Avoiding and Detecting Plagiarism

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  • Avoiding and Detecting Plagiarism A Guide for Graduate Students and Faculty With Examples Prepared by the Office of the Provost and the Office of the Vice President for Student Affairs in consultation with the Advisory Committee to Prevent Plagiarism The Graduate School and University Center The City University of New York

    March 2005 / Revised July 2012

  • Acknowledgments We owe thanks to a number of people and institutions who contributed to this

    guide.

    First, to faculty, student, and administrative members of the 2005 Advisory

    Committee to Prevent Plagiarism of the Graduate Center CUNY: Linda N.

    Edwards, Matthew G. Schoengood, James Drylie, Anne Ellis, Thomas Kessner,

    Sharon Lerner, Peter Lipke, Rolf Meyersohn, Herbert Saltzstein, La Schwartz,

    and Julia Wrigley.

    Second, special thanks to Anne Humpherys and Sharon Lerner for help in writing

    sections of the 2005 edition of this guide and to Rosamond W. Dana, Barry

    Disman, and Jane E. House for help in editing and design. The original design has

    been followed in this 2012 revised version, which was prepared in the Office of the

    Vice President for Student Affairs by alumnus Christopher Leydon (Comparative

    Literature, 2010), under the direction of Sharon Lerner, director, Office of Student

    Affairs, and with assistance from doctoral student in English Cori L. Gabbard.

    Third, thanks to the following institutions for permission to quote extensively from

    their websites:

    Capital Community College, Hartford, Connecticut

    http://www.ccc.commnet.edu/mla/plagiarism.shtml

    Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois

    http://www.northwestern.edu/provost/students/integrity/

    This document is available at http://www.gc.cuny.edu/CUNY_GC/media/CUNY-Graduate-Center/PDF/Policies/General/AvoidingPlagiarism.pdf?ext=.pdf.

  • AVOIDING AND DETECTING PLAGIARISM A GUIDE FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS AND FACULTY WITH EXAMPLES CONTENTS Foreword Page 1 SECTION I: FOR THE STUDENT Part 1. Introduction Page 3 Part 2. What Is and What Is Not Plagiarism?* Page 4 Part 3. Examples of Different Kinds of Plagiarism** Page 7 Direct Plagiarism The Mosaic Paraphrase Insufficient Acknowledgment Part 4. Plagiarism in the Sciences Page 12 Part 5. How to Avoid Plagiarism** Page 13 Guidelines for Proper Attribution Examples of Materials which Have Been Appropriately Cited SECTION II: FOR THE INSTRUCTOR Part 1. Detecting Plagiarism Page 19 Part 2. Sources for Detecting Plagiarism Page 19 Part 3. Doctoral Faculty Responsibility Page 19 Part 4. Procedures to Be Followed in Instances of Allegations of Academic Dishonesty Page 21 APPENDIX I: How to Cite Research Sources Appropriately: Selected Resources Part 1. Internet Resources Page 23 Part 2. Sources for Citing Government Documents Page 24 Part 3. Style Guides Accessible via the Mina Rees Library or the CUNY Library System Page 25 Part 4. Citation Managers Page 26 APPENDIX II: Graduate Center Policy on Academic Honesty Page 27 APPENDIX III: CUNY Policy on Academic Integrity Page 29 APPENDIX IV: Faculty Report Form for Alleged Violations Page 33 ____________________ * Taken in part from the Capital Community College website ** Taken from the Northwestern University website

  • 1

    FOREWORD The goal of this guide is to help answer the following questions:

    What is plagiarism and how can one identify it?

    What are the Graduate Center / CUNY policies and procedures with respect to plagiarism and other forms of academic dishonesty?

    What are the consequences for violating the rules of academic honesty through acts of plagiarism or other failures of academic honesty?

    How can plagiarism be avoided?

    What is the proper way to cite a variety of sources?

    What are the responsibilities of faculty in response to violations of the rules for academic honesty?

    What resources are available to faculty for identifying plagiarism when it does occur?

    Academic honesty is fundamental to the mission of all institutions of higher

    education. The importance of this issue at CUNY was underscored by the issuance of

    a report in Spring 2004 by the CUNY Committee on Academic Integrity, the goal of

    which was to establish a culture of academic integrity across all campuses.1 This

    goal was reaffirmed by the revised Policy on Academic Integrity, which took effect

    on July 1, 2011.2 The Graduate Center has long had a well-established policy on

    academic honesty, reaffirmed in every issue of the annual Student Handbook, which complies with the CUNY Policy on Academic Integrity but is tailored to Graduate

    Center students:

    The Graduate Center of the City University of New York is committed to the highest standards of academic honesty. Acts of academic dishonesty includebut are not limited toplagiarism (in drafts, outlines, and examinations, as well as final papers), cheating, bribery, academic fraud, sabotage of research materials, the sale of academic papers, and the falsification of records. An individual who engages in these or related activities or who knowingly aids another who engages in them is acting in an academically dishonest manner and will be subject to disciplinary action in accordance with the bylaws and procedures of the Graduate Center and of the Board of Trustees of the City University of New York.3

    One form of academic dishonestyplagiarism, [u]sing someone else's ideas or

    phrasing and representing those ideas or phrasing as your own, either on purpose or

    1 Report of the Committee on Academic Integrity, The City University of New York, Spring 2004, p. 1,

    http://www.cuny.edu/about/info/policies/academic-integrity-report.pdf. 2 Revised CUNY Policy on Academic Integrity, The City University of New York, July 20, 2011,

    http://www.cuny.edu/about/administration/offices/la/Academic_Integrity_Policy.pdf. 3 The Graduate Center Student Handbook 201213, p. 57.

  • Avoiding and Detecting Plagiarism

    2

    through carelessness4is the focus of this guide, but students and faculty are

    obliged by their membership in the university community to understand and avoid all

    forms of academic dishonesty and to address it when it may occur.

    Students and faculty have (at least) three important reasons to avoid plagiarism:

    To present the work of others as your own is dishonest; it is theftthe theft of ideas and of the work of others.

    Plagiarism undermines the mission of academic institutions. An important goal of higher education is to advance knowledge. Plagiarism erodes, even

    denies, the credit owed to innovators, thereby reducing the incentive of

    researchers to advance the state of the art.

    The plagiarist is likely to be caught. Plagiarism is a violation of academic rules and will lead to disciplinary action, including possible expulsion.

    Researchers need to understand exactly what constitutes plagiarism in order to avoid

    committing it; ignorance is not a defense: the intent to deceive is not a necessary

    element in plagiarism.5

    This guide is divided into two sections, one addressed to students and one addressed

    to instructors, although we are fully cognizant that most CUNY Graduate Center

    students are or will be teachers as well. We hope the material offered will be useful

    to them in both capacities. The guide defines plagiarism and sets out a series of

    examples to illustrate what is and is not plagiarism; discusses how to avoid

    plagiarism; describes ways to identify someone elses plagiarism; and provides a list

    of resources for students and faculty to consult in dealing with questions of citation

    and plagiarism. Also included are the Graduate Centers policy and procedures with

    regard to academic honesty from The Graduate Center Student Handbook 201213 (Appendix II of this booklet) and the CUNY Policy on Academic Integrity as enacted

    by the Board of Trustees in 2004 and revised and adopted by the Board of Trustees

    in 2011, effective July 1, 2011 (Appendix III). We also include the Graduate Center

    Faculty Report Form for Alleged Violations.

    4 Humanities Department and Arthur C. Banks Jr. Library, Capital Community College, Hartford, Connecticut, A Statement on Plagiarism in A Guide for Writing Research Papers Based on Modern Language Association (MLA) Documentation, May 2004,

    http://www.ccc.commnet.edu/mla/plagiarism.shtml (accessed June 19, 2012).

    5 Student Handbook 2012-13, p. 57.

  • 3

    SECTION I: FOR THE STUDENT Part 1. Introduction To avoid committing plagiarism, a researcher must have a clear and nuanced

    understanding of what it is. Further, even a thorough understanding of plagiarism

    may not fully protect the author; he or she must take careful notes while conducting

    research to guard against inadvertently plagiarizing someone elses work. A number

    of experienced authors and prominent academicians have made the error of using

    someone elses work or words without proper attribution. For example, Stephen E.

    Ambrose, a widely published historian, admitted copying sentences from another

    author in his best-selling book The Wild Blue without proper citation.6 In another case, Doris Kearns Goodwin, also a historian, was accused of lifting passage after

    passage of another authors work in her volume The Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys. In this case, the plagiarism was identified by someone reviewing the book who

    happened to be the person from whose work these passages were lifted.7 In

    December 2004, The Chronicle of Higher Education published a special report on plagiarism called Professor Copycat in which the writers identified several cases of

    apparent plagiarism.8 Avoiding the sin of plagiarism requires both knowledge and

    care: knowledge of what is to be avoided and careful research technique to

    implement that knowledge.

    We have chosen in this guide to use several excellent resources already available

    instead of developing a set of examples ourselves. This choice was made because

    using existing resources instead of reinventing the wheel is both efficient and

    practical, and because the resulting guide can itself act as an example of proper

    citation for a variety of sources. Therefore, in the following two-part discussion, we

    reproduceextensively and verbatimmaterial from two different websites

    containing a series of examples that make concrete what is and what is not

    plagiarism. These websites, which gave us permission to quote their material, also

    provide definitions of plagiarism and general information on the proper way to cite

    the work of others.9 Additional examples and a practice section that allows users to

    test themselves can be found on the Indiana University School of Education website:

    https://www.indiana.edu/~istd/.10

    6 Author of Gun History Quits After Panel Faults Research, The New York Times, October 27, 2002, p. 26.

    7 Fame Cant Excuse a Plagiarist, The New York Times, March 16, 2002, p. A15.

    8 Thomas Bartlett and Scott Smallwood, Professor Copycat, The Chronicle of Higher Education, December 17, 2004, pp. A8A12.

    9 See Appendix I for a list of reference guides and websites on different styles.

    10 Instructional Systems Technology Department, School of Education, How To Recognize Plagiarism: Tutorial Home, Indiana

    University Bloomington, September 13, 2004, https://www.indiana.edu/~istd/ (accessed June 19, 2012).

  • 4

    Part 2. What Is and What Is Not Plagiarism?

    The definition of plagiarism in the Graduate Center Policy on Academic Honesty11 is as

    follows.

    Each member of the academic community is expected to give full, fair, and formal credit to any and all sources that have contributed to the formulation of ideas, methods, interpretations, and findings. The absence of such formal credit is an affirmation representing that the work is fully the writer's. The term sources includes, but is not limited to, published or unpublished materials, lectures and lecture notes, computer programs, mathematical and other symbolic formulations, course papers, examinations, theses, dissertations, and comments offered in class or informal discussions, and includes electronic media. The representation that such work of another person is the writer's own is plagiarism. Care must be taken to document the source of any ideas or arguments. If the actual words of a source are used, they must appear within quotation marks. In cases that are unclear, it is the responsibility of the writer to take due care to avoid plagiarism. The source should be cited whenever:

    (a) a text is quoted verbatim (b) data gathered by another are presented in diagrams or tables (c) the results of a study done by another are used (d) the work or intellectual effort of another is paraphrased by the writer

    Because the intent to deceive is not a necessary element in plagiarism, careful note taking and record keeping are essential in order to avoid unintentional plagiarism.

    The material from this point through to the end of Part 2 is reproduced verbatim

    from Humanities Department and Arthur C. Banks Jr. Library, Capital Community College, Hartford, Connecticut, A Statement on Plagiarism, http://www.ccc.commnet.edu/mla/plagiarism.shtml (accessed June 19, 2012). This material is part of the Capital Community Colleges Guide to Grammar and Writing

    (http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/), dedicated to the memory of Dr.

    Charles Darling, a former Capital professor who developed the website in 1995 and

    continued to work on it until his death in 2006.

    A Statement on Plagiarism Using someone else's ideas or phrasing and representing those ideas or phrasing as our own, either on purpose or through carelessness, is a serious offense known as plagiarism. Ideas or phrasing includes written or spoken material, of coursefrom whole papers and paragraphs to sentences, and, indeed, phrasesbut it also includes statistics, lab results, art work, etc. Someone else can mean a professional source, such as a published writer or critic in a book, magazine, encyclopedia, or journal; an electronic resource such as material we discover on the World Wide Web; another student at our school or anywhere else; a paper-writing service (online or otherwise) which offers to sell written papers for a fee.

    11 Student Handbook 201213, p. 57.

  • Avoiding and Detecting Plagiarism

    5

    Let us suppose, for example, that were doing a paper for Music Appreciation on the child prodigy years of the composer and pianist Franz Liszt and that we've read about the development of the young artist in several sources. In Alan Walker's book Franz Liszt: The Virtuoso Years (Ithaca: 1983), we read that Liszt's father encouraged him, at age six, to play the piano from memory, to sight-read music and, above all, to improvise. We can report in our paper (and in our own words) that Liszt was probably the most gifted of the child prodigies making their mark in Europe in the mid-nineteenth centurybecause that is the kind of information we could have gotten from a number of sources; it has become what we call common knowledge. However, if we report on the boy's father's role in the prodigy's development, we should give proper credit to Alan Walker. We could write, for instance, the following: Franz Liszt's father encouraged him, as early as age six, to practice skills which later served him as an internationally recognized prodigy (Walker 59). Or, we could write something like this: Alan Walker notes that, under the tutelage of his father, Franz Liszt began work in earnest on his piano playing at the age of six (59). Not to give Walker credit for this important information is plagiarism. Some More Examples (The examples below were originally written by the writing center staff at an esteemed college; that institution has asked us to remove its name from this Web page.) The original text from Elaine Tyler May's Myths and Realities of the American Family reads as follows:

    Because women's wages often continue to reflect the fiction that men earn the family wage, single mothers rarely earn enough to support themselves and their children adequately. And because work is still organized around the assumption that mothers stay home with children, even though few mothers can afford to do so, child-care facilities in the United States remain woefully inadequate.

    Here are some possible uses of this text. As you read through each version, try to decide if it is a legitimate use of May's text or a plagiarism.

    Version A: Since women's wages often continue to reflect the mistaken notion that men are the main wage earners in the family, single mothers rarely make enough to support themselves and their children very well. Also, because work is still based on the assumption that mothers stay home with children, facilities for child care remain woefully inadequate in the United States.

    Plagiarism. In Version A there is too much direct borrowing in sentence structure and wording. The writer changes some words, drops one phrase, and adds some new language, but the overall text closely resembles Mays. Even with a citation, the writer is still plagiarizing because the lack of quotation marks indicates that Version A is a paraphrase, and should thus be in the writer's own language.

    Version B: As Elaine Tyler May points out, women's wages often continue to reflect the fiction that men earn the family wage (588). Thus many single mothers cannot support themselves and their children adequately. Furthermore, since work is based on the assumption that mothers stay home with children, facilities for day care in this country are still woefully inadequate. (May 589).

    Plagiarism. The writer now cites May, so we're closer to telling the truth about our text's relationship to the source, but this text continues to borrow too much language.

  • Avoiding and Detecting Plagiarism

    6

    Version C: By and large, our economy still operates on the mistaken notion that men are the main breadwinners in the family. Thus, women continue to earn lower wages than men. This means, in effect, that many single mothers cannot earn a decent living. Furthermore, adequate day care is not available in the United States because of the mistaken assumption that mothers remain at home with their children.

    Plagiarism. Version C shows good paraphrasing of wording and sentence structure, but May's original ideas are not acknowledged. Some of May's points are common knowledge (women earn less than men, many single mothers live in poverty), but May uses this common knowledge to make a specific and original point and her original conception of this idea is not acknowledged.

    Version D: Women today still earn less than menso much less that many single mothers and their children live near or below the poverty line. Elaine Tyler May argues that this situation stems in part from the fiction that men earn the family wage (588). May further suggests that the American workplace still operates on the assumption that mothers with children stay home to care for them (589). This assumption, in my opinion, does not have the force it once did. More and more businesses offer in-house day-care facilities.

    No Plagiarism. The writer makes use of the common knowledge in May's work, but acknowledges May's original conclusion and does not try to pass it off as his or her own. The quotation is properly cited, as is a later paraphrase of another of May's ideas.

    Here ends the material from the Capital Community College website, http://www.ccc.commnet.edu/mla/plagiarism.shtml.

  • 7

    Part 3. Examples of Different Kinds of Plagiarism The material in Part 3, Examples of Different Types of Plagiarism, is reproduced

    verbatim from Undergraduate Academic Conduct Committee, Northwestern University, Academic Integrity at Northwestern: How To Avoid Plagiarism, http://www.northwestern.edu/provost/students/integrity/plagiarism.html (accessed

    June 19, 2012).

    A. DIRECT PLAGIARISM Source Material From: Ekman, Paul, Wallace V. Friesen, and Phoebe Ellsworth. Emotion in the Human Face: Guidelines for Research and an Integration of Findings. New York: Pergamon, 1972. Print. Page 1: The human face in repose and in movement, at the moment of death as in life, in silence and in speech, when alone and with others, when seen or sensed from within, in actuality or as represented in art or recorded by the camera is a commanding, complicated, and at times confusing source of information. The face is commanding because of its very visibility and omnipresence. While sounds and speech are intermittent, the face even in repose can be informative. And, except by veils or masks, the face cannot be hidden from view. There is no facial maneuver equivalent to putting one's hands in one's pockets. Further, the face is the location for sensory inputs, life-necessary intake, and communicative output. The face is the site for the sense receptors of taste, smell, sight, and hearing, the intake organs for food, water, and air, and the output location for speech. The face is also commanding because of its role in early development; it is prior to language in the communication between parent and child. Misuse of source (italicized passages indicate direct plagiarism): Many experts agree that the human face, whether in repose or in movement, is a commanding, complicated, and sometimes confusing source of information. The face is commanding because it's visible and omnipresent. Although sounds and speech may be intermittent, the face even in repose may give information. And, except by veils or masks, the face cannot be hidden. Also, the face is the location for sensory inputs, life-supporting intake, and communication. Comment The plagiarized passage is an almost verbatim copy of the original source. The writer has compressed the authors opinions into fewer sentences by omitting several phrases and sentences. But this compression does not disguise the writer's reliance on this text for the concepts he passes off as his own. The writer tries to disguise his indebtedness by beginning with the phrase Many experts agree that.... This reference to many experts makes it appear that the writer was somehow acknowledging the work of scholars too numerous to mention. The plagiarized passage makes several subtle changes in language (e.g., it changes visibility and omnipresence to it's visible and omnipresent). The writer has made the language seem more informal in keeping with his own writing style. He ignores any embellishments or additional information given in the source-passage. He contents himself with borrowing the sentence about how only masks and veils can hide the face, without using the follow-up elaboration about there not being a facial equivalent to putting one's hands in

  • Avoiding and Detecting Plagiarism

    8

    one's pockets. He also reduces the source's list of the face's diverse activities at the end of the paragraph. Had the writer enclosed the borrowed material in quotation marks and credited the authors of the Emotions book with a parenthetical citation, this would have been a legitimate use of a source. B. THE MOSAIC

    Source Material From: Fishman, Joshua. Language in Sociocultural Change. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1972. Print. Page 67: In a relatively open and fluid society there will be few characteristics of lower-class speech that are not also present (albeit to a lesser extent) in the speech of the working and lower middle classes. Whether we look to phonological features such as those examined by Labov or to morphological units such as those reported by Fischer (1958) (Fischer studied the variation between -in' and -ing for the present participle ending, i.e. runnin' vs. running and found that the former realization was more common when children were talking to each other than when they were talking to him, more common among boys than girls, and more common among typical boys than among model boys), we find not a clear-cut cleavage between the social classes but a difference in rate of realization of particular variants of particular variables for particular contexts. Even the widely publicized distinction between the restricted code of lower-class speakers and the elaborate code of middle-class speakers (Bernstein 1964, 1966) is of this type, since Bernstein includes the cocktail party and the religious service among the social situations in which restricted codes are realized. Thus, even in the somewhat more stratified British setting the middle class is found to share some of the features of what is considered to be typically lower-class speech. Obviously then, typicality, if it has any meaning at all in relatively open societies, must refer largely to repertoire range rather than to unique features of the repertoire. Misuse of source (italicized passages indicate direct plagiarism): In a relatively fluid society many characteristics of lower-class speech will also be found among the working and lower middle classes. Labov's and Fischer's studies show that there is not a clear-cut cleavage between social classes but only a difference in the frequency of certain speech modes. All classes share certain speech patterns. The difference among classes would only be apparent by the frequency with which speech expressions or patterns appeared. By this standard, then, Bernstein's distinction between the restricted code of the lower-class speakers and the elaborated code of middle-class speakers is useful only up to a point, since Bernstein mentions cocktail parties and religious services as examples of restricted speech groupings. Typicality refers more to speech range than to particular speech features. Comment While this passage contains relatively few direct borrowings form the original source, all its ideas and opinions are lifted from it. The writer hides her dependency on the source by translating its academic terms into more credible language for a novice in sociology. For example, the plagiarist steers clear of sophisticated terms like phonological features, morphological units, and repertoire range. However, her substitutions are in themselves clues to her plagiarism, since they over-generalize the source's meaning. The writer seems to acknowledge secondary sources when she refers to Labov's and Fischer's studies, but she obviously has no first-hand knowledge of their research. If she had consulted these studies,

  • Avoiding and Detecting Plagiarism

    9

    she should have cited them directly and included them in the Works Cited list, rather than pretending that both she and her audience would be completely familiar with them. She intertwines her own opinions with the source and forms a confused, plagiarized mass. The writer should have acknowledged her indebtedness to her source by eliminating borrowed phrases and crediting her paragraph as a paraphrase of the original material. She could also have put quotation marks around the borrowed phrases and cited them appropriately: As Fishman explains, phonological studies by Labov and Fischer show that there is not a clear-cut cleavage between social classes but only a difference in the frequency of certain speech modes (Fishman 67). C. PARAPHRASE

    Source: The Sun Also Rises by Ernest Hemingway. Cliffs Notes, n.d. Web. 4 August 2010.

    THE DISCIPLINE OF THE CODE HERO If the old traditional values are no good anymore, if they will not serve man, what values then will serve man? Hemingway rejects things of abstract qualities courage, loyalty, honesty, bravery. These are all just words. What Hemingway would prefer to have are concrete things. For Hemingway a man can be courageous in battle on Tuesday morning at 10 o'clock. But this does not mean that he will be courageous on Wednesday morning at 9 o'clock. A single act of courage does not mean that a man is by nature courageous. Or a man who has been courageous in war might not be courageous in some civil affair or in some other human endeavor. What Hemingway is searching for are absolute values, which will be the same, which will be constant at every moment of every day and every day of every week. Ultimately therefore, for Hemingway the only value that will serve man is an innate faculty of self-discipline. This is a value that grows out of man's essential being, in his inner nature. If a man has discipline to face one thing on one day he will still possess that same degree of discipline on another day and in another situation. Thus Francis Macomber in the short story The Short, Happy Life of Francis Macomber, has faced a charging animal, and once he has had the resolution to stand and confront this charging beast, he has developed within himself a discipline that will serve him in all situations. This control can function in almost any way in a Hemingway work. Misuse of source: Hemingway tries to discover the values in life that will best serve man. Since Hemingway has rejected traditional values, he himself establishes a kind of code for his heroes. This code is better seen than spoken of. The Hemingway hero doesn't speak of abstract qualities like courage and honesty. He lives them. But this living of values entails continual performance the Hemingway hero is always having his values put to the test. How can the hero be up to this continual test? Hemingway stresses the faculty of self-discipline as the backbone of all other virtues. Self-discipline places man's good qualities on a continuum. The dramatic change in Francis Macomber in The Short, Happy Life of Francis Macomber stems more from his new-found self-control than from any accidental combination of traits. Comment This illustrates plagiarism since the writer used the notion of the Hemingway code hero presented in Cliffs Notes as the sole basis for his own essay. He has absorbed his source's concepts, re-phrased them, and, perhaps, made them simpler. But there is a one-to-one relationship between the development of ideas in the Cliffs Notes and the plagiarists' rendition.

  • Avoiding and Detecting Plagiarism

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    The first two sentences of the plagiarist's are directly borrowed from his source; the remaining sentences are more artfully disguised. The worst feature of this idea-copying is that it seems to be the end product of a close reading of Hemingway's Short, Happy Life, [that is] the writer makes it appear that his comments are based on this short story. The writing here would be acceptable if he had written the same paraphrase with the proper acknowledgment of his source. D. INSUFFICIENT ACKNOWLEDGMENT

    Source: Laven, Peter. Renaissance Italy: 14641534. New York: Capricorn, 1964. Print. The tenacious particularism of the Italian state gave rise to a wide variety of constitutional solutions and class structures throughout Italy. Even conquered territories and those swallowed up by bigger neighboring powers often managed to retain much of their internal organization as it had been. If power changed hands, the instruments and forms of power usually remained the same. Since the economic needs of such territories did not suddenly alter with a change of government or master, those classes which had been important before the change tended to continue to be important afterwards as well. Only when the nature of the change was economic and social might there have been a reversal in the relationships of classes; but even in this there was no sudden revolution in the structure of classes. Misuse of source In his comprehensive study, Renaissance Italy, Peter Laven discusses the peculiar organization of Renaissance city states: The tenacious particularism of the Italian states gave rise to a wide variety of constitutional solutions and class structures throughout Italy. Even conquered territories and those swallowed up by bigger neighboring powers often managed to retain much of their internal organization as it had been (130).This means that if power changed hands, the instruments and forms of power usually remained the same. Since the economic needs of such territories did not suddenly alter with a change of government or master, those classes which had been important before the change tended to continue to be important afterwards as well. Only when the nature of the change was economic and social might there have been a reversal in the relationships of classes; but even in this there was no sudden revolution in the structure of classes.

    Comment This half-crediting of a source is a common form of plagiarism. It stems either from a desire to credit one's source and copy it too, or from ignorance as to where to footnote. The general rule is to footnote after rather than before your resource material. In this case, the plagiarist credits historian Peter Laven with two sentences and then continues using the author without giving acknowledgment. The writer disguises the direct plagiarism as a paraphrase by using the falsely-explanatory phrase This means that ... in the third sentence. This example of plagiarism is especially reprehensible because the writer seemingly acknowledges his sourcebut not enough.

    ____________ [This guide was prepared with contributions from many people, including members of the Undergraduate Council. Mark Sheldon, Assistant Dean for Academic Integrity in WCAS, assisted with the organization of the document and worked with Barbara Shwom of the WCAS Writing Program, to update the material.]The examples of plagiarism and comments are based upon Sources: Their Use and Acknowledgment (published by Dartmouth College).

  • Avoiding and Detecting Plagiarism

    11

    For more on plagiarism, see Charles Lipson, Doing Honest Work in College. How to Prepare Citations, Avoid Plagiarism, and achieve Real Academic Success (Univ. of Chicago Press, 2004).

    This ends the material from the Northwestern University website,

    http://www.northwestern.edu/provost/students/integrity/plagiarism.html.

    The same text is included in a part of Academic Integrity: A Basic Guide (Northwestern University, 2011, pp. 1216), which may be found at this url:

    http://www.northwestern.edu/provost/students/integrity/Academic_Integrity_Basic_

    Guide.pdf.

  • 12

    Part 4. Plagiarism in the Sciences In science, each discovery and paper builds on previous discoveries and can be

    understood in the context of prior knowledge. Relevant work is summarized briefly

    for its support of the new finding. All statements about prior work derive their

    legitimacy from the replicability of the work, and citation of that work is essential to the weight of the statements. It is therefore advantageous to cite prior work as much

    as possible. For that reason, seldom is any individual work mentioned in the form of

    text longer than a sentence; exact wording is almost never quoted. The rare

    exception would be a short quotation of a remarkable statement in a review article.12

    Plagiarism of ideas is more difficult to track, but is contrary to the purpose and

    practice of science. Guidelines on these points are specifically detailed by the

    American Chemical Society, among others

    (http://pubs.acs.org/page/policy/ethics/index.html, accessed June 19, 2012).

    In addition, plagiarism in the sciences is part of a broader definition of misconduct in

    research. The recognition of the larger framework into which the specific issue of

    plagiarism in the sciences fits can be seen in the National Science Foundation (NSF)

    definition of research misconduct as fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in

    proposing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results.13

    Issues of citation when using other peoples work, however, apply in the sciences as

    in other fields of academic work, and the guidelines in the previous two parts of this

    guide are also applicable to the sciences. See Appendix I for citation style sources.

    12 An article in Monitor on Psychology, a publication of the American Psychological Association, states:

    When it comes to specifics, definitions of plagiarism vary, even over something as simple as how many sequential

    words must be lifted from an original text before being considered plagiarism. For some people, it is as few as three

    words. For others, such as Frostburg State University psychology professor Chrismarie Baxter, PhD, it is five. [Jane]

    Halonen [PhD, director of the School of Psychology at James Madison University] sorts through the confusion by

    thinking of plagiarism as occurring on a continuum. On one end are the students who do it inadvertentlywhat she calls

    the benign form. On the other end are those who do it knowingly with the goal of outfoxing the teacherthe malign

    form. In between are those who do it somewhat by accident or out of sloppiness. See Bridget Murray, Keeping plagiarism at bay in the Internet age, Monitor on Psychology 3, no. 2 (February 2, 2002),

    http://www.apa.org/monitor/feb02/plagiarism.html. The full article suggests ways to prevent plagiarism, particularly from internet

    sources. 13 Sherrye McGregor, J.D., NSF DiscussionResponsible Oversight & Research Misconduct Investigation, Office of Inspector General, National Science Foundation, p. 4, http://www.oig.nsf.gov/misconduct.pdf (accessed January 3, 2005).

  • 13

    Part 5. How to Avoid Plagiarism The material in Part 5, How to Avoid Plagiarism, is reproduced verbatim from Undergraduate Academic Conduct Committee, Northwestern University, Academic

    Integrity at Northwestern: How To Avoid Plagiarism, http://www.northwestern.edu/provost/students/integrity/plagiarism.html (accessed

    June 19, 2012).

    In all academic work, and especially when writing papers, we are building upon the insights and words of others. A conscientious writer always distinguishes clearly between what has been learned from others and what he or she is personally contributing to the reader's understanding. To avoid plagiarism, it is important to understand how to attribute words and ideas you use to their proper source.

    Guidelines for Proper Attribution

    Everyone in the university needs to pay attention to the issue of proper attribution. All of usfaculty and students togetherdraw from a vast pool of texts, ideas, and findings that humans have accumulated over thousands of years; we could not think to any productive end without it. Even the sudden insights that appear at first glance to arrive out of nowhere come enmeshed in other people's thinking. What we call originality is actually the innovative combining, amending, or extending of material from that pool. Hence each of us must learn how to declare intellectual debts. Proper attribution acknowledges those debts responsibly, usefully, and respectfully. An attribution is responsible when it comes at a location and in a fashion that leaves readers in no doubt about whom you are thanking for what. It is useful when it enables readers to find your source readily for themselves. You help them along the way, just as that same source helped you along yours. To make sure that our attributions are useful, we double-check them whenever we can. Quite literally, it is a habit that pays. Colleagues in every field appreciate the extra care. Nothing stalls a career faster than sloppy, unreliable work.

    Finally, an attribution is respectful when it expresses our appreciation for something done well enough to warrant our borrowing it. We should take pride in the intellectual company we keep. It speaks well of us that we have chosen to use the work of intelligent, interesting people, and we can take genuine pleasure in joining our name with theirs.

    A Note about Attributions or Citations

    The two most commonly used attribution systemsModern Language Association (MLA) and American Psychological Association (APA)consist of two parts: (a) a reference or works cited list at the end of the document, giving precise information about how to find a source and (b) parenthetical citations immediately following the material you are citing. Professors and disciplines may vary as to the preferred style for documenting ideas, opinions and facts, but all methods insist upon absolute clarity as to the source and page reference, and require that all direct quotations be followed by a citation. The best solution is to ask which method your instructors prefer. It is sometimes difficult to judge what needs to be documented. Generally knowledge which is common to all of us or ideas which have been in the public domain and are found in a number of sources do not need to be cited. Likewise, facts that are accepted by most authorities also do not require a citation. Grey areas, however, exist and sometimes it is difficult to be sure how to proceed. Many people wrongly assume that if they find material on the web, that material is in the public domain and does not need to be cited. However, the same guidelines

  • Avoiding and Detecting Plagiarism

    14

    apply to all sources you use in your work: electronic or print, signed or unsigned. If you are in doubt, err on the side of over-documentation. The following passages come from a number of sources, including undergraduate essays. They are all appropriately documented using Modern Language Association (MLA) style and each represents a different kind of problem that you will be facing in your own written work. Examples of Materials which Have Been Appropriately Cited 1. Quoted Material and Unusual Opinion or Knowledge

    Source: Vivelo, Jackie. The Mystery of Nancy Drew. MS. 3.3 (1992): 7677. Print. The teenage detective who was once a symbol of spunky female independence has slowly been replaced by an image of prolonged childhood, currently evolving toward a Barbie doll detective. ... Every few pages bring reminders of Nancy's looks, her clothing, her effect on other people. ... The first entry in this series carries a description of Nancy: The tight jeans looked great on her long, slim legs and the green sweater complemented her strawberry-blonde hair. Use and Adaptation of the Material: Nancy Drew has become a Barbie doll version of her old self. She has become superficial and overly concerned with her looks. She is described in the new series as wearing tight jeans [that] looked great on her long, slim legs (qtd. in Vivelo 77). She has traded her wits and independent spirit for a great body and killer looks (Vivelo 7677). Explanation: The writer has paraphrased most of the material. She discovered that the paraphrased ideas are unusual (not found in other sources). Therefore, she placed a citation at the end of the entire passage. In addition, the writer borrowed a quotation from the Nancy Drew series that she found in the article. The writer has placed quotation marks around that borrowed material and placed a quoted in citation immediately after the quotation. 2. Interpretation

    Source: Lehmberg, Stanford. The Peoples of the British Isles: A New History. Vol. I. New York: Wadsworth, 1992. Print. Page 9: One recent theory, advanced by the physicist Gerald Hawkins, holds that Stonehenge was actually an observatory, used to predict the movement of stars as well as eclipses of the sun and moon. Such a structure would have been of great value to an agricultural people, since it would enable them to mark the changing seasons accurately, and it would have conferred seemingly supernatural powers on the religious leaders who knew how to interpret its alignments.

    Use and Adaptation of the Material: If Stonehenge was an astronomical observatory which could predict the coming of spring, summer, and fall, this knowledge would have given tremendous power to the priestly leaders of an agricultural community (Lehmberg 9).

  • Avoiding and Detecting Plagiarism

    15

    Explanation: The writer has appropriately cited this material since the writer is in debt to someone else for the analysis, even though the writer has not used any direct quotations. 3. Paraphrased Material

    Source: Osborne, Richard, ed. How to Grow Annuals. 2nd ed. Menlo Park, CA: Lane, 1974. Print. Page 24: As a recent authority has pointed out, for a dependable long-blooming swatch of soft blue in your garden, ageratum is a fine choice. From early summer until frost, ageratum is continuously covered with clustered heads of tiny, silky, fringed flowers in dusty shades of lavender-blue, lavender-pink, or white. The popular dwarf varieties grow in mounds six to twelve inches high and twelve inches across; they make fine container plants. Larger types grow up to three feet tall. Ageratum makes an excellent edging.

    Use and Adaptation of the Material: You can depend on ageratum if you want some soft blue in your garden. It blooms through the summer and the flowers, soft, small, and fringed, come in various shades of lavender. The small varieties which grow in mounds are very popular, especially when planted in containers. There are also larger varieties. Ageratum is good as a border plant (Osborne 24). Explanation: The writer has done a good job of paraphrasing what could be considered common knowledge (available in a number of sources), but because the structure and progression of detail is someone else's, the writer has acknowledged the source. This the writer can do at the end of the paragraph since he or she has not used the author's words. 4. Using Other Authors' Examples

    Source: Begley, Sharon. The Puzzle of Genius. Newsweek 28 June 1993: 46+. Print. The creative geniuses of art and science work obsessively.... Bach wrote a cantata every week, even when he was sick or exhausted. Source: Holtz, Robert. The Heady Theories on Contours of Einsteins Genius. Wall Street Journal 2009 May 22, late ed: A9. Print. Although he published 300 scientific papers, Einstein couldnt easily describe the way his mind worked.

    Use and Adaptation of the Material: If there is a single unifying characteristic about geniuses, it is that they produce. Bach wrote a cantata every week (Begley 50). Einstein drafted over 300 papers (Holtz A9).

    Explanation: Instead of finding original examples, the writer has used other authors examples to back up what the writer had to say; therefore, the writer cited the sources where he found the examples. 5. [omitted]

  • Avoiding and Detecting Plagiarism

    16

    6. Use of Class Notes

    Source: McKay, Mary. Messages in Modern Music. Northwestern University. Evanston, IL. 10 Mar. 2010. Lecture. A. Born in USASpringsteen's 7th, most popular album

    a. Recorded with songs on Nebraska albumtherefore also about hardship 1. Nebraska about losers and killers b. About America todayVietnam, nostalgia, unemployment, deterioration of family c. Opening songmany people missed the Vietnam message about how badly vets were

    treated class notesMessages in Modern Music A05 Professor Mary McKayMarch 10, 2010 Use and Adaptation of the Material: As Professor McKay has pointed out, many of the songs in Born in the USA (Springsteen's seventh and most popular album), including the title song, were recorded with the songs on Nebraska. Consequently, Born in the USA is also about people who come to realize that life turns out harder and more hurtful than what they might have expected. However, while Nebraska deals with losers and killers, Born in the USA deals more locally with the crumbling of American societyits treatment of returning Vietnam veterans, its need to dwell on past glories, its unemployment and treatment of the unemployed, and the loss of family roots. This is apparent from the opening song of the album Born in the USA in which Springsteen sings from the perspective of a Vietnam Veteran. Explanation: By mentioning Professor McKays name in the text itself, the writer has acknowledged that these ideas (which are not commonly held or the writer has not investigated to find out if they are commonly held) come from a lecture. In this instance, because there is no page number to cite, no parenthetical citation is necessary. A reader can go to the entry for McKay in the Works Cited list to find all the necessary specific information about the source. 7. Debatable Facts

    Source: Craig, Gordon. Europe Since 1815. New York: Dryden Press, 1974. Print. Page 370: In the campaigns of 1915 Russian casualties have been conservatively estimated at more than 2 million. Source: Stavrianos, Leften S. The World Since 1500. New York: Prentice Hall, 1966. Print. Page 438: By the end of the summer [of 1915] in addition to military casualties totalling 2,500,000 men, Russia had lost 15 percent of her territories.... Response to the Material Estimates of the number of deaths in Russia during 1915 range from over two million (Craig 370) to two and a half million (Stavrianos 438).

    Explanation: The writer found different facts in different sources; therefore the facts needed to be documented.

  • Avoiding and Detecting Plagiarism

    17

    8. Unusual Facts

    Source: Enroth-Cugell, Christina, Lyle F. Mockros, and Robert A. Linsenmeier. Biomedical Engineering at Northwestern, 19691999.PDF File. Northwestern University Biomedical Engineering. Northwestern University, 4 Sept. 2001. Web. 3 August 2010.

    The Majority of the biomedical engineering faculty from various departments in Tech believed that if the program at Northwestern was to maintain the worldwide reputation for excellence it had achieved and make further progress during ensuing years, then the curriculum had to continue to include quantitative biology courses on the Evanston Campus. One compelling reason for advocating the reintroduction of such biology courses on the Evanston campus was that by the early 1970s approximately 40% of first year undergraduates in the engineering school were enrolling in the Interdisciplinary Biomedical Engineering Program. Use and Adaptation of the Material:

    For decades, biomedical engineering has been one [of] the most popular engineering majors at Northwestern. In fact, in the 1970s, roughly 40% of the incoming engineering undergraduates entered the Interdisciplinary Biomedical Engineering Program (Enroth-Cugell, Mockros and Linsenmeier, 3). Explanation: The writer found this fact in only one source and wants his reader to know where to find it. _____________ The section on attribution was written by Jean Smith of the CAS Writing Program, with help from Bob Wiebe of the History Department. Contributors include Katrina Cucueco (Speech '96), Ryan Garino (CAS '98), Scott Goldstein (Tech '96), and Jean Smith and Ellen Wright of the Writing Program.

    This ends the material from the Northwestern University website,

    http://www.northwestern.edu/provost/students/integrity/plagiarism.html.

    The same text is included in a part of Academic Integrity: A Basic Guide (Northwestern University, 2011, pp. 712), which may be found at this url:

    http://www.northwestern.edu/provost/students/integrity/Academic_Integrity_Basic_

    Guide.pdf.

  • 19

    SECTION II: FOR THE INSTRUCTOR

    Part 1. Detecting Plagiarism Locating a plagiarized source directly may initially be difficult, but experienced

    professors can readily distinguish between a students own work and work that has

    been copied. The sophistication of the writing is often a giveaway, and students

    tend to overlook other indications of copying. A published piece of work has often

    gone through several drafts and edits. It is often tightly organized with many ideas

    neatly compressed into a flowing theme. The paragraphs are well crafted. The ideas

    are logically organized. Even most faculty require a few drafts to get it all right.

    Also, the same internet search engines through which students find and borrow

    material are available to faculty, as are internet-based applications, or electronic

    plagiarism detection services, designed to identify plagiarism from web-based

    sources. For example, faculty members have successfully used Google to search for

    the source of suspicious phrases in students written work.

    Part 2. Sources for Detecting Plagiarism14 Several online resources are specifically aimed at detecting plagiarism. One example

    is Turnitin (http://www.turnitin.com/en_us/home). Some CUNY campuses have

    purchased a site license to use Turnitin. Other plagiarism-detecting software

    packages include ithenticate (http://www.ithenticate.com) and CopyCatch Gold

    (http://cflsoftware.com/). In addition, SafeAssign (http://www.safeassign.com) is

    available to all CUNY affiliates through Blackboard. See also Technological tools to

    detect dishonesty, Monitor on Psychology, 3 no. 2 (February 2, 2002), American Psychological Association, http://www.apa.org/monitor/ Feb02/ plagiarism.html.

    Part 3. Doctoral Faculty Responsibility Faculty are encouraged first to review suspected violations of the Graduate Centers

    Policy on Academic Honesty / CUNY Policy on Academic Integrity with the student;

    this may, of course, include discussion of possible resolutions. In no case, however,

    may a student be assigned a grade as a sanction without either the students

    agreement or a due process determination (i.e., a Student-Faculty Disciplinary

    Hearing) pursuant to formal disciplinary charges brought by the Vice President for

    Student Affairs. Suspected violations of the GC Policy on Academic Honesty / CUNY

    Policy on Academic Integrity must be reported to the Vice President for Student

    Affairs as the Graduate Centers Academic Integrity Officer and to the Executive

    Officer of the academic program. Should a possible resolution be reached by the

    instructor and the student, the Vice President for Student Affairs and the Executive

    Officer must be informed. No proposed resolution may be implemented without the

    approval of the Vice President, who will consult with the instructor and the Executive

    Officer. As Academic Integrity Officer, the Vice President makes the determination on

    14 All websites referenced in this Section II were accessed on July 7, 2012.

  • Avoiding and Detecting Plagiarism

    20

    whether disciplinary charges are called for. As the CUNY Policy on Academic Integrity

    states, substantial violations for which it is appropriate to seek disciplinary

    sanctions include violations committed by a graduate or professional student or a

    student who will seek professional licensure.15 The form at the end of this document

    (Appendix IV) may be used or the equivalent information may be provided otherwise

    in writing: Instructor name; Course title and code; Semester; Students name;

    Date(s) of incident; Type of incident (e.g., plagiarism, cheating, other act of

    academic dishonesty); Description of incident; Brief factual report of discussion /

    communication with student about the incident (Did student admit to the charge?

    Explanation?); Possible resolution, if any, agreed to by instructor and student (e.g.,

    Failing grade on exam/paper, Failing final grade, Failing/reduced grade plus makeup

    work); Instructor recommendation, if any, for further action by the Vice President for

    Student Affairs.

    Faculty members are urged to confer with the Executive Officer and the Vice

    President for Student Affairs at any time, including before meeting with the student,

    to discuss the suspected violation.

    We strongly recommend that every course syllabus should reference the Graduate

    Center Policy on Academic Honesty and the CUNY Policy on Academic Integrity.

    15 From Section 4.1 of the revised CUNY Policy on Academic Integrity, The City University of New York, July 20, 2011,

    http://www.cuny.edu/about/administration/offices/la/Academic_Integrity_Policy.pdf.

  • 21

    Part 4. Procedures to Be Followed in Instances of Allegations of Academic Dishonesty16 Any student who has submitted a paper, examination, project, or other academic

    work in part or in full not his or her own without appropriate attribution is subject to

    disciplinary charges. Such charges may result in the imposition of a grade of F or

    other penalties and sanctions, including suspension and termination of

    matriculation.

    An accusation of academic dishonesty may be brought against a student by a

    professor, an Executive Officer, a program, a group of faculty, an administrator, or

    another student and must be reported to the Vice President for Student Affairs, who

    is the Graduate Centers campus Academic Integrity Officer, and to the Executive

    Officer.

    The Executive Officer, upon initiating or receiving an allegation of academic

    dishonesty, shall appoint an ad hoc committee consisting of three members of the

    faculty. The function of this committee shall be to determine whether sufficient

    evidence exists to warrant levying formal charges against the student and to make a

    recommendation to the Executive Officer. The proceedings of the ad hoc committee

    shall be conducted expeditiously and should receive the minimum publicity possible.

    A recommendation by the ad hoc committee to levy formal charges shall be

    forwarded in writing by the Executive Officer to the Vice President for Student

    Affairs/Academic Integrity Officer, who will then inform the student in writing of the

    nature of the allegations against him or her and conduct a preliminary investigation

    to determine whether to initiate disciplinary proceedings.

    Executive Officers and faculty are encouraged to consult with the Vice President at all

    stages of an inquiry regarding allegations of academic dishonesty.

    16 From Student Handbook 201213, pp. 5758. See Appendix II, The Graduate Center Policy on Academic Honesty, for the full

    policy, and Appendix IV, Faculty Report Form for Alleged Violations of The Graduate Center Policy on Academic Honesty/CUNY

    Policy on Academic Integrity, for a suggested form.

  • 23

    APPENDIX I HOW TO CITE RESEARCH SOURCES APPROPRIATELY: SELECTED RESOURCES Part 1. Internet Resources This section of this guide provides selected internet references on appropriate

    citation and footnote protocols and styles. The following listing is intended as a

    starting point. Many reference books and online resources are available for learning

    more about plagiarism and appropriate attribution and citation. All the websites

    were accessed on June 25, 2012. http://libguides.gc.cuny.edu/content.php?pid=231531&sid=2129246 This page at the Graduate Center Mina Rees Library website is particularly helpful for learning about styles of citation. It includes sections on style guides, citation managers, best practices, and copyright, as well as many useful links. http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/CMS_FAQ/new/new_questions01.html This is the online Q&A for the Chicago Manual of Style (now in its 16th edition), published by the University of Chicago Press. It is a good and quick source for clarifying any questions or doubts you may have about style or grammar. http://www.ccc.eommnet.edu/mla/online.shtml This useful Capital Community College of Hartford, Connecticut, sitein addition to providing its own helpful examples of references sourceshas a direct link to the Modern Language Association (MLA) website and the American Psychological Association's (APA) guidelines on electronic sources. http://cai.ucdavis.edu/plagiarism.html This site has a Q&A on plagiarism and links to other useful pages on plagiarism and writing. http://www.lib.montana.edu/guides/styles.php This site has information on APA, MLA, and Turabian citation styles. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/citing_electronic_media.htm This National Center for Health Statistics site offers assistance on how to cite electronic media. http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/resdoc5e/index.htm This site offers assistance regarding research and documentation and various citation styles. http://library.osu.edu/help/research-strategies/ This site features sections that provide research guides for organizing and citing information using several citation styles (APA, Chicago, CSE, MLA, and Turabian).

  • 24

    Part 2. Sources for Citing Government Documents Correct citation of government documents can often present more complications

    than the usual book or journal. The Columbia University Libraries site,

    http://library.columbia.edu/indiv/usgd/citation.html,17 provides a useful guide to

    publications that can assist the researcher in properly citing these documents.

    Immediately below are the names of two of the publications, with accompanying

    annotations provided by the site:

    The Bluebook: a Uniform System of Citation. 19th ed. https://www.legalbluebook.com/

    The authoritative guide for citing legal materials. Cheney, Debora. The Complete Guide to Citing Government Information Resources:

    A Manual for Social Science & Business Research. 3d ed. Bethesda, MD: LexisNexis; Congressional Information Service, c2002. The best, most comprehensive guide to citing government documents at all levelsU.S. federal, state, and local; IGO; and foreignand in all formats. Includes extensive coverage of electronic formats (WWW files, data files, email messages, Webcasts, image files, etc.).

    Library of Congress #: Z7164.G7 C48 2002 J9.5 U.S. Census Bureau. Suggested Citation Styles for our Internet Information. 2

    February 2001. http://www.census.gov/main/www/citation.html. Rules and examples for HTML, ASCII, PDF, email, and dynamically generated tables files.

    Other university library websites provide useful information on citing government

    documents. See the following pages in particular:

    http://knowledgecenter.unr.edu/help/manage/government_cite.aspx http://guides.lib.umich.edu/citedocs http://www.memphis.edu/govpub/citweb.php

    17 "U.S. Government Documents: Citing Government Documents," Herbert H. Lehman Social Sciences Library, Columbia University libraries, http://library.columbia.edu/indiv/usgd/citation.html (accessed June 25, 2012).

  • 25

    Part 3. Style Guides Accessible via the Mina Rees Library Website (http:/library.gc.cuny.edu/) or the CUNY Library System The Chicago Manual of Style. 16th edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.

    http://libguides.gc.cuny.edu/content.php?pid=231531&sid=2129246 International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals.

    http://libguides.gc.cuny.edu/content.php?pid=231531&sid=2129246 MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th edition. New York: Modern Language Association, 2009.

    Graduate Center Reference - LB2309.G53 2009. Non-circulating. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 6th edition. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2010.

    Graduate Center - Reference - BF76.7 .P83 2010.Non-circulating. Style Manual Committee, Council of Science Editors. Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. 7th edition. Reston, VA: Council of Science Editors/Rockefeller University Press. 2006.

    Baruch - Reference Desk, 2nd Floor - T11 .S386 2006. Non-circulating. Brooklyn - Stacks - T11 .S386 2006. City College Sci/Engin Library - Reserve - T11 .S386 2006. City College Sci/Engin Library - Reference - T11 .S386 2006. Non-circulating. Hunter Main - Reference, 4th floor - T11 .S386 2006. Non-circulating. Kingsborough - Reference - T11 .S386 2006. Non-circulating. Lehman College - Ready Reference - T11 .S386 2006. Non-circulating.

    Turabian, Kate L. Turabian Quick Guide.

    http://libguides.gc.cuny.edu/content.php?pid=231531&sid=2129246

  • 26

    Part 4. Citation Managers Citation and research management tools (whether software or online applications)

    allow the researcher to keep a database of bibliographic information, as well as

    generating citations and bibliographies.

    The Mina Rees Library website has extensive information on citation managers,

    including links to access Endnote (software licensed for CUNY Graduate Center

    affiliates), RefWorks (an online application licensed for all CUNY affiliates), and

    Zotero (a free download): http://libguides.gc.cuny.edu/content.php?pid=241407

  • 27

    APPENDIX II GRADUATE CENTER POLICY ON ACADEMIC HONESTY The Graduate Center, like other universities, is strict with regard to academic

    dishonesty and has a strongly enforced policy of bringing formal charges in cases of

    alleged academic dishonesty and of disciplining those who are guilty of such

    behavior. Our academic enterprise is based fundamentally on trust and intellectual

    honesty. It cannot thrive among those who appropriate others thoughts, ideas, and

    words. For this reason, universities mete out severe punishments for those who

    participate in appropriating the ideas that have been developed by others.

    The following Graduate Center policy, which is published in The Graduate Center Student Handbook 201213 (pp. 5758), describes in detail the standards for academic honesty, defines plagiarism, and outlines the actions to be taken when

    violations are suspected.

    Consistent with the CUNY Policy on Academic Integrity, The Graduate Center Policy

    on Academic Honesty provides for referral of cases of alleged violations first to the

    Executive Officer of a students program (with notice to the Vice President for

    Student Affairs), where a three-member ad hoc faculty committee will review the

    evidence and recommend to the Executive Officer whether formal disciplinary

    charges are warranted. The Executive Officer then forwards the recommendation

    and the evidence to the Vice President for Student Affairs / Academic Integrity

    Officer. The Vice President, confers with the Executive Officer and instructor, meets

    with the student, and otherwise further investigates the matter before deciding

    whether to proceed with resolution, mediation, or formal disciplinary charges.

    POLICY ON ACADEMIC HONESTY18 The Graduate Center of The City University of New York is committed to the highest standards

    of academic honesty. Acts of academic dishonesty includebut are not limited toplagiarism,

    (in drafts, outlines, and examinations, as well as final papers), cheating, bribery, academic

    fraud, sabotage of research materials, the sale of academic papers, and the falsification of

    records. An individual who engages in these or related activities or who knowingly aids

    another who engages in them is acting in an academically dishonest manner and will be

    subject to disciplinary action in accordance with the bylaws and procedures of The Graduate

    Center and of the Board of Trustees of The City University of New York.

    Each member of the academic community is expected to give full, fair, and formal credit to

    any and all sources that have contributed to the formulation of ideas, methods,

    interpretations, and findings. The absence of such formal credit is an affirmation representing

    that the work is fully the writer's. The term sources includes, but is not limited to, published

    18 From Student Handbook 201213, pp. 5758.

  • Avoiding and Detecting Plagiarism

    28

    or unpublished materials, lectures and lecture notes, computer programs, mathematical and

    other symbolic formulations, course papers, examinations, theses, dissertations, and

    comments offered in class or informal discussions, and includes electronic media. The

    representation that such work of another person is the writer's own is plagiarism.

    Care must be taken to document the source of any ideas or arguments. If the actual words of

    a source are used, they must appear within quotation marks. In cases that are unclear, it is

    the responsibility of the writer must to take due care to avoid plagiarism.

    The source should be cited whenever:

    (a) a text is quoted verbatim

    (b) data gathered by another are presented in diagrams or tables

    (c) the results of a study done by another are used

    (d) the work or intellectual effort of another is paraphrased by the writer

    Because the intent to deceive is not a necessary element in plagiarism, careful note taking and

    record keeping are essential in order to avoid unintentional plagiarism.

    Procedures to be followed in instances of allegations of academic dishonesty Any student who has submitted a paper, examination, project, or other academic work in part

    or in full not his or her own without appropriate attribution is subject to disciplinary charges.

    Such charges may result in the imposition of a grade of F or other penalties and sanctions,

    including suspension and termination of matriculation.

    An accusation of academic dishonesty may be brought against a student by a professor, an

    Executive Officer, a program, a group of faculty, an administrator, or another student and

    must be reported to the Vice President for Student Affairs, who is the Graduate Centers

    campus Academic Integrity Officer, and to the Executive Officer.

    The Executive Officer, upon initiating or receiving an allegation of academic dishonesty, shall

    appoint an ad hoc committee consisting of three members of the faculty. The function of this

    committee shall be to determine whether sufficient evidence exists to warrant levying formal

    charges against the student and to make a recommendation to the Executive Officer. The

    proceedings of the ad hoc committee shall be conducted expeditiously and should receive the

    minimum publicity possible. A recommendation by the ad hoc committee to levy formal

    charges shall be forwarded in writing by the Executive Officer to the Vice President for Student

    Affairs / Academic Integrity Officer, who will then inform the student in writing of the nature of

    the allegations against him or her and conduct a preliminary investigation to determine

    whether to initiate disciplinary proceedings.

    Executive Officers and faculty are encouraged to consult with the Vice President at all stages

    of an inquiry regarding allegations of academic dishonesty.

  • 29

    APPENDIX III CUNY POLICY ON ACADEMIC INTEGRITY Following is the CUNY Policy on Academic Integrity adopted by CUNYs Board of

    Trustees adopted June 27, 2011, revising the original policy adopted on June 28,

    2004. The policy provides definitions and examples of various forms of academic

    dishonesty and clarifies procedures for imposing sanctions. Graduate Center faculty

    should refer to the Graduate Center Policy on Academic Honesty (see Appendix II)

    for the Graduate Center procedures that implement the CUNY Academic Integrity

    policy.

    CUNY Policy on Academic Integrity Academic dishonesty is prohibited in The City University of New York. Penalties for academic dishonesty include academic sanctions, such as failing or otherwise reduced grades, and/or disciplinary sanctions, including suspension or expulsion.

    1. Definitions and Examples of Academic Dishonesty

    1.1. Cheating is the unauthorized use or attempted use of material, information, notes, study aids, devices or communication during an academic exercise. Examples of cheating include:

    Copying from another student during an examination or allowing another to copy your work.

    Unauthorized collaboration on a take home assignment or examination.

    Using notes during a closed book examination.

    Taking an examination for another student, or asking or allowing another student to take an examination for you.

    Changing a graded exam and returning it for more credit.

    Submitting substantial portions of the same paper to more than one course without consulting with each instructor.

    Preparing answers or writing notes in a blue book (exam booklet) before an examination.

    Allowing others to research and write assigned papers or do assigned projects, including using commercial term paper services.

    Giving assistance to acts of academic misconduct/ dishonesty.

    Fabricating data (in whole or in part).

    Falsifying data (in whole or in part).

    Submitting someone else's work as your own.

    Unauthorized use during an examination of any electronic devices such as cellphones, computers or other technologies to retrieve or send information.

    1.2. Plagiarism is the act of presenting another person's ideas, research or writings as your own. Examples of plagiarism include:

    Copying another person's actual words or images without the use of quotation marks and footnotes attributing the words to their source.

    Presenting another person's ideas or theories in your own words without acknowledging the source.

    Failing to acknowledge collaborators on homework and laboratory assignments.

    Internet plagiarism, including submitting downloaded term papers or parts ofterm papers, paraphrasing or copying information from the internet without citing the source, or "cutting & pasting" from various sources without proper attribution.

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    1.3. Obtaining Unfair Advantage is any action taken by a student that gives that student an unfair advantage in his/her academic work over another student, or an action taken by a student through which a student attempts to gain an unfair advantage in his or her academic work over another student. Examples of obtaining unfair advantage include:

    Stealing, reproducing, circulating or otherwise gaining advance access to examination materials.

    Depriving other students of access to library materials by stealing, destroying, defacing, or concealing them.

    Retaining, using or circulating examination materials which clearly indicate that they should be returned at the end of the exam.

    Intentionally obstructing or interfering with another student's work.

    1.4. Falsification of Records and Official Documents

    Examples of falsification include:

    Forging signatures of authorization.

    Falsifying information on an official academic record.

    Falsifying information on an official document such as a grade report, letter of permission, drop/add form, ID card or other college document.

    2. Methods for Promoting Academic Integrity

    2.1. Packets containing a copy of the CUNY Policy on Academic Integrity and, if applicable, the college's procedures implementing the Policy, and information explaining the Policy and procedures shall be distributed to all current faculty and, on an annual basis, to all new faculty (full and part-time). These packets also shall be posted on each college's website. Orientation sessions for all new faculty (full and part-time) and students shall incorporate a discussion of academic integrity.

    2.2. All college catalogs, student handbooks, faculty handbooks, and college websites shall include the CUNY Policy on Academic Integrity and, if applicable, college procedures implementing the policy and the consequences of not adhering to the Policy.

    2.3. Each college shall subscribe to an electronic plagiarism detection service and shall notify students of the fact that such a service is available for use by the faculty. Colleges shall encourage faculty members to use such services and to inform students of their use of such services.

    3. Reporting

    3.1. Each college's president shall appoint an Academic Integrity Officer in consultation with the elected faculty governance leader. The Academic Integrity Officer shall serve as the initial contact person with faculty members when they report incidents of suspected academic dishonesty. The Academic Integrity Officer may be the college's Student Conduct Officer, another student affairs official, an academic affairs official, or a tenured faculty member. Additional duties of the Academic Integrity Officer are described in Sections 4.1, 4.2.1, 4.2.2, 4.3 and 4.4.

    3.2. A faculty member who suspects that a student has committed a violation of the CUNY Academic Integrity Policy shall review with the student the facts and circumstances of the suspected violation whenever feasible. Thereafter, a faculty member who concludes that there has been an incident of academic dishonesty sufficient to affect the student's final course grade shall report such incident on a Faculty Report Form in substantially the same format as the sample annexed to this Policy and shall submit the Form to the college's Academic Integrity Officer. Each college shall use a uniform form throughout the college, which shall contain, at a minimum, the name of the instructor, the name of the student, the course name and number and section number, the date of the incident, a description of the incident and the instructor's contact information.

    3.3. The Academic Integrity Officer shall update the Faculty Report Form after a suspected incident has been resolved to reflect that resolution. Unless the resolution exonerates the student, as described in Section 4.4, the Academic Integrity Officer of each college shall place

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    the Form in a confidential academic integrity file created for each student alleged to have violated the Academic Integrity Policy and shall retain each Form for the purposes of identifying repeat offenders, gathering data, and assessing and reviewing policies. Unless the student is exonerated, written decisions on academic integrity matters after adjudication also shall be placed in the student's academic integrity file. The Academic Integrity Officer shall be responsible for maintaining students academic integrity files.

    4. Procedures for Imposition of Sanctions

    4.1. Determination on academic vs. disciplinary sanction

    The Academic Integrity Officer shall determine whether to seek a disciplinary sanction in addition to an academic sanction. In making this determination, the Academic Integrity Officer shall consult with the faculty member who initiated the case and may consult with student affairs and/or academic affairs administrators as needed. Before determining which sanction(s) to seek, the Academic Integrity Officer also shall consult the student's confidential academic integrity file, if any, to determine whether the student has been found to have previously committed a violation of the Academic Integrity Policy, the nature of the infraction, and the sanction imposed or action taken. Prior violations include both violations at the student's current college and violations that occurred at any other CUNY college. In making the determination on prior violations, the Academic Integrity Officer shall determine whether the student previously attended any other CUNY colleges and, if so, shall request and be given access to the academic integrity files, if any, at such other CUNY colleges.

    The Academic Integrity Officer should seek disciplinary sanctions only if (i) there is a substantial violation; or (ii) the student has previously violated the Policy; or (iii) academic sanctions are unable to be imposed because the student has timely withdrawn from the applicable course. Examples of substantial violations include but are not limited to forging a grade form or a transcript; stealing an examination from a professor or a university office; having a substitute take an examination or taking an examination for someone else; having someone else write a paper for the student or writing a paper for another student; sabotaging another student's work through actions that prevent or impede the other student from successfully completing an assignment; and violations committed by a graduate or professional student or a student who will seek professional licensure. The college also should consider any mitigating circumstances in making this determination.

    4.2. Procedures in Cases Involving Only Academic Sanctions

    4.2.1. Student Admits to the Academic Dishonesty and Does Not Contest the Academic Sanction

    If a faculty member wishes to seek only an academic sanction (i.e., a reduced grade) and the student does not contest either his/her guilt or the particular reduced grade the faculty member has chosen, then the student shall be given the reduced grade, unless the Academic Integrity Officer decides to seek a disciplinary sanction. The reduced grade may apply to the particular assignment as to which the violation occurred or to the course grade, at the faculty member's discretion. A reduced grade may be an "F" or another grade that is lower than the grade that the student would have earned but for the violation.

    The faculty member shall inform the Academic Integrity Officer of the solution via email and the Officer shall update the applicable Faculty Report Form to reflect that resolution.

    4.2.2. Student Admits to the Academic Dishonesty but Contests the Academic Sanction

    In a case where a student admits to the alleged academic dishonesty but contests the particular academic sanction imposed, the student may appeal the academic sanction through the college's grade appeal process. The student shall be allowed, at a minimum, an opportunity to present a written position with supporting evidence. The committee reviewing the appeal shall issue a written decision explaining the justification for the academic sanction imposed.

    4.2.3. Student Denies the Academic Dishonesty

    In a case where a student denies the academic dishonesty, a fact-finding determination shall be made, at each college's option, by an Academic Integrity Committee established by the college's governance body or by the Student-Faculty Disciplinary Committee established under Article XV of the CUNY Bylaws. Each college's Academic Integrity Committee shall adopt

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    procedures for hearing cases. (If a college opts to use its Student-Faculty Disciplinary Committee for this purpose, that Committee shall use Article XV procedures.)Those procedures, at a minimum, shall provide a student with (i) written notice of the charges against him or her; (ii) the right to appear before the Committee; and (iii) the right to present witness statements and/or to call witnesses. Those procedures also shall provide the faculty member with the right to make an appearance before the Committee. The Committee may request the testimony of any witness and may permit any such witness to be questioned by the student and by the administrator presenting the case. Academic Integrity Committees and Student-Faculty Disciplinary Committees, as applicable, shall issue written decisions and send copies of their decisions to the college's Academic Integrity Officer. The Academic Integrity Officer may not serve on a college's Academic Integrity Committee.

    4.3. Procedures in Cases Involving Disciplinary Sanctions

    If the college decides to seek a disciplinary sanction, the case shall be processed under Article XV of the CUNY Bylaws. If the case is not resolved through mediation under Article XV, it shall be heard by the college's Faculty-Student Disciplinary Committee.

    If the college seeks to have both a disciplinary and an academic sanction imposed, the college shall proceed first with the disciplinary proceeding and await its outcome before addressing the academic sanction. The student's grade shall be held in abeyance by using the PEN grade established for this purpose, pending the Committee's action. If the Faculty-Student Disciplinary Committee finds that the alleged violation occurred, then the faculty member may reflect that finding in the student's grade. The student may appeal the finding in accordance with Article XV procedures and/or may appeal the grade imposed by the faculty member in accordance with section 4.2.2. If the Faculty-Student Disciplinary Committee finds that the alleged violation did not occur, then no sanction of any kind may be imposed.

    Where a matter proceeds to the Faculty-Student Disciplinary Committee, the Academic Integrity Officer shall promptly report its resolution to the faculty member and file a record of the resolution in the student's confidential academic integrity file, unless, as explained below, the suspected violation was held to be unfounded.

    4.4. Required Action in Cases of No Violation

    If either the Academic Integrity Committee or the Faculty-Student Disciplinary Committee finds that no violation occurred, the Academic Integrity Officer shall remove all material relating to that incident from the student's confidential academic integrity file and destroy the material.

    5. Implementation

    Each college, in accordance with its governance plan, shall implement this Policy and may adopt its own more specific procedures to implement the Policy. Colleges' procedures must be consistent with the policy and procedures described in the Policy. The Graduate Center Policy on Academic Honesty incorporates the CUNY Policy on Academic Integrity and provides for reporting of alleged violations and possible resolutions to both the Graduate Centers Academic Integrity Officer and to the Executive Officer of a students academic program.

    Adopted by the CUNY Board of Trustees on June 27, 2011

  • 33

    APPENDIX IV Faculty Report Form for Alleged Violations of the Graduate Center Policy on Academic Honesty / CUNY Policy on Academic Integrity The information requested on this form needs to be provided to the Executive Officer of your program and to the Vice President for Student Affairs (the Graduate Centers Academic Integrity Officer) to report any instance of suspected academic dishonesty or any possible resolution that the faculty member and the student may have agreed upon. (Please note, however, that under CUNY policy no proposed resolution may be implemented without the approval of the Vice President, who will consult with the instructor and the Executive Officer.) Please complete this form or otherwise provide the information in written form and send to the Executive Officer of your program and the Vice President for Student Affairs, Matthew G. Schoengood, Room 7301; mschoengood@gc.cuny.edu. Should you wish to confer with Vice President Schoengood before completing this form, he can be reached at 1-212-817-7400 or at the email address above.

    Instructor Name Program

    Telephone Number Email

    Course Title and Code Number

    Semester

    Name of Student

    Date(s) of Incident

    Type of Incident (e.g., Plagiarism, Cheating)

    Description of Incident

    Nature of discussion/communication with student about the incident (Did student admit to the charge? Explanation?)

    Possible resolution, if any, agreed to by instructor and student (e.g., Failing grade on exam/paper, Failing final grade, Failing/reduced grade plus makeup work)

    Instructors recommendation, if any, for further action by the Vice President for Student Affairs

    Signature of Faculty Member Date

    Resolution of the Case after Adjudication

    Academic Sanction

    Disciplinary Sanction

    Signature of Academic Integrity Officer Date

  • Avoiding and Detecting PlagiarismA Guide for Graduate Students and Faculty With Examples

    March 2005 / Revised July 2012

    The Graduate School and University CenterThe City University of New York365 Fifth Avenue, New York NY 100161.212.817.7000www.gc.cuny.edu

    Avoiding and Detecting Plagiarism

    A Guide for

    Graduate Students and Faculty

    With Examples Prepared by the Office of the Provost

    and

    the Office of the Vice President for Student Affairs

    in consultation with

    the Advisory Committee to Prevent Plagiarism

    The Graduate School and University Center

    The City University of New York

    March 2005 / Revised July 2012

    Avoiding andDetecting Plagiarism

    The Graduate Center

    Founded in 1961, the Graduate Center defines the standard of contemporary

    graduate education: rigorous academic training and globally significant

    research.

    Located across from the Empire State Building in one of the worlds most

    cosmopolitan cities, the Graduate Center offers more than thirty doctoral

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    programs. Its nationally unique consortium of 2,000 faculty members consists

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    1,850 additional faculty members drawn from throughout CUNY's eleven

    senior colleges and New York City's leading cultural and scientific institutions.

    Many of these faculty members are among the world's leading scholars in

    their respective fields and have received a wide variety of scholarly

    recognition.

    The school enrolls 4,500 students from throughout the United States, as well

    as from about eighty foreign countries. The second decade of the twenty-first

    century marks a new chapter for the Graduate Center. At the heart of our

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    activity by the Graduate Centers 2,000 doctoral faculty and distinguished

    visiting scholars with doctoral training of the highest quality, extends the

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