Avoiding Plagiarism with MLAIntegrating and Citing Sources
A Writers Reference, 6th Ed.Hacker, Diana. A Writers Reference. 6th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2009. Print.
Essential QuestionHow can I appropriately borrow from other sources without violating my academic integrity?
Language ObjectiveRead Diana Hackers MLA guide as a resource document.Write a correct citation for a website, using MLA.Appropriately integrate sources and in-text citations in students own work.
VocabularyCitationWorks CitedIn-text Citation
A Working BibliographyAll extended essays are submitted in MLA format.Use MLA format to compile bibliographical information for any source consulted, whether print, visual, or web.The working bibliography is often larger and more extensive than the final works cited page.Annotate the working bibliography with a few sentences for each source. Focus on key points and the role of this source in your paper.
Avoiding Plagiarism in NotesBorrowing language in note taking can lead to plagiarism. Changing up a few words or mixing the sources words with your own is still plagiarism.Place quotations marks around any quoted materials, and avoid looking at the source when summarizing. Use your own language.
3 Kinds of Note TakingSummarizing: Condensing information, for example from a chapter to a short paragraph.Paraphrasing: Retelling information without reducing the content. Quoting: Copying the text exactly, including mechanics. Remember to place quotations around this information in your notes so as not to forget which information is a direct quote.
Quoting Sources (362)Do not quote excessively. Focus on using your own words to summarize and paraphrase sources, and to explain your own ideas. Do use quotesWhen language is especially vivid or expressive.When exact wording is needed for technical accuracy.
Quoting Sources (362)When it is important to let the debaters of an issue explain their positions in their own words.When the words of an important authority lend weight to an argumentWhen language of a source is the topic of your discussion (as in an analysis or interpretation)
Embedding QuotesUse ellipsis mark (three periods, with spaces between) to indicate whats been removed, but keep the sentence grammatical.Do not use ellipsis marks at the beginning or the end of a quote, as it is commonly accepted that the quote is a part of a larger whole.
Embedding QuotesUse brackets to insert words or letters to keep the quote grammatical and to clarify meaning.[ ]Use a signal phrase to introduce the author and the purpose of including the quote.
Hjortshoj, Keith. Transition to College Writing, Chapter 6: Theft, Fraud, and the Loss of Voice. Retrieved 24 August 2007, fromhttp://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/ plagiarismtutorial/pages/bcs-main.asp?v=&s=01000&n=00470&i=01470.01&o=The readers should always know whose language they are reading.Sentences you assemble with quotations should read grammatically.Your use of quotation (including splices, ellipses, and brackets) should not distort the original meaning of the quoted material.(181)Embedding Quotes
MLA FormatGive the authors full name on first mention.Give page numbers for all quoted, summarized, and paraphrased materials.Use present tense verbs to evoke the timelessness of a literary text (349).
www.dianahacker.com/resdocIn orange: Humanities/MLAOn the left: Documenting SourcesMLA list of Works CitedWorks Cited entries are directly correlated to In Text Citationswww.dianahacker.com/resdoc
Source for Vocabulary TermsInternational Baccalaureate Organization. Academic Honesty: Guidance for Schools. Geneve, Switzerland: International Baccalaureate Organization, 2003. Retrieved 23 August 2007, from http://www.okcps.org/hs/classen_sas/IB/Valerie/Academic%20Honesty.pdf
plagiarismThe representation of the ideas or work of another person as the candidates own (IBO, 2.1). Copying works of art, whether music, film, dance, theatre arts or visual arts, also constitutes plagiarism (IBO, 2.3).
academic honestyAuthenticity and Intellectual Property. IBO, 2.2, all ideas and work of other persons, regardless of their source, must be acknowledged.Antonym: academic dishonesty
intellectual propertyIBO, 1.3 Forms of intellectual and creative expression (for example, works of literature, art or music) must be respected and are normally protected by law.
authentic authorshipIBO, 1.2 An authentic piece of work is one that is based on the candidates individual and original ideas with the ideas and work of others fully acknowledged.
malpracticebehaviour that results in, or may result in, the candidate or any other candidate gaining an unfair advantage in one or more assessment component and includes plagiarism, collusion, duplication of work, etc. (IBO, 2.1).
Examples of MalpracticeThe following list is taken from IBO, 2.7:Paraphrasing without acknowledgingFabricating dataTaking unauthorized material into the examination roomMisbehaving and disrupting an examinationExchanging or helping to exchange information about the examinationtelling B-day what the test covered
Examples of MalpracticeCopying Referring to unauthorized materialsparknotes, bookrags, pinkmonkeyFailing to comply with instructions from test supervisor, proctor, etc.Impersonating another studentOffensive material with no academic or intellectual purposeStealing examsTalking about exams with othersUsing unauthorized calculator during exam
collusionsupporting malpractice by another candidate, as in allowing ones work to be copied or submitted for assessment by another (IBO, 2.1) This is different from collaboration in that the assessment criteria requires each student to produce an authentic and original product.
collaborationworking together when approved by teacher or assessment guidelines. This is different from collusion in that the final product is allowed to be a group effort.
duplication of workmultiple submissionsthe presentation of the same work for different assessment components and/or diploma requirements (IBO, 2.1).
paraphraseIBO, 4.9: Paraphrasing is the rendition of another persons words presented in a new style and integrated grammatically into the writing. (Emphasis Kesslers.)
Intellectual PropertyIBO, 4.8: more than just regular print and electronic sources, it include[s] the use of footnotes or endnotes to acknowledge the source of an idea if that idea emerged as a result of discussion with, or listening to, a fellow student, a teacher or any other person.
academic infringementIBO, 11.1When a students work does not conform to the standard academic practice of clearly acknowledging all ideas and words that are not the candidates own, but is not considered a deliberate attempt by a candidate to gain an unfair advantage. Although not as serious, because not intentional, as academic malpractice, this offense can still affect a candidates score. IBO, 12.5, No marks will be awarded for the component part (or parts) of the component, but the student will still be able to sit for the exams and be considered for the subject certificate and the diploma. However, having lost the opportunity to gain the points from the component part may adversely affect the certificate score for the subject area.