Biomes all around the world Federica Bernacchi 3rd Year 2015.
<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Biomes all around the world Federica Bernacchi 3rd Year 2015 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> SAVANNA A savanna is a grassland ecosystem characterized by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close. The open canopy allows sufficient light to reach the ground to support an unbroken herbaceous layer consisting primarily of grasses. In many savannas, tree densities are higher and trees are more regularly spaced than in forest. Location </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Climate in Savannas The savanna has a wet season (summer) with some twenty-five inches of rain per month from the beginning of May and ending in November. Savannas also have and a dry season (winter ) between October and March (in the Southern Hemisphere) and April to September (in the Northern Hemisphere) when there is only four inches of rain. All this makes the African savanna a tropical biome, as shown immediately below. Wet seasonDry season </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Vegetation Plants of the savannas are highly specialized to grow in this environment of long periods of drought. They have long tap roots that can reach the deep water table, thick bark to resist annual fires, trunks that can store water, and leaves that drop of during the winter to conserve water. </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Vegetation The grasses have adaptations that discourage animals from grazing on them; some grasses are too sharp or bitter tasting for some animals. Many grasses grow from the bottom up, so that the growth tissue doesn't get damaged by grazers. Many plants of the savanna also have storage organs like bulbs and corms for making it though the dry season. Animals grazing </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Animals in savannas Africa has many species of plants and animals. Here are the animals that are alive today : Carnivores: ://jto.s3.amazonaws.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/f-cheetahs-a-20141004.jpg://jto.s3.amazonaws.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/f-cheetahs-a-20141004.jpg Cheeta https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/22/Crocodile_Crocodylus-porosus_amk2.jpghttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/22/Crocodile_Crocodylus-porosus_amk2.jpg crocodile http://www.duiops.net/seresvivos/galeria/leones/Animals%20Lions_His%20Royal%20Highness,%20Lion.jpghttp://www.duiops.net/seresvivos/galeria/leones/Animals%20Lions_His%20Royal%20Highness,%20Lion.jpg lion Herbivores: http://www.duiops.net/seresvivos/galeria/jirafas/Animals%20Giraffes_Masai%20Giraffe,%20Masai%20Mara,%20Kenya.j pghttp://www.duiops.net/seresvivos/galeria/jirafas/Animals%20Giraffes_Masai%20Giraffe,%20Masai%20Mara,%20Kenya.j pg giraffe https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/63/African_elephant_warning_raised_trunk.jpghttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/63/African_elephant_warning_raised_trunk.jpg elephant </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Human impact on savannas Positive Human impact comes in the form of money from tourism. Humans have made the African savanna their home, by building their factories, mines, houses and farms there. Ever since the European settlers came to Africa the human population has increased and the animals population has decreased. Humans have mined many things in the savanna : salt, coal and oil Products mined are imported to: Australia, Asia, Europe and America. The goods are also transported around Africa. </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Human impact PROBLEMS AND POLLUTION IN THE SAVANNA: Over the years humans have hunted many African animals to extinction, or close to it. Pollution is one of the main threats to Africas savannas. The air can be polluted by smoke and exhaust fumes. If the air does get polluted animals will find it increasingly hard to breath and since they cant move out of the country they will eventually die out. Carbon dioxide (CO2) increases the heat of the biome, if too much carbon dioxide gets into the air the animals that have adapted to the plains may have to adapt again to fit into an almost desert-like biome. Seasons may have something to do with the savannas fate. WILDLIFE PARKS Here are some wildlife parks and they help the environment by trying to keep the plants growing, the rivers clean and the food chain balanced: 1. Eco travel Africa wildlife parks 2. African Safaris 3. Sabona wildlife reserve 4. Kakadu National park 5. Zambia- The real Africa </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> TROPICAL RAINFOREST -A tropical rainforest is an ecosystem type that occurs roughly within the latitudes 28 degrees north or south of the equator (in the equatorial zone between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn). -This ecosystem experiences high average temperatures and a significant amount of rainfall. Rainforests can be found in Asia, Australia, Africa, South America, Central America, Mexico and on many of the Pacific, Caribbean, and Indian Ocean islands. Location </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Climate true tropical rainforests have an annual rainfall greater than 800 cm and annual temperature greater than 24 degrees Celsius. Animals Orangutan http://assets.worldwildlife.org/photos/5057/images/featur ed_story/orangutan_with_baby.jpg?1378992357 http://assets.worldwildlife.org/photos/5057/images/featur ed_story/orangutan_with_baby.jpg?1378992357 Toucanshttp://www.earthfirst.net.au/site/user- assets/20120723161411_b_toucan.jpghttp://www.earthfirst.net.au/site/user- assets/20120723161411_b_toucan.jpg Venemous frog http://images2.wikia.nocookie.net/__cb20111125022141/re ptiles/images/3/31/Phyllobates_Aurotaenia_01.jpg http://images2.wikia.nocookie.net/__cb20111125022141/re ptiles/images/3/31/Phyllobates_Aurotaenia_01.jpg Vegetation: Lianas: are climbing woody vines that drape rainforest treeshttp://www.moabphototours.com/gallery2/main.php?g2_view=core.DownloadItem&g2_itemId=3586&g2_ser ialNumber=2http://www.moabphototours.com/gallery2/main.php?g2_view=core.DownloadItem&g2_itemId=3586&g2_ser ialNumber=2 Fernshttp://www.thegardenhelper.com/pdj/05230001.JPGhttp://www.thegardenhelper.com/pdj/05230001.JPG Epiphytes are plants that live on other plants trunks https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9b/Epiphytes_costa_rica_santa_elena.jpg/220px- Epiphytes_costa_rica_santa_elena.jpg https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9b/Epiphytes_costa_rica_santa_elena.jpg/220px- Epiphytes_costa_rica_santa_elena.jpg </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Vegetation Lianas Lianas are climbing woody vines that drape rainforest trees. Epiphythes: Are plants that live on the surface of other plants, specially trunks and branches. Ferns </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Human impact The lumber, agriculture, and mining industries are major impacts on the tropical rainforest. They all require large areas of forest to be cleared so that they can take place. In mining, large areas of forest are cleared, and roads are built to access the mines. This greatly affects the diversity in the area because of the loud construction noises as well as pollution. </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Tundra Tundra is type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. There are three types of tundra: arctic tundra, alpine tundra, and Antarctic tundra. It is noted for its frost-molded landscapes, extremely low temperatures, little precipitation, poor nutrients, and short growing seasons Location Tundra can be found at the very north of Canada, south of Greenland and north of Russia </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Climate At least one month has an average temperature high enough to melt snow (0 C), but no month with an average temperature in excess of 10 C. Tundra climates as a rule are hostile to woody vegetation even where the winters are comparatively mild by polar standards, as in Iceland. only 6 to 10 inches of rain or snow per year, the tundra is as dry as the driest desert. Tundra with snow. </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Vegetation All of the plants are adapted to sweeping winds and disturbances of the soil. Plants are short and group together to resist the cold temperatures and are protected by the snow during the winter. Low shrubs Sedges Foliose litchen And more than 400 types of flowers Animals: Caribou http://kids.nationalgeographic.com/content/dam/kids/photos/a nimals/Mammals/A-G/caribou-standing-grass.jpg Erminea http://nature.ca/notebooks/images/img/127_p_ermine_4894_ p.jpg Artic wolves http://arcticwolfproject.weebly.com/uploads/1/9/8/5/19855569 /2696722_orig.jpg?297 </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Human impact Human influences in the Arctic are both seen and unseen. Human activity has seen a dramatic change in the arctic due to climate change. This is the worse impact human activity has had on the globe. Other human influences are the vast and untapped oil reserves in the Arctic have made it a target for oil companies. Oil and gas pipelines are a huge human influence in the Arctic. Garbage and other waste not to mention the impact of the oil and gas industry have left some parts of the Arctic polluted. </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Grasslands Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses Grasslands occur naturally on all continents except Antarctica. Location </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Climate Temperate grasslands have hot summers and cold winters. Rainfall is moderate. The amount of annual rainfall influences the height of grassland vegetation, with taller grasses in wetter regions. Precipitation in the temperate grasslands usually occurs in the late spring and early summer. The annual average is 50.8 to 88.9 cm. Summer temperatures can be well over 38 C, while winter temperatures can be low as -40 C. Cold winter Hot summer </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Vegetation Temperate grasslands are characterized as having grasses as the dominant vegetation. Trees and large shrubs are absent. Woody plants, shrubs or trees, may occur on some grasslands forming savannas. The root systems of perennial grasses and forbs form complex mats that hold the soil in place. Variety of grasses and flowers and no trees. Animals: Gazelle http://www.thejunglestore.com/core/media/media.nl?id=2040 0&c=432681&h=e411c3664208856f8a12 http://www.thejunglestore.com/core/media/media.nl?id=2040 0&c=432681&h=e411c3664208856f8a12 Wild horse http://ichef.bbci.co.uk/naturelibrary/images/ic/credit/640x395 /w/wi/wild_horse/wild_horse_1.jpg http://ichef.bbci.co.uk/naturelibrary/images/ic/credit/640x395 /w/wi/wild_horse/wild_horse_1.jpg Jack rabbit https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6d/Jackr abbit2_crop.JPG https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6d/Jackr abbit2_crop.JPG </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Human impact 25% of grasslands have disappeared because of people building power plants, cities, schools, roads, permanent homes (also know as urban development). In the tropical grasslands, people are illegally poaching endangered animals. For example, people are poaching tigers, elephants, and leopards and more endangered animals like that. </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Hot deserts A desert is a barren area of land where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. Location </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Climate and vegetation Vegetation Dry plants that contain water inside like cacti. Plants have very large and deep roots to reach water and they grow further apart so that they dont compete with each other for the small water and mineral suplies Desserts are extreamly hot during the day (57 C) and very cold during the night (-1 C). It rains less that 250 mm per year in a dessert Animals: Scorpion http://hqworld.net/gallery/data/media/135/scorpion__sahara_desert__al geria.jpg http://hqworld.net/gallery/data/media/135/scorpion__sahara_desert__al geria.jpg Camel https://eucbeniki.sio.si/test/iucbeniki/nit5/1340/kamela.jpghttps://eucbeniki.sio.si/test/iucbeniki/nit5/1340/kamela.jpg Lizzard http://www.californiaherps.com/lizards/images/unotataim5082.jpg http://www.californiaherps.com/lizards/images/unotataim5082.jpg </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Human impact Desserts are so huge that people can not take advantage of it very easily. But some people build rodes for cars to pass or use the space for military activities. </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Cold deserts A desert is a barren area of land where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. Location </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Climate Large amount of snowfall in winter (and sometimes in summer), plus a high average of rainfall (15-26 cm.) occurring mainly in April and May or autumn, depending upon the area Mean average winter temperature -2 to 4C Mean average summer temperature 21-26 Vegetation Plants can vary from heights between 15 cm and 122 cm, depending upon the area. Most shed their leaves (deciduous) and have spiny leaves. Animals: Jackrabbit http://www.agfc.com/speciesPhotos/mammals_blacktailed_jack rabbit.jpg http://www.agfc.com/speciesPhotos/mammals_blacktailed_jack rabbit.jpg Golden mole http://www.biodiversityexplorer.org/mammals/afrosoricida/ima ges/eos03241_663x498.jpg http://www.biodiversityexplorer.org/mammals/afrosoricida/ima ges/eos03241_663x498.jpg </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> taiga Taiga also known as boreal forest or snowforest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches. Location </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Climate and vegetation short summer 10 C or more lasts always less than 4 months. Durin winter season -5 C to 5 C. It did not say exactly hoe much it rained but precipitations take place in winter season and in the form of snow. Vegetation. Because the climate of the taiga is very cold, there is not a large variety of plant life. The most common type of tree found in the taiga is the conifer--trees that have cones </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Animals Bear http://a-z-animals.com/media/animals/images/original/black_bear5.jpghttp://a-z-animals.com/media/animals/images/original/black_bear5.jpg Wolverine http://www.wildthingsultd.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/wolverinepage2.jpghttp://www.wildthingsultd.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/wolverinepage2.jpg Snowshoe rabbit https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/38/Snowshoe_Hare,_Shirleys_Bay.jpghttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/38/Snowshoe_Hare,_Shirleys_Bay.jpg Human impact There are industries in the taiga that pose threats to many animals in it. Logging happens across much of the taiga and has many impacts. It destroys habitat and cover for animals and also leads to soil erosion. It also however can create useful new open habitats for the animals to feed in. Oil and Gas exploration happens as well across much of the taiga. </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Temperate forest Temperate forests correspond to forest concentrations formed in the northern and southern hemisphere, or in temperate regions. Main characteristics include: wide leaves, large and tall trees and non seas...</li></ul>