An Introduction to English Language - ?· An Introduction to English Language Word, ... 2.4.3 Diagramming…

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<ul><li><p>An Introductionto EnglishLanguageWord, Sound andSentenceSecond edition</p><p>Koenraad Kuiper</p><p>AND</p><p>W. Scott Allan</p><p>macmillan</p></li><li><p>Contents</p><p>Preface to the second editionPreface to the first editionAcknowledgementsAbbreviations and symbolsThe International Phonetic Alphabet</p><p>XII</p><p>xivxviixixxxi</p><p>CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS A LANGUAGE?</p><p>1.1 Properties of human language1.1.1 Language is a code1.1.2 Linguistic symbols have function and form1.1.3 Linguistic units are constructed according to rules1.1.4 Language is specifically human1.1.5 Language use is creative1.1.6 Language use is constrained</p><p>GlossaryFurther reading</p><p>123689</p><p>10</p><p>1315</p><p>part one Words 17</p><p>fGHAPTER 2 THE FORM AND FUNCTION OF WORDS</p><p>Introduction: dictionaries and lexemes</p><p>2.1 Words and their grammatical categories: syntactic categoriesand inflection2.1.1 Introduction2.1.2 Nouns2.1.3 Adjectives</p><p>19</p><p>19</p><p>21</p><p>212225vii</p></li><li><p>viii C0NTEN1</p><p>2.1.4 Verbs ;2.1.5 Adverbs [2.1.6 Prepositions '.</p><p>2.2 Word formation !2.2.1 Compounding :2.2.2 Derivational affixation2.2.3 Conversion</p><p>2.3 Kinds of morphemes2.3.1 Bound and free morphemes2.3.2 Stems and affixes2.3.3 More on inflectional morphemes</p><p>2.4 Morphological properties2.4.1 Existing and non-existing, possible and impossible words2.4.2 Productivity2.4.3 Diagramming word structure</p><p>Further exercises</p><p>CHAPTER 3 i WORD MEANINGS AND VOCABULARIES</p><p>3.1 The meaning of words3.1.1 Sameness and difference of sense3.1.2 Oppositeness of sense3.1.3 Sense components3.1.4 Tropes3.1.5 Word meanings in context3.1.6 Reference3.1.7 Word associations and connotations</p><p>3.2 Vocabularies3.2.1 Adding to vocabularies3.2.2 Coining new words3.2.3 Change through time3.2.4 Reduced usage, archaism and loss3.2.5 Word histories3.2.6 Dialect vocabularies3.2.7 Specialist vocabularies3.2.8 Formality and vocabulary3.2.9 Dictionaries</p><p>Further exercisesGlossaryFurther reading</p></li><li><p>CONTENTS IX</p><p>part two Sounds 101</p><p>^CHAPTER 4 SPEECH SOUNDS</p><p>4.1 Sounds and spelling4.1.1 The International Phonetic Alphabet</p><p>4.2 Articulatory phonetics4.2.1 Organs of speech4.2.2 Speech production4.2.3 Vowels</p><p>Further exercises</p><p>103</p><p>104107</p><p>112112115125</p><p>130</p><p>CHAPTER 5 THE PHONOLOGY OF ENGLISH</p><p>Introduction - sounds: same vs different</p><p>5.1 Identification of phonemes5.1.1 Complementary distribution5.1.2 Defective distribution5.1.3 Parallel distribution5.1.4 Free variation5.1.5 Variation and dialects</p><p>5.2 Phonemes and allophones revisited</p><p>5.3 Phonemic analysis5.3.1 The phonemic system5.3.2 Phonotactics5.3.3 Allophonic rules</p><p>5.4 Allophonic processes5.4.1 Aspiration5.4.2 Assimilation5.4.3 Elision5.4.4 Insertion</p><p>5.5 Allophones5.5.1 Oral stops5.5.2 Voiced fricatives5.5.3 Sonorants5.5.4 Vowels</p><p>5.6 Derivations</p><p>5.7 Features5.7.1 The necessity of features5.7.2 A set of distinctive features for English</p><p>135</p><p>135</p><p>139</p><p>140</p><p>141</p><p>142</p><p>146</p><p>147</p><p>151</p><p>152</p><p>152</p><p>153</p><p>155</p><p>158158159163164</p><p>165165166166167</p><p>168</p><p>168</p><p>169</p><p>171</p></li><li><p>5.7.35.7.45.7.55.7.65.7.75.7.85.7.95.7.105.7.115.7.12</p><p>Classificatory featuresNasalsPlace of articulation featuresTongue body featuresFurther articulatory featuresManner featuresSource featuresFeature matrices and redundancyNatural classesThe plural revisited</p><p>Further exercises</p><p>CHAPTER 6 SYLLABLES AND SUPRASEGMENTALS</p><p>6.1</p><p>6.2</p><p>6.3</p><p>Syllables6.1.1 Syllable boundaries and phonotactics6.1.2 Syllable structure6.1.3 Nucleus, rhyme, onset and coda6.1.4 Rhyme schemes</p><p>Suprasegmental features of English6.2.1 Pitch6.2.2 Intonation</p><p>Stress6.3.1 Levels of stress6.3.2 Stress in connected speech: rhythm6.3.3 Rhythm and meter in poetry</p><p>Further exercisesGlossaryFurther reading</p><p>part three Sentences</p><p>CHAPTER 7 THE STRUCTURE OF SIMPLE SENTENCES</p><p>Introduction</p><p>7.1 Simple phrases7.1.1 Three ways to identify phrases7.1.2 Heads and modifiers7.1.3 Noun phrase7.1.4 Adjective phrase7.1.5 Prepositional phrase7.1.6 Verb phrase</p></li><li><p>CONTENTS xi</p><p>256256258259263265</p><p>267</p><p>7.2 Simple7.2.17.2.27.2.37.2.47.2.5</p><p>clauses and their functional constituentsSubjectPredicateObjectsIntensive complementsAdverbials</p><p>Further exercises</p><p>CHAPTERJ3 | COMPLEX SYNTAX 269</p><p>8.1 Complex phrases and clauses 2698.1.1 Subcategorization of heads of phrase 2758.1.2 Co-ordination 278</p><p>8.2 Syntactic relatedness 2838.2.1 Yes/no question formation 2838.2.2 Wh questions and wh movement 2868.2.3 Relative clauses and wh movement 2908.2.4 Commands 2918.2.5 Passive 2928.2.6 Tag questions and dialect 2938.2.7 Main and subordinate clauses 2948.2.8 Empty constituents 2968.2.9 Grammatical change 297</p><p>8.3 Lexicalized phrases and clauses 299</p><p>Further exercises 301Glossary 303Further reading 307</p><p>Answers to exercises 309Index 360</p></li></ul>

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