Indeed,intheversesinwhichhecomesclosesttocharacterizingitdirectly,hedeliberatelyundercutsthetendencytosubstantialism:

    Thecausalbasisismind-as-suchthatisbeginningless.Thoughitiswithoutinterruptionandimbalance,ThroughitsunimpededplayEmptyinessence,radiantinnature,unimpededinfeaturesItarisesasanythingwhatsoever.

    AndelsewherehedescribesthesignificanceofthegroundinthealtogethernormalMadhyamakatermsofuncompoundedreality,surpassingthought,neitherindicatedbyaffirmations,norrefutedbynegations.

    Thefiguremostoftenassociatedwithcontroversialontologicalspeculations,however,wasajuniorcontemporaryoftheKarmapa,DlpopaSherabGyeltsen(Dol-po-paShes-rab-rgyal-mtshan,12921361),whoseradicalteachingassertedthatemptinesswasnottheintrinsicnatureoftheabsolute,whichwasinfacttoberealizedasaplenitude.Itisthusonlyextrinsicallyempty,thatis,emptyofallthatconstitutesrelativereality:

    Theintentionistodistinguishintrinsicemptiness(rang-stong)fromextrinsicemptiness(gzhan-stong).Asforthosewhodonotdosoandwhosaythatallisonlyintrinsicemptiness,andthatemptinessisnotdeterminedintermsofextrinsicemptiness,butthatonlyintrinsicemptinessdeterminesemptiness,andwhomaintainthatall[theBuddha's]statementsthatultimatelythereisexistence,permanence,self,purityandtruthareofprovisionalmeaning,whileallstatementsofnonexistence,impermanence,non-self,impurityandrottennessareofdefinitivemeaning,andthatthe[]absolute,theultimatebodyofreality,theessentialbody,naturalluminosity,naturalcoemergence,naturalgreatbliss,the(p.257) naturallyinnate,naturalnirva,thenaturalandspontaneouslyachievedmaala,etc.,aswellasthenaturalabidingbuddha-familywithitsmanyclassifications,theultimatebuddha-natureendowedwithmanyattributes,etc.,areheldwithrespecttorealitybutthatrealityisitself

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    intrinsicallyemptytheseandmorearesomanyperverseviews,coarseandbadviews,withoutnumber.

    Dlpopa'sthinkingsparkedaprolongeddisputeandhewascondemnedinsomecirclesasatacitadherentoftheHinduteachingofthetman.Aftertheordertowhichheadhered,theJonangpa,wassuppressedbytheFifthDalaiLamaforpoliticalreasons,hiswritingswereevenbanned,andmanybelievedthesuppressionitselftobeduetoperceivedheresy.Nevertheless,Dlpopa'sinsistencethattheabsolutecouldnotbeconceivedasamerenothingnesshadtouchedasorenerveinTibetanBuddhistthought,sothathisteachinghasbeenrepeatedlyrevived,albeitwithvariousmodifications,downtothepresenttime.Hisworkhadmadeclearthegreatdifficultiesinvolvedinreconcilingtheteachingsofthethirdturn,asdescribedabove,withthoseofthesecondturn,thatis,thePerfectionofWisdomstraswiththeiremphasisonemptiness.Thenotededitorofthecanon,ButnRinchendrup(Bu-stonRin-chen-grub,12921364),forinstance,insistedagainstDlpopathattheBuddha'sdefinitiveteachingsweretobefoundjustthere,andnotinthethirdturn.Theirdisagreementinmattersofhermeneuticswasnotwithoutsignificantphilosophicalramifications.

    ThegreatinterestarousedbydiscussionsofluminosityandBuddha-naturemaybeseen,too,intheworkofLongchenRabjampa(Klong-chenRab-byams-pa,13081364),thegreatesttheoreticianoftheNyingmapateachingoftheGreatPerfection.Nowhereisthismoreevidentthaninhistreatmentoftheground(gzhi),thebasisfortheactualizationofthefruit(bras-bu)thatisbuddhahood.Inhisconceptionoftheemptinessoftheabsolute,heavoidsDlpopa'sposition,butisneverthelesssimilarlyconcernednottoembracewhatheregardsasthenihilistictendenciesofsomeTibetanscholars:

    Theprimordiallyluminousrealitythatisunconditionedandspontaneouslypresent,fromtheperspectiveofemptinessisinnowayestablishedasentityorcharacteristic,andsoisinnowaydividedintosasra,nirva,etc.,forwhichreasonitisfreefromallelaboratedextremes,likespace.Fromtheperspectiveoflucency,beingprimordiallyendowedwiththenatureofbodyandgnosis,thereisspontaneouspresenceandluminosity,likethemaalasofsunandmoon.

    Nowadays,mostoftheteachersandallofthehermitsalikemakeoutthegroundtobeabarevacuity,nothingatall,andthisdoesnotaccordwiththeintentionofthesignificanceofthematrix.Byexperientiallycultivatingagroundthatisnothingatall,thefruitofawakeningasbuddha,withallenlightenedattributes,willnotemerge,becausethetrioofground,path,andresulthasbeenconfounded.Thisisbecausetheawakenedbuddha,unconditionedandpossessingthespontaneouslypresentenlightenedattributes,isadisclosureofthe(p.258)resultofaseparation[ofadventitioustaintsfromtheprimordiallypureground].Here,ontheotherhand,itistheunconditionedandspontaneouslypresentluminositythatisheldtobetheground.Fromtheinherentstructureofsuchaground,whennotrecognizedasitis,therecomestobeunawareness.Duetothat,havingerrantlyconstructedtheapprehendingsubjectandapprehendedobject,oneturnsthroughthethreerealms.

    TsongkhapaandHisCriticsThefourteenthcenturywasinmanyrespectsthegoldenageofTibetanBuddhistphilosophy.Besidesthefiguresjustsurveyed,ahostofscholars,manyofwhomwereeducatedintheKadampaandSakyapatraditions,contributedtotheelaborationofeveryaspectofBuddhistthought,engenderinglivelycontroversiesinmostareas.Itbecamecustomaryforaspirantstomovefromonecentertoanother,studyingwithdifferentmastersandhoningtheirdebatingskillsontheway.OneofthosewhoenteredthisworldofitinerantscholarswasJTsongkhapaLozangDrakpa(RjeTsong-kha-paBlo-bzang-grags-pa,13571419).OriginallyfromthefarnortheasternTibetanprovinceofAmdo(modernQinghai),hecametocentralTibetasateenagerandpursuedrigorousstudieswithalltheforemostluminariesofthevariousorders.HisdedicationtotheKadampateachingoftheprogressivepathofthebodhisattvawassuchthatheandhissuccessorsoftencametobethoughtofasnewKadampa(bka-gdamsgsar-ma)andhistreatisetheGreatExpositionoftheStagesofthePath(lam-rimchen-mo)isrenownedasadefinitiveexpressionofthisapproach.FromhisSakyapateacher,RemdawaZhnuLodr(Red-mda'-baGzhon-nu-blo-gros,13491412),heacquiredaspecialconcernfortheinterpretationofthePrsagika-MdhyamikaphilosophyoftheIndianmasterCandrakrti,anditwasincollaborationwithRemdawathatheundertookhiscelebratedreformofthepracticeofthemonasticcode,orVinaya.HethoroughlyrejectedtheextrinsicemptinessdoctrineofDlpopa,regardingitasanextremerepresentativeofpersistentTibetanmisunderstandingsoftheYogcraphilosophyofIndia,and,thoughacceptingtheauthorityofthePrsagika-Mdhyamika,hedevelopedhisowndistinctiveinterpretationthereof,thatinmanyrespectswasnotanticipatedintheworkofRemdawaorearlierthinkers.IncontradistinctiontoAtia'sreservationswithregardtotheutilityofBuddhist

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    epistemology,forinstance,TsongkhapasoughttoforgeaviablesynthesisbetweenDharmakrti'sapproachtologicalanalysisandCandrakrti'sconceptionofthetwotruths.InTsongkhapa'sformulationofthelatter,(p.259) theabsolutedidnotoverrideconventionalreality,butinthehighestinsightonearrivedataseamlessintegrationofthetwo.Ashehimselfexpressedit:

    TheBuddha'srealizationisnotcomprehendedsolongastheinfallibleconditionalityofappearanceandemptiness-without-assertion arebothunderstoodasseparate.When[theyarise]simultaneously,withoutalternation,sothatinjustperceivingtheinfallibilityofconditionedoriginationallpositionsapprehendingtheascertainedobjectdissolve,atthattimetheanalysisofviewpointsisconcluded.

    Inshort,thoughdrawingonearliertradition,TsongkhapaformulatedanovelsynthesisoftheIndianBuddhistlegacy,stronglyemphasizingcarefultextualstudyandthedemandsoflogic.AfterfoundinghisownmonasticcenterofGandenin1409,hisfollowersgraduallycametobeestablishedasadistinctiveneworder,whicheventuallyadoptedthenameGelukpa(Dge-lugs-pa)andtowhichtheDalaiLamasadhere.

    TsongkhapaclearlyperceivedthatthemanycontestedtopicsintheBuddhismofhisdaycouldnotberesolvedbyappealingtoscripturalauthorityaloneandwrote:

    Ascripturalpassagewhichmerelysaysthis[text]isofthis[levelofmeaning]cannotestablishthattobeso,for,asthereisingeneralnosuchinvariableconcomitance[relatingstatementsoftheformgiventothelevelsofmeaningtowhichtheyrefer],themerestatement,this[scripture]isofthis[levelofmeaning]cannotproveaparticularinstanceofinterpretableordefinitivemeaning.

    Thewould-beinterpreteristhereforethrownbackontheoperationsofnaturalreasonifheistocutthroughtheconundrumsposedbydoctrinaltexts.

    InconnectionwiththePrsagika-Mdhyamikaphilosophy,inparticular,therewereprincipallyeightsuchconundrumsaboutwhichTsongkhapaproposednewsolutions.Oneofhischiefdisciples,Gyeltsab-j(Rgyal-tshab-rje,13641432),liststhemasfollows:

    (p.260) Inrelationtotheground:(12)thedenialsoftheground-of-allandtheself-markingparticular, and(3)theaffirmationofouterobjects.Inrelationtothepath:(45)thedenialsoftheautonomoussyllogism[i.e.directproof]andreflexiveawareness asthemeansforrealizingjustwhatisasitis,and(67)theaffirmationof[auniqueapproachtotheexplanationof]howthetwoobscurationsareestablishedandoftherealization,amongpiousattendantsandself-centeredbuddhas,oftheabsenceofthesubstantialnatureofprinciples. Andinrelationtotheresult:(8)[auniqueapproachtotheexplanationof]howtheBuddhacognizestheextensionofthings.

    Eachofthesetopicsiscomplex,andeachoccasionedextensivediscussion.Aswehaveseenaspectsoftheearliertreatmentoftheconsciousnessoftheground-of-all,someextractsofGyeltsab-j'scommentsonthismaybetakenasillustrative:

    Someholdthat,ifvirtuousorunvirtuousdeedsweretoabideuntilthematurationoftheresult,thentheywouldbepermanent,sothat[onewhoaffirmedthis]wouldfallintotheextremeofeternalism,whileif,ontheotherhand,thedeedthatwasperformedweretobeannihilatedinthesecondinstant,then,becausetheannihilatedcannotbeanentity,itcouldnotgeneratethematureresult,whereforecompleteddeedswouldvanishwithouttrace.

    Somerespondtothisargument,sayingthat,eventhoughthedeedbeannihilated,thereisagroundforthesuccessiveemergenceofthepotencyofthedeed,whichisconsideredtobetheground-of-all,whileothersaffirmthistobethecontinuousstreamofintellectualconsciousness.Andsomerespondbyholdingthat,eventhoughthedeedbeannihilated,thedeed'sacquisitionremainsinexistence,whileothersholdtheretobesomeotherprinciple,calledinexhaustion,thatislikethesealwitnessingadebt.Ourownresponseisthat,evenwithoutaffirminganyofthosefourpropositions,beginningwiththeground-of-all,itisimpliedthatthecompleteddeedwillnotvanishwithouttrace.Forevenifthose[fourtheories]arenotaffirmed,thereisnocontradictioninvolvedifweassumethatitistheannihilateddeedthatgeneratesaresult.If[ouropponentcounters,]saying,Unproven!Forwhatisannihilatedcannotbeanentity,then[werespondthat]thatisunproven,for,thoughtheannihilatedcannotbeanentityifyouaffirmtheself-markingparticular[tobethedefiningentity],wedonotaffirm

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    theself-markingparticularevenasamatterofconvention,whereforebothannihilatedandunannihilateddeedsareequivalentwithrespecttowhetherornottheyareentities.

    Tsongkhapa'ssolutiontotheproblemofkarmaandcausation,thattheannihilationordestruction(zhig-pa)ofathingcouldactinacausalstreamjustasdoesanentity,mayappeartobearabbitpulledfromthehatjustinordertopreservehissystem.This,indeed,ishowhiscriticsperceiveditand,togetherwithmanyotherof(p.261) thedistinctiveaspectsofhisthought,itwasuniversallyrejectedbythoseoutsideoftheGelukpaorderhehadfounded.Oneofhissharpestopponents,theSakyapaGorampaSonamSengg(Go-rams-paBsod-namsseng-ge,14291489),forinstance,arguedthatithadtheabsurdentailmentthatkarmaanditseffectsaredifferentsinceatthelevelofconventions,theyaresetofffromoneanotherbyanintermediary,namelydestructionquarealentity,justliketwomountainsthatfaceeachotheraresetofffromoneanotherbytheriver[thatrunsbetweenthem]. MuchofthelaterhistoryofBuddhistthoughtinTibet,infact,maybeinterpretedintermsofthecontinuingdebatebetweenTsongkhapa'scriticsanddefenders.Amongtheformer,besidesGorampa,particularlynotablephilosophersincludetheSakyapamasterSerdokPachen(Gser-mdogPa-chen,14281507)andtheEighthKarmapahierarchMikyDorj(Mi-bskyodrdo-rje,15071554),while,amongthelatter,SeraJetsnChkiGyeltsen(Se-rarje-btsunChos-kyirgyal-mtshan,14691546)isfamedforhisdetaileddefensesofTsongkhapa'sthinkingagainstallthreeofthecriticsmentionedhere.

    LaterDevelopmentsPoliticalturmoilinCentralTibetthroughoutmuchoftheseventeenthandeighteenthcenturies,intandemwithchangingrelationswithTibet'sMongolandManchuneighbors,contributedtoaremarkableshiftinTibet'sculturalgeography.WhereasCentralTibethadbeen,throughouttheprecedingcenturies,theunrivaledheartofTibetanreligiouslife,newcentersofintellectualandartisticactivitynowemergedinTibet'sfareasternregionsofAmdoandKham.Inthelatter,withthepatronageoftherulersofDerg(Sde-dge),KarmapaandSakyapamasterscontributedtothefoundationofTibet'sgreatestpublishinghouse,theDergPrintery,whichmadecanonicalandotherworkswidelyavailable.Atthesametime,theGelukpamonasteriesinAmdoforthefirsttimealsobecameimportantcentersoflearningintheirownright,forinstanceatKumbum(Sku-'bum),nearTsongkhapa'sbirthplacenotfarfromthecityofXining(QinghaiProvince),andLabrang(Bla-brang),foundedbyJamyangZhepa(Jam-dbyangs-bzhad-pa,16481721)insouthernGansu.ScholarsassociatedwiththeselattercenterswereoftennotethnicTibetans,andtheyfrequentlyenjoyedthepatronageoftheManchucourt,whichregardedTibetanBuddhismassupplyingaculturallinguafrancaforthepeoplesofInnerAsia.

    Theprominenceoftheeastinthisperiodisverywellillustratedinthelifeandworkofthegreateighteenth-centurymasterChangkyaRolpeiDorj(17171786).BornamongtheMonguorofQinghai,hewasidentifiedattheageoffourasthe(p.262) incarnationofafamouslamaandsenttoBeijingtobeeducatedatthecourt.TherehebecamethefastfriendofaManchuprince,wholatersucceededtothethroneastheemperorQianlong(reigned17361799),thegreatestoftheQingmonarchs.Changkyarosewithhisboyhoodfriendtobecometheempire'spreeminentBuddhistclergyman,aswellastheconfidanteandbiographeroftheSeventhDalaiLamaKelzangGyatso(Bskal-bzangrgya-mtsho,17081757).AsChangkya'swritingsmakeclear,headheredcloselytoTsongkhapa'sidealofreasoninseekingtoresolveforhimselftheconflictedpointsofBuddhistteaching.

    OneofChangkya'smostesteemedandpuzzlingworks,calledtheEpistemologicalPath(Tshadmalamrim),recordsadream-visioninwhichtherelationshipbetweenthesystematicstudyofDharmakrti'sepistemologyandprogressontheBuddhistpathissetoutingeneralterms.Changkya,byplacinghissketchofBuddhistrationalisminthecontextofadream-vision,effectivelyannulsthegulfseparatingreligiousexperiencefromreason.Inhisdream,avoiceinstructshim:

    YoumustreflectonyourunderstandingofDharmakrti,interminglingyourintellectualinsightwithyourpresentexperience:thesevariedpleasuresandpainsthatoccurtoyounowinthecourseofthingsareephemeraloccurrences.Thesepleasuresandpainsareexperientiallyproventooccuronthebasisofcausesandconditions.ThusyouarriveatthethoughtthattheBuddha'steachingsofimpermanence,suffering,andcausalityareestablishedbyreasonandverifiedexperientially.

    Hence,forChangkya,thereasonedinvestigationoftheteachingistobeintermingledwithone'sexperiences;itmustflowfrom,andinturninform,one'sengagementintheself-cultivationthatcharacterizestheBuddhistpath.

    Thepositionofthenon-GelukpaorderswasrelativelystrongerinKham,where,duringthenineteenthcentury,adynamic

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    movementoftencharacterizedaseclecticoruniversalist(ris-med)soughttodefusetheintensesectarianismthathadoftenplaguedTibetanBuddhism.TheencyclopedicwritingsofJamyangKhyen-tse(Jam-dbyangsMkhyen-brtse,18201892)andJamgnKongtrl(18131899)becameinsomerespectsanewcanonfortheadherentsofthismovement.Oneoftheirdisciples,MipamNamgyel(Mi-phamrnam-rgyal,18461912),alsoelaboratedanewscholasticcurriculumemphasizingthedoctrinalstandpointoftheNyingmapaorder,andengagedinwide-rangingdebateswithsomeofhisGelukpacontemporaries.Likehisteachers,however,MipamwasconvincedthattheTibetanBuddhistordershadmoreincommonthansectarianpolemicistswerereadilywillingtoadmit.Inasatiricalessay,afternotingsomeofthestrengthsandvulnerabilitiesofthefourmajororders,heconcludes:

    ThephilosophicalsystemsoftheteachinginTibetbeganatthetimeofthe[]thereligiousking[TriSongdetsen].Fromthatancientandexcellentlegacy,all[theTibetanorders]arealikeinaffirmingthefoursealsthatmarkthetransmittedpreceptsoftheteaching. Aboveandbeyondthat,theyallaffirmthe(p.263) greatunelaborateemptinessand,what'smore,alsoaffirmthevehicleofthetantras,[whichteaches]thecoalescenceofblissandemptiness.Because,then,inpointoffact,theirviewsandsystemsaresimilar,theyareexceedinglyclose.

    Inthinkingaboutotherfactions,[considerthat]amongnon-Buddhistsandbarbarians,withwhomwesharenoteventokensanddress,andwhoare[asnumerous]asnighttimestars,we,whoarejustafew,likedaytimestars,areapproachingthecompletionoftheteaching.Whilesomethingofitremains,thosewhohaveenteredintothedomainsoftheteachingwithcommonpurposeoughttocultivatetheperceptionthattheyaremostcloselyrelated.Becausemutualenmitywillbringruination,regardoneanotherasdoesamotherherchild,orasdoesabeggaratreasure,andsocultivateaperceptionofjoy.

    ThoughsectarianantagonismshaveremainedundiminishedamongsomeTibetans,theidealoftoleranceespousedherehasbecomewidespread,andinourtimesisembracedbyH.H.theFourteenthDalaiLama.

    BibliographyandSuggestedReadingsARGUILLRE,S.(2007)Vastesphredeprofusion,Klong-chenrab-byams(Tibet,13081364),savie,sonuvre,sadoctrine.OrientaliaAnalectaLovaniensa167.Leiden:Peeters.

    CABEZN,JOSEIGNACIO,andGESHELOBSANGDARGYAY.(2007)FreedomfromExtremes:Gorampa'sDistinguishingtheViewsandthePolemicsofEmptiness.Boston,MA:Wisdom.

    DEMIVILLE,P.(1952)LeconciledeLhasa:unecontroversesurlequitismeentrebouddhistesdel'IndeetdelaChineauVIII sicledel'rechrtienne.Bibliothquedel'InstitutdesHautestudesChinoises,VolumeVII.Paris:ImprimerieNationaledeFrance.

    DREYFUS,GEORGESB.J.(2003)TheSoundofTwoHandsClapping:TheEducationofaTibetanBuddhistMonk.Berkeley/LosAngeles/London:UniversityofCaliforniaPress.

    DUDJOMRINPOCHE,JIKDRELYESHEDORJE.(1991)TheNyingmaSchoolofTibetanBuddhism:ItsFundamentalsandHistory,translatedbyGyurmeDorjeandMatthewKapstein.Boston,MA:WisdomPublications(2nded.2002).

    GOLD,J.C.(2007)TheDharma'sGatekeepers:SakyaPaitaonBuddhistScholarshipinTibet.Albany,NY:StateUniversityofNewYorkPress.

    GOLDFIELD,A.,J.Levinson,etal.(trans.).(2006)TheMoonofWisdom:ChapterSixofChandrakrti'sEnteringtheMiddleWaywithCommentaryfromtheEighthKarmapa.Ithaca,NY:SnowLion.

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    Notes:(1.)Birthfromanegg,fromthewomb,duetoheatandmoisture,ormiraculousbirth.

    (2.)FollowingthetextasestablishedinHughRichardson,TheFirstTibetanChos-'byung,inhisHighPeaks,PureEarth:CollectedWritingsonTibetanHistoryandCulture,ed.MichaelAris(London:Serindia),pp.8999.Unlessotherwisestated,thisandalltranslationsinthepresentchapteraremyown.

    (3.)Therabbit'shornisastandardexample,inIndianphilosophy,ofanempiricalimpossibility,thebarrenwoman'ssonofalogicalcontradiction.

    (4.)Ye-shes-sde,Ltaba'ikhyadpar.Archaicversion,ms.PelliotTibetain814,reproducedinMacdonaldandImaeda,Choixdedocumentstibetains(Paris:BibliothequeNationale,1978),vol.1,plates210225.

    (5.)Sba-bzhedces-bya-ba-lasSbaGsal-snang-gibzhed-pabzhugs(Beijing:NationalitiesPress,1980),pp.6476.

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    (6.)Galmdo(Dolanji:TibetanBonpoMonasticCentre,1972),p.167.2ff.

    (7.)Atia,Bodhipathapradpa,verses35.

    (8.)BoththisandtheprecedingquotationarefromAtia,Satyadvayvatra.Theaffectiveobscuration(Skt.klevaraa)includesalldispositionsunderlyingtheemotionsthatbindustoworldlypatterns;thecognitiveobscuration(jeyvaraa)theinabilitytopenetratetoafullrealizationofthetruenatureofthings.

    (9.)Theeliminationoftheexclusion(Skt.anypoha)wasthecenterpieceoftheBuddhisttheoryofmeaning,developedbyDignga.Accordingtothistheory,whichaccordswithaspectsofmodernsemantics,thecontentofatermorconceptisafunctionofitsrangeofexclusion.Thatis,cow,whichexcludesallthingsthatarenotcows,isconceptuallyricherthanlivingbeing.

    (10.)Sa-skyaPaitaKun-dga'-rgyal-mtshan,Tshadmarigsgter(Beijing:NationalitiesPress,1989),pp.4360.

    (11.)Dodpargyamtshomthayas,inKarmaRang-byung-rdo-rje,Rgyamtshomtha'yasskor(Gangtok,1978),vol.1,pp.625626.

    (12.)RefertoRuegg1989.

    (13.)Kong-sprulYon-tanrgya-mtsho,Rnalbyorblanamedpa'irgyudsdergyamtsho'isnyingpobsduspazabmonanggidonnyungngu'itshiggisrnampargrolbazabdonsnangbyed,inBkabrgyudpa'igsungrabpodnyishupa:thabsgrol(Xining:Mtshosngonmirigsdpeskrunkhang,2001),pp.6970.

    (14.)KarmaRang-byungrdo-rje,Zabmonanggidonzhesbyaba'igzhung,inBka'brgyudpa'igsungrabpodnyishupa:thabsgrol,pp.34.

    (15.)Ngesdonphyagrgyachenpo'ismonlam,op.cit.,p.892.

    (16.)TheDzam-thangEditionoftheCollectedWorksofKun-mkhyenDol-po-paShes-rab-rgyal-mtshan(NewDelhi:ShedrupBooksandKonchhogLhadrepa,1992/1993),vol.5,pp.335343.

    (17.)Klo-chenRab-byams-paDri-med-'od-zer,Semsdangyesheskyidrilan,inMiscellaneouswritings(Gsuthorbu)ofKun-mkhyenKlon-chen-paDri-med-'od-zer(Delhi:SanjeDorje,1973),vol.1,pp.377392.

    (18.)Inadoptingthisexpression,Tsong-kha-paemphasizeshiscommitmenttothePrsagikatraditionofCandrakrti,overandagainsttheSvtantrika-Mdhyamika,associatedwithsuchfiguresasBhvavivekaandntarakita,forwhomemptinessisassertedinthepositiveconclusionofaformaldemonstration.

    (19.)RjeTsong-kha-paBlo-bzang-grags-pa,Lamgyigtsobornamgsum,inRjetsongkhapachenpo'ibka'bumthorbu(Xining:Mtshosngonmirigsdpeskrunkhang,1987),pp.344346.

    (20.)RjeTsong-kha-paBlo-bzang-grags-pa,Drangngeslegsbshadsnyingpo,Sarnathed.,p.3.

    (21.)InthesystemofDigngaandDharmakrti,theself-markingparticular(svalakaa)isthediscretephenomenonthatbearsthosequalitiesthatestablishitsuniqueidentityforaperceiverwhoisnotsubjecttoerror.This,theelementarybuildingblockoftheirontology,wasacceptedbymanyTibetanthinkersasconventionallytrue,eveninMadhyamakacontexts,butbyTsongkhapatobenotevenconventionallyacceptableforthePrsagika.

    (22.)ForDigngaandDharmakrti,reflexivityorapperception(svasavitti)wastheelementaryunitofconsciousness,paralleling,intheirsystem,theself-markingparticularastheminimalobject.Tsongkhapa,truetohisownprinciples,inrejectingone,rejectedequallytheother.

    (23.)Themoreprevalentviewwasthatrvaka-sandpratyekabuddha-s,whoexemplifiedthehighestgoalsofthelesservehicle(hnayna),realizedtheinsubstantiality(selflessness)ofpersons,butnotoftheprinciples(dharma)uponwhichpersonssupervene.

    (24.)ThisandtheprecedingquotationfromRgyal-tshab-rjeDar-marin-chen,Dbumartsaba'idkagnadchenpobrgyadkyibrjedbyang,inDbuma'iltakhridphyogsbsdebs(Sarnath:CentralInstituteofHigherTibetanStudies,1985),pp.154187.

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    (25.)CabeznandDargyay2007,137.

    (26.)Tshadmalamrim,inLcangskyarolpa'irdorje'irnamthar,pp.635638.

    (27.)Thefoursealsoftheteachingarethatconditionedentitiesareimpermanent;thatcorruptiblethingsinvolvesuffering;thatnoentityisorpossessesasubstantialself;andthatnirvaispeace.

    (28.)Mi-pham,Gzhanstongkhaslensengge'ingaro,Ser-lodgon-pa(Nepal)xylographiced.

    MatthewT.KapsteinMatthewT.KapsteinisDirectorofTibetanStudiesattheEcolePratiquedesHautesEtudes(Paris)andNumataVisitingProfessorofBuddhistStudiesattheUniversityofChicago.HisrecentbooksincludeTheTibetans(Oxford,2006),aneditedvolumeentitledBuddhismBetweenTibetandChina(Boston,2009),andatranslationofaSanskritphilosophicalallegory,TheRiseofWisdomMoon(NewYork,2009).