Advanced Digital Black White Photography

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-Q ADVANCED BEARDSWORTH ADVANCED>>> PHOTOGRAPHY This book brings black-and-white photography into the digital age.Digitalcamerasmaycapturecolorimages,butmany photographersstill love the richtradition and unique graphic qualitiesofblack andwhite,andsensetheremustbemore to digitalmonochrome than simplythrowingawaythe color inPhotoshop.Whilemanybookscaterforbothambitious newcomersandadvanceddarkroomenthusiasts,blackand whiteistoooftentreated asanafterthought.It'srelegated to a few pages of outmoded techniques, never explaining the specialcharacteroftheblack-and-whiteimageandhowit canbe maximized and manipulated digitally. TakingfulladvantageofthelatestfeaturesinAdobe Photoshop (53, Advanced Digital Black &White Photography worksatthefrontierofblack-and-whitephotographyand digitalimaging. Youwilldiscoverthemostcreativewaysto convertyour picture to black and white, how to fine-tune the monochromeimage,andhowtoemphasizeyoursubject's qualities.Withbothquicksolutionstocommonproblems andflexible,non-destructivemethodsforfinercontrol,this bookwillenableyou toproducethefinest, mostexpressive black-and-white interpretations of yourpictures. ADVANCED AdvancedDigitalBlack&WhitePhotography LibraryofCongressCataloging-in-PublicationData Beardsworth,JohnDavid. Advanced digitalblack& whitephotography/JohnDavid Beardsworth.--1st ed. p.em. Includesindex. ISBN-13:978-1-60059-210-2(pb-withflaps'alk.paper) ISBN-lO:1-60059-210-4(pb-withflapsalk.paper) 1Photography-Digitaltechniques.2.Black-and-white photography.I Title.II.Title:Advanceddigitalblackandwhitephotography. TR267. B4352007 778.3-dc22 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1FirstEdition 2007015986 Published byLarkBooks,ADiviSion of SterlingPublishingCo ..Inc 387ParkAvenue South, New York, NY10016 TheIlexPresslimited2007 Thisbookwasconceived,designed,and producedby: ILEX,Lewes,England DistributedinCanadabySterlingPublishing, c/oCanadianManda Group,165DuffennStreet Toronto,Ontario,CanadaM6K 3H6 Thewritteninstructions,photographs,designs,patterns,and projectsinthis volumeareintendedforthepersonaluse ofthe readerand maybereproducedforthatpurposeonly.Anyother use,especiallycommercialuse,isforbiddenunderlawwithout writtenpermissionofthe publisher.Theworksrepresentedare the originalcreations ofthecontributingartists.Allartists retain copyrightson their individualworks,exceptasnoted. Everyefforthasbeenmadetoensurethatall theinformationin thisbookisaccurate.However,duetodifferingconditions,tools, and Individualskills,the publishercannotberesponsibleforany injuries,losses,andotherdamagesthatmayresultfromtheuse oftheinformationinthisbook.Becausespecificationsmaybe changedbythemanufacturerwithoutnotice,thecontentsofthis bookmaynotnecessarilyagreewithsoftwareandequipment changesmadeafterpublication. If you havequestionsorcomments aboutthisbook,please contact: LarkBooks 67Broadway Asheville,NC 28801 (828)253-0467 ManufacturedIn China Allrightsreserved ISBN 13:978-1-60059-210-2 ISBN10:1-60059-210-4 Todownloadexamplefilesfrom Advanced DigitalBlack &White Photography, goto: www.web-linked.com/adbwus Forinformationaboutcustomeditions,specialsales,premium andcorporatepurchases,pleasecontactSterlingSpecialSales Departmentat800-805-5489 or specialsales@sterlingpub.com. CONTENTS 6Introduction CameraWork: CapturingtheBlack-and-WhiteImage 12Black-and-whitemodes 14ShootRAWandincolor 16Whatworksinblackandwhite 18Toneandcontrast 20Digital black-and-whiteexposure 22Exposingtotheright 24Theshadows 26Drawntothebrightlights 28Increasingdynamicrange 30Coloredfilters:not forgotten 32Filtersfordigitalblackandwhite 34Digitalinfraredcapture TheDigitalDarkroom1: ConvertingtoBlackandWhite 40Destructivetechniques 44Calculations 46Thetoolsofthetrade 48TheChannelMixer 50"Filmandfilter" 52CS3BlackandWhite 54Paintingblackandwhite 56Black-and-whitepresets 58CameraRawandSmartObjects 62Convertingselectedimageareas 66Creativeconversion:People 70Creative conversion:Landscapes 72Tonalseparation .a&m74TheDigitalDarkroom2:132Solarization andtheSabattiereffect Fine-tuningthePhotograph 134Simulatinglith 76Settingthe blackandwhitepoints138Grainandnoise 78Overallbrightnessandcontrast140Simulatingfilmtypes 80FinecontrastcontrolI142Simulatingpinholecameraimages 82Addingcontrast selectively144Photorealisticlinedrawings 84Local contrast150Softfocus 86Creativeclipping .I 88Shadowsandhighlights Presentationandoutput 90Contactstrips 156Borders 92Dodgingandburning:Thetools I I 158Decorativeborders 94Adjustmentlayers I160Filmrebates 96Dodgingandburning:Landscapes 162Edgeburning 98Dodgingandburning:Portraits 164Flippingthe image 100Dodgingandburning:Reportage 166Printoroutputsharpening 102Generalsharpening 168Printers 104HighPass andSmartSharpening 170Neutralblackandwhite 106SelectiveSharpening I 172CMYKoutput 108Edgesharpening I 176Blackandwhiteinbulk .110CreativeEffects:182Outputfortheweb DigitalImageWorkflows 112Toning 114Split toning 116Duotones 118Ameasuredtone 120Classictones 122Calotypesandsalted paper prints186GlossaryandFurtherReading 124Handcoloring188Index 128Infraredeffects192Acknowledgments ma~------ -------- --INTRODUCTION Whenmy fatherheardI wasabouttobegin a second bookonblack-and-white photography, hethoughtbackafewyearstohissurpriseatseeingthefirstone.Afterall,hehadasked, doesn'teveryonewantcolornowadays? Justasthemovingpicture,evenwiththeadditionofsound,neversucceededin killingoffstillphotography,decadesofcolorhaven'tprovedfataltoblackandwhite.If anything,theymadeitseemmoredistinctiveasanartform,cruciallyseparatedfromthe worldofcolor.Artformsarenotnecessarilysweptawaybytechnologicalprogress,but accumulateandhappilycoexist.Infact,thearrivalofdigitalimagingseemstohavegiven yetanotherburstoflifeto black-and-white photography. Butthingsdomoveon,thoughts develop,needschange.Overa periodof justafewyears,digital captureofimageshasbecomeless the exceptionandmorethenorm, andtheneedisnolongerforhelp in makingone'swayfromthewet to thedigital darkroom.Wearein aperiodof reflection,andof maturingand establishing our digital photography skills. Thisbook'spurpose istooffer anup-to-date approachtoblackand-white digitalphotography whilestayingfirmlywithinitsrich tradition.Itisaimedatthe serious photographer,whetheryou're earningalivingfromyourwork orarean enthusiast whothinks carefullyaboutyourresults.All you'llneedisabasicfamiliarity withPhotos hopandthedesire tomoveforward. Thebook'sfirst sectionisabout thepicture-takingprocessand emphasizesshootingincolor,not usingyourcamera'sbuilt-inblackand-whitesettings.Aswellas keepingopentheoptiontoproduce bothcolorandmonoversionsof thesamescene,thebeststarting pointforatop-qualitydigitalblack-and-whitepictureisthewellcomposed,well-exposedRAW imagefile,withallitscolor informationintact.To paraphrase AnselAdams,thedigitalcolorfileis thescore,andtheblack-and-white imageisits performance. Thesecondpartlooksat convertingthosecolorfilesto black andwhite.Therearetoomany alternative techniquesto listhere, andsomearementionedmoreso youmayrecognizethemasold andobsolete when yousee them advocatedinwebforums,in recycledmagazinearticles,orby thecamera-clubbore.Placingthose methodsintheirhistoricalcontext meansyoucanthenappreciatethe 6ADVANCEDDIGITALBLACKANDWHITEPHOTOGRAPHY advantageof newertechniques thatfullyexploitthecolorimage's datatoproducethebestpossible black-and-white rendition. Thesection'skeyobjectiveis toshowwhereyoucanexercise creativecontrolduringtheblackand-white conversion.Onceyou start exploiting the colorimage's channeldata,thespecific choice ofconversionmethodbecomesa secondarymatter.Thisstepisless about overallimage contrast,which canberesolvedlater,andmuch moreabouthowacertain combinationofchannelvalues changesthepicture'sgrayscale tones-and whatthattellsthe vieweraboutitssubject. INTRODUCTION Theconversionstepisallabout tonalseparation,distributionof grayscaletones,andimage balance.Contrastisaseparate step,andisdiscussedinthethird section.Aswellascontrolling overallimagecontrast,youmay wantto lightenordarken,or "dodgeandburn"selectedareas, andapplysharpening.But,asatthe conversionstage,itisallverywell toknowthemodern,versatile equivalents ofthewetdarkroom's dodgingandburning.Onceyou knowwhatisachievable,thenitis mucheasiertounderstandwhy youmightdeploythosetechniques. The fourthpartofthebookshows anumberofmore creative effects. Nowadaysitishardtodrawany lineondigital manipulation,but herethelimitisbroadlythe canonoftraditionaldarkroom work.Toningliesfirmlywithin thatscope,asdoessimulating lithprints,solarization,orpinhole cameraeffects.Butoneor twoother techniques arealso included,suchas simulating infraredfilmphotographyand line art-nothing tooweirdor offbeat,however. Thefinalpartofthebookis aboutpresentationandoutput. Ablack-and-white imagecanbe damagedbyhighlightslyingclose the picture's edge,so thissection covers borders and techniques such asedge burning.Sharpening,for printorweb,iscovered,asare specializedblack-and-whiteinksand CMYKconversion.Thesectionalso addressessolutionsforoutputting entireshootsasblackandwhite-ApertureandLightroomarenow viablealternativestoPhotoshop for high-volumework. Some photographers onlywork inblackandwhite,othersonly withcolor,butdigitalphotography allowstherestofus tohave the bestofbothworlds.Ifthisbook achievesevenits smallest objective,itwillconvinceyou there'salotoflifeinblackand white.Why limit yourselftocolor? To downloadexampleversions of theimages in this book as layeredPSD files,check the URLonpage 4. BLACK AND WHITE MODES There'saveryobviouswaytomakeblack-and-whitepictureswithyourdigitalcamera: chooseitsblack-and-whitemode.Notalldigitalcamerashavesuchafeaturebutthe numberisincreasingallthetime,andit'snowunusualtoseeanewcameramodelthat shipswithoutmonochromesettings.Moresophisticatedoptions,likefilterandtoning presets,arealsobeingaddedandtheseprovidethephotographerwithanotherlevelof creativecontrol. Whilesuchoptionsareniceto have,theyshouldn'tbethe decisivefactorinyour choice ofanewcameraifyouwant toconcentrateonblackand white.Moreimportantarecore picture-taking featureslikethe ability tooverrideautomatic exposure settings,therangeof ISOsensitivity,andevenasmall, on-cameraflash.Theyare however useful if you needto deliver blackand-whiteversionsquickly,and theresultscan bevery good. THESACRIFICEOFCONVENIENCE Youcanmanageperfectlywell withoutthese built-inblack-andwhitemodes,andtherearesome prettygoodreasonswhy,atleast mostof thetime,youmight choosetoavoidthem. Onerelatesto fileformat.If youset your cameratoa blackand-white modeandsaveyour picturesinJPEG format,youare losingforeveralotof valuable imageinformation.Most enthusiastandallprofessionallevelcamerascansavepictures tothememorycardaseither RAW formatfilesoras JPEGs. RAW isthecamera manufacturer's proprietar file formatandcontains everybit of rawdatacapturedby thesensor,whileJPEGisa "lossy"formatthatisdesignedto minimizefilesize.Whileitcanbe readwith nospecialsoftware,and isready to print straightfromthe memory card,JPEG'ssmallfile sizecomes atthepriceof losing "unnecessary" imagedata. Sowhenyouchoosethe JPEG-onlyoptionand seta monochromemode,yourcamera processestherawdataand outputsablack-and-whiteJPEG, discarding allthemegabytesof color information.You cannever makeacolor printfromablackand-whiteJPEG.Whilesomemay bewilling toaccept thislossof versatility,thatdiscardedcolor informationisactuallyevenmore valuablethanyoumightatfirst think.Withit,youwouldalmost certainlyhavebeenableto produceabetterblack-and-white image later onyour computer.For the black-and-whitephotographer, that'saheavypriceindeed. 12CAMERAWORK-CAPTURINGTHEBLACKANDWHITEIMAGE Above:Settingyour camerato shootin blackandwhiteisgreatwhenyouare need tosend JPEGs toclients orfriends quickly. Buteventhoughthe JPEG+RAWoption doublesthenumber of filesyouhaveto manage,retainingtheRAWfile'colordata meansyouwillalwavsbeabletoproduce colorandblack-and-whiteversions. ModeOptions JPEGRecordsastandard8-bitimagefromvourcamera,defaulton man V compacts BlackandWhite JPEGProcessestheimageinthecameratoBlackandwhite, discardingallcolorinformation.Itislikelvtobe asimple conversion. RAW Raw+JPE Savesa16-bitcolorimagewithallpossibleimageinformation and additionalcamerasettingdetails Savesbothaprocessed JPEGforspeedandaRawfilewith allthedatadescribedabove. BlackandWhiteRawSavesallthe data ofan ordinaryRawincludingcolor,but displavs a simpleblackandwhiteconversionasapreviewItisstill allowsallthefinetuningpossiblefromastandardRaw. BLACKANDWHITEMODES13 SHOOT RW ANDIN COLOR Foralltheconvenienceofdigitalcameras'black-and-whitemodes,thebestchoicefor today'sblack-and-whiteenthusiastistoshootincolor.Theprincipleissimple:color images-andespeciallyRAWfiles-containthemaximumamountofinformation,sowhy limit yourselftoanyless?Neverthrow awayin camerawhatyoumightneedlater. Evenifyourarelymakecolorprints, there'sanobviousadvantageto keepingyouroptionsopensoyou canmakecolorormonoversions whenyou please.Ifyousetyour cameratoa black-and-white JPEGonlymode,that chanceisgone foreverbecauseno colorinformation issaved.The camera willprocess theimagevirtuallyinstantlyandsave only a grayscale imagetothecard. THEBENEFITSOFRAW Ifyou likeyourcamera'sblack-andwhitemode,try settingit totheRAW option. ARAW file contains all theraw data capturedby the sensor andis consequently much larger than a JPEG.You willstillseeablack-andwhiteimageon yourcamera'sscreen orwhenyou transfer the pictures to yourcomputer,butthisisonlya preview thumbnail that thecamera adds totheRAW file,alongwithone ormorelarger previews.All theraw dataremains inthefilesoyoucan process inmonoorcolor. 14CAMERAWORK- CAPTURINGTHEBLACKANDWHITEIMAGE Qualityiseverybitasimportant as flexibility,and thewaytoproduce thehighest qualityblack-and-white printis toshootincolor,usingRAW mode,andthenconvertthe picturein thedigitaldarroom. Wearenot talkingPhotoshopor computerwizardryhere.Itis vital to keepemphasizingthatthereisso Caption:Using the RAW option in your camera's black-and-white mode gives you a standard grayscalepreview image,concealing the color information. muchmoretotheartofblackand white thanturningdownthecolor saturationandmakingagrayscale image. Thesamecolorphotograph canhavemanyblack-and-white interpretations,allresultingfrom creative choicesmadewhenyou seethepictureonyourcomputer screenandexercisecontrolover howitisconvertedfromcolorto mono.Youmightdecide toapply cerain conversion settings because youlikehowtheyheightenthe contrast,ormoderate it;orhow they darkenthesky,lightenaskintone, orchange where the shadows and lightermidtonesaresituatedinthe frame.Somechoicesare deliberate, whileothersmaybeaccidental-at first-andhappento workoutwell. Notsurprisingly,alargepartofthis bookisdevotedtoshowingexactly howthatcanbedone. Byshooting incolor,orsavingin RAWformat,itisyouandnotthe camera'sdesignerwhocancontrol exactlyhowyourcolorimages look whenconvertedtoblackandwhite. Below:UsingRAW means biggerfiles andmorepostprocessingwork,buta singleadjustmentlayerinPhotoshop canalmostalwaysproducea better monochrome result than your camera' black-and-whitesetting. SHOOTRAWANDINCOLOR15 WHAT WORKS IN BLACK AND WHITE Eventhemostexperiencedanddedicatedblack-and-whitephotographersoftenquestion themselvesaboutwhatworksbestinblackandwhite.Afterall.doestheblack-and-white enthusiastreallythinkdifferentlywhenheorshelooksthroughtheviewfinderandpresses theshutterrelease?Isitpossibletoseeinblackandwhiteatthatpoint?It'sahighly contentiousquestion,and-ifyou'llforgivetheobviouspun-it'sonetowhichthereare noblackand whiteanswers. Attheextremes,somepictures areinherentlymonochromewhile othersareallaboutcolor.A colorless,wintrysceneisinevitably blackandwhite,whileasunset's gloryisall aboutthesheerbeauty ofwarmcolors.Butthevast majorityofscenesandalmostall subjectmatterliebetweenthose points.WouldCartierBresson's pictureshavebeenanyless arrestingif theyhadbeenincolor? OrMapplethorpe'snudesanyless striking?Perhaps,butthepointis certainlyarguable.Indeed,thinking ofthe latter,near theendofhislife Mapplethorpeproducedbeautiful studiesofflowers,someincolor andsomeinmono,anddeciding betweenthemisaverytoughcall. Andthinkingbackto that imaginary wintrylandscape,might itsstrength not liemoreinitscompositionthan initsabsenceofcolor?Inshort, awell-composedpicture,with interestingsubjectmatter,willbe greatinblackandwhite,ifthat's whatyouprefer. Takingthepoint further,think ofAnselAdams'sClearingWinter Storm.Itisagloriousblack-andwhiteimage,withacomplete rangeoftones,andsuperbly printedto emphasizethestorm andrevealinterestingdetail throughout the frame.It'sperhaps theblack-and-whiteicon.Butyou cannowparkyourcarcloseto Adams'sviewpoint,andmany photographershaveproduced finecolorversionsof exactlythe samescene. Alternatively,consider Steve McCurry'sequallymemorablecolor photograph-apicturesoiconic onebarelyneedstosayit'stheone oftheAfghangirlfromtheNational Geographic cover. The picture works partlybecauseof thewonderful greenofthegirl'seyes,the complementaryredsofhershawl, 16CAMERAWORK-CAPTURINGTHEBLACKANDWHITEIMAGE andthegreensshowingthroughits holesandinthebackground.But thoseeyeslooknolesshaunting, andnoristhephotographanyless perfect,inblackandwhite. Below:ClearingWinter Storm by Ansel Adams COLORORBLACK ANDWHITE? Fortoday's digitalblack-and-white photographer,shootingincolormeans you arenolongerrestrictedbythetype offilmthathappenedtobeinyour camera whenyouraisedittoyoureye. Youcanconsiderthepictureatleisure onyourmonitorand-byquicklycycling throughthecolorchannels-present yourselfwiththreeoftenwidely differinggrayscaleinterpretationsto helpyoudecideifyourpictureworksin blackandwhite. It's notanavoidanceofresponsibility todoubtthat there'sanyrealanswerto whatworkworksbestinblack and white,nortoquestionwhetheronecan really"see"inmono.It'sactuallymore liberatingforthosewhosepreference happenstobeblackandwhite.AsI havealreadysaid,awell-composed picture,withinteresting subjectmatter, isperfectforblackandwhite.Justgo out, shoot those color images,andset aside philosophicalniceties. Right:Awell-composed picturewillwork equallywellincoloror black and white. Above:Aclassic gritty subjectfor blackandwhite. -----WHATWORKSINBLACKANDWHITE .'TONE AND CONTRST Formorethanacentury,blackandwhitewashowwedepictedourworldandrecorded events.Firstthroughphotography,andthenreinforcedbyfilmandtelevision,wehave learnedtoacceptblackandwhiteasbeingrealistic.Ofcourse,itisn't-realityiscolor,at lea?titwasthelasttimeIlooked.Onceyoushakeoffanyideathattheblack-and-white imageneedstobefaithfultothesceneyoureyesobserved,it'snotabigjumptotreating itassimplyacompositionin grayscaletones. Shadesofgrayareallthatis availablein black and white,so muchoftheskillliesinmanaging thegrayscale composition and positioningblocksofsimilartone aroundtheframe.Filmusersdo thisbeforepressingtheshutter, placingcolored " contrastcontrol filters"overthelens.Onefilter maydarkenthesky,perhapstoo much,whileanother maybalance theskyandkeylandscapedetail.In thedigitalera,thosemanipulations of tonalor brightnessvaluesnow happenonthe computer,butyou areguidedby thesameprinciples. Withonlygrayscaletonesat your disposal,contrast playsa greaterrolethanincolor photography.Overallimage contrast is obviouslysomething thatconfrontsyouthefirsttime youseeyourcolorpictureinblack andwhite,eitherworkingoniton yourcomputeror,ifyouused the camera'sblack-and-whitesetting, whenyou reviewthecaptureon itsLCDscreen.Thelastthing youwanttoseeisamassof indistinguishableshadesofgray, while highcontrastcanbe soharsh andunflatteringthattheresultis morelikeagraphicspecialeffect thanaphotograph.Acceptable contrastusuallycontainstrue 18CAMERAWORK blacksandwhitesandarangeof tonesinbetween. Tonal contrast inkeyareasof thepictureiseverybitasimportant astheimage's overall appearance. Thislocaltonalcontrastrequires specialattentionandaneyefor detail.Twoneighboringimage areasmayhavehadverydifferent colorsinreality,butmaylook identicalinblackandwhite.That maybe desirable,forexampleif you wishto showfewer skin tones, oritmaydiminishtheinformation thepictureconveysaboutits subject.Shootingincolormeans youcan fine-tune theblack-andwhiteconversion,andexploitthe colordifferencessotheimage areasarerepresentedindistinct grayscaletones.Tonalseparation, bothoverallandlocal,isjustone of thewaysinwhichtheblack-andwhiteconversionbecomeslessa routine,andmoreakeypartof yourcreativeprocess. OcIL1 !c1LLl-lAbove:Thecolorimageis partlyaboutcomposition,tone andform,butisalsoabout color.Hereadeepblueskyis a keypartofthisimage. Below:Imagecontrast needstobeconsidered inoverallandin localarea terms.Thisversion' overallcontrastmaybe acceptable,butlookat thesphinx'headdress. Itsyellowandblue stripesareidentical grayscaletones. Lef:Therearemanywaystomakea pictureblackandwhite.Thisversion hasalotof punch,andtheviewer nowunderstandsthattheheaddress containsdifferent-coloredstripes. UDC3CDEC Refresh jI5\UU3;..LDDL\ VIEWLD3RDEl.RGB IcXD3RCECVEWPll LD3RREl5 VEW'bRDWStatistics bUU|IE 'LH\IfP D3UPMean:149.70level: StdDev:51.79Coun\: Median:12.Percentile: Pixels:327680CacheLevel:2 Above:Photoshop'shistogramshows statisticsabouttheimage'sbrightness andcontrast.Here,standarddeviation shows how widely bri ghtness values are dispersed-inotherwords,indicates contrast-andcanbeusedasan indication whenyou areprepari ngasetof images. TONEANDCONTRAST19 DIGITAL BLACK AND WHITE EXPOSURE Howdoyoudeterminethecorrectexposurefordigitalblackandwhitephotography? Black-and-white film usersoftenspeakof"exposingfortheshadows,"whichensuresthat printabledetailisrecordedinthenegative'slightestareas.Filmusuallyhassufficient dynamicrangetocapturehighlightdetail,too.Digitalexposure,forcolororforblackand white, istheotherway round, more akin toshootingcolor slide filmwhereyoumakesure youexpose thehighlightscorrectly,leavingthe shadows to resolve themselves.Knownas "exposingtotheright,"fromtheshapeofthe image's histogram,thisensuresthatdetail is recorded inthemost valuable part of thetonalrange. Onecanonlyrelysomuchon modernmeteringsystemsand cameras'autosettings.Butdigital capturebringstheabilityto check yourexposureinthe field.There aretimeswhencheckingtheLCD screenmakesyou misstheaction, buton the wholeitisanenormous advantage forthephotographer.As wellasconfirmingthatyoupressed theshutterat therightmoment andgottheshot,italso letsyou checkthatyousettheright exposure.JustasPolaroid instant filmwasusedtoassessand correctexposure,so youcan reviewthedigitalcaptureonsite, makeadjustments,andreshoot. Thisinstantfeedbackcanalso speedupthelearningprocess, HIGHLIGHTCLIPPINGWARNING sothenexttimeyouareintricky lightingsituationsyougetthe exposureright firsttime. ----Mostdigitalcameras'LCD screenshavetwomaintoolsthat helpyou setthecorrectexposure. Thehighlights alertis usuallyan optionalsetting that makes burntoutimageareasflashonscreen. Whileitis agreatquickwayto seewherelargeareas ofthe pictureare sooverexposedthat nousableimagedatahasbeen .captured,itdoesn'tgiveyouan accurateideaofhowmuchto reducetheexposure.Butthat 20CAMERAWORK-CAPTURINGTHEBLACKANDWHITEIMAGE quickindicationisvaluableenoughthat manyexperiencedphotographerskeep thissettingactivatedallthetime. Opposite:Thereareplentyofexceptions wheretheshot isnotharmed byblown highlights.Sometimesit'smoreimportant tocapturetheaction. Below:Digitalcamerasoftenhaveoptional highlightsalertsthatflashtowaryou whenimageareasmaybeoverexposed. Right:Asinglethin spikeonthefarrightof the histogram indicates lotsofpurewhite pixels andareasthatlackany detail.It'notnecessariy damaging,butisa valuablewaringof potentialproblems. ~~~ ~Above:Wherethey appeardeliberate, largeexpansesofwhiteneedbeno more distracting than thepaper on whichthepictureisprinted.Studio shotsmaywellbenefitfroma completely overexposedbackground. Thesecondtool,thehistogram,isfound not justonthecamera's LCDscreenbutalsoinPhotoshop,andatmanyotherpointsin thedigitalworkflow.Itshowsthedistribution ofbrightness values inthe picture-black (or0)is attheleft,andwhite(or255) is atthe right."Exposing tothe right"meansthatthehistogram's far-rightextremewilljusttouchthechart'sfarright.In other words,onlytheverybrightestpixelsintheimagearepurewhite, whichmeansthesensorhasrecordedplentyofdetailthroughout thehighlightareas.Ingeneral,youareaiming toavoid spikesat eitherendofthescale.Aspikeat theleftwouldindicatelotsof pureblackpixelsand underexposure,whileoneat the right would mean thatthecapturecontainslargeareasoffeatureless whiteandmaybeoverexposed.Itdoesn'tnecessarilytellyou precisely howmuchyoumaywantto adjusttheexposure,but youcaneasilyseewhetheryoumightneed justasmall amount or something muchmoresignificantlikeacouple ofstops. DIGITALBLACKANDWHITEEXPOSURE21 EXPOSING TO THE RIGHT Black-and-whitephotographyhasalwaysinvolvedwhatwenowcall"shootingforpost processing."Thecolorfilmorslideenthusiastusuallytriedtogetitrightin-camera,and maywellhaveobjectedtosubsequentmanipulation.Howeverithasalwaysbeen fundamentaltothecraftofblackandwhitethatthepicturewillbefullyrealizedinthe darkroomandthatyourfirststraightprintsarenotexpectedtobethefinishedarticle.This meanstheblack-and-whitephotographeroftenexposespicturesnotforhowtheyappear straightfromthecamera,butinanticipationofwhatcanbedoneinthedarkroom.This principlenowappliestodigitalcolortoo,especiallytoRAW,soyousettheexposureto captureasmuch important imagedataaspossible,thinkingaheadtohowyouwillbeable touseitlateronthecomputer.Inthissense,notmuchhaschangedsinceAnselAdams wroteofthenegativebeingthecomposition,andtheprintbeingtheperformance. Nowhereisthistruerthanwiththe highlighttonesandtheconceptof "exposingto theright."Thisisa well-regardedwayof judgingyour exposurebyusingthehistogram onthecamera'sLCDscreen.So youtakeashot,checkthecamera's alertsandthehistogram,andadjust theexposure.Theaimistogetthe histogramascloseaspossibleto therightsidebut withoutmaking thehighlightsindicatorflashor causingaspikeatthe255 brightnessvalue.Thismaximizes thenumberofbrightnessvalues recordedbythe sensor,means morelightreadingsarebeingused torecordshadowdetail,andso keepsdigitalnoisetoaminimum. Right:Theproperly exposedfinal image providesthe viewerwithvisible detail in theshadows and thehighlights. 22CAMERAWORK-CAPTURINGTHEBLACKANDWHITEIMAGE USING THEHISTOGRAM Thekeytothistechniqueistocapture allthehighlightdetail.Sometimesthis meansyouneedtoincreasethe exposureand somakethe overall picture look toobrightontheLCD.Whilethis is easy to correct whenyou examine the picturesoncomputer,it doesmeanmore postprocessingwork,aburdenwhich youmay ormaynotwanttoshoulder. Overexposingalsomeanskeepinga closeeyeontheshutterspeed-the slowershutterspeed increases therisk of camera shake ormight blurthemotion of movingobjects. Whenthehighlightsalertflasheson theLCD screen,orthehistogram'sright edge isa spike,itisanindicationthat youmaywanttounderexposeto Topandabove:Aspikeontheleftofthe camera's histogram indicates underexposure andpotentiallossof interestingdetail in the image's shadow areas. protectyourhighlights.Again,thiswill meanthepicture'soverallappearance lookswrong,inthiscasetoodark and with shadows denseandblockedup. Italsomeanscommittingmoretime topostprocessing.LevelsandCurves adjustmentscanstretchoutthe shadows,andworkingin16-bitmode mayhelpdealwithanyposterization (unevengradationsinareasofsmooth tone).Thereisalsoagreaterrisk of digitalnoise.Thebenefits,though,are thatunderexposuremeansafaster shutterspeed-andmostofall,you retainallthatvaluablehighlightdetail. Toprightandabove:Aspikeonthe histogram'srightindicates thatthebrighter areasofthe imageareoverexposed.The clouds behindthebridgeareareasofpure whiteandcontainnovisibledetail. Above:"Exposingtotheright"meansthe histogram justtouchestherightside. EXPOSINGTOTHERIGHT23 THE SHADOWS ~~-~~~~~~~ ~~+-~-~~~~~Ideally,anexposureshouldcapturedetailinthebrightesthighlightsandinthedeepest shadows,andgivetheviewerafullrangeoftones.Butdigitalsensorsdonotyetmatch thedynamicrangeoffilm,letaloneofblack-and-whitefilm,andscenesfrequentlyexceed therangeofbrightnessthatsensorscancapture.Whenit'sachoicebetweenretaining highlightdetailand sacrificingtheshadows,there'sonly one loser-you dowhatittakesto keep thehighlights fromburningout. 24CAMERAWORK-CAPTURINGTHEBLACKANDWHITEIMAGE Lef:Untilrecently,war photographywasmainly blackandwhite,andharsh and grainy,too.Here,a purplishtoneechoes19th centuryprintcolors. DIGITALNOISE WhenpreseNinghighlightdetailmeans youhaveto underexpose,other problems can creep in.Themoreyou underexpose, theworsethesignal-to-noiseratio becomes andthemorelikelyit isthat random noise willbecomevisible, particularlyintheshadows.Likegrain withfasterfilm,noiseisthepriceyou payfortakingtheshot inpoorlight. That'snottosaythereisnothing youcando.Somecameras havean optionalnoisereductionsettingwhich appliesspecialprocessing before writing theimageto theflashcard; thiscanbemostusefulwithlong, tripod-mountedexposures. Oncethepictureisonyour computer,RAWconverters likeAdobe CameraRawhavenoisereduction options-Luminosityslidersaremost likely tomakethebiggestdifferenceandtherearespecialistprogramsand plug-inslikeNoiseNinjaandNoiseAware thatcantarget noiseintheshadows and ignore it in othertonalranges. Sometimes you maysimplydecide to lettheclip theblacksalittlemore aggressively thanusualinPhotoshop. Intheend,shadowscan obscureall sortsofsins. Right:Thereisanimmediatelossof impact whenapicturehasno trueblacks. Below:Shotdeepinsidea19thcentury fortress,atestshotshowedIwould need to underexpose byastoptoholdany detail inthehighlights. Right:If youdoalotof low-lightphotography considergettingaspecialistnoise reduction program suchasNoiseWare,which ofer more sophisticatedfeatures thanPhotoshop'filters. Profile:, Automatic ViewFrequency:!High 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% O% O- Self-learning:! Learn&Apply -Y -Cr -Cb THESHADOWS25 DRWN TO THE BRIGHT LIGHTS Highlightsplayahugeroleinblack-and-whitephotogra phy. Thisisn'tjustduetotechnical concernsaboutabsenceofdetailinimageareas,itisaresultofbehavioralfactorsinthe viewer.It'sallabouthowwetypicallyexaminetheblack-and-whiteimage .Whileblacksandshadowtones "anchor"theimageandgiveit "body,"theyareoftenoverlooked. Itisonlythetrainedeyethattries todistinguishtheirsubtletiesand anydetailtheymayhide.Usually, andparticularlyinblackandwhite, theeyelandsonthepicture's shadows,butisthendrawn straighttoitsbrightertones,asthis iswhereoneexpectstofindwhat isinterestingaboutthephotograph. 26CAMERAWORK-CAPTURINGTHEBLACKANDWHITEIMAGE Failuretorecordthehighlightsin theoriginalcapture,orlosingthem inthedigitaldarkroom,isusually veryobvious.Blownhighlightsare featurelesswhiteholesinthe picture,attractingtheeyeand immediatelytellingtheviewerthat somethingismissingfromthe originalscene.Itoftencausesa lastinglossofconfidenceinthe picture'sveracity. Lef:Thefinalimagemakesuseofits bright areaswithoutbeingoverpowering. Additionallvanimageborderand judicious cloninghasremovedtheharmful distractionof burt-outhighlights. GETINGHIGHLIGHTSRIGHT Fromthemoment you releasethe shutter,tothetimeyousendthe picturetothe printer,youneedto remainsensitivetopotentialproblems. Gettingitrightin-camera-"exposing totheright"-isagreat wayto start andencouragesgoodhabits suchas checking your camera's histogram.You also needtotakecare throughout the post processing work.Trtodevelop routine working practicessuchas checkingfor anyclippingintheLevels andCurvesadjustmentsby holding downtheAltJ\keywhenyoudrag thewhite-pointtriangles. Well-renderedhighlightsalsohave powerfulcompositionalvalueinblack andwhite,leadingthe vieweraround the frame.Inthe picture shownhere,the eye tends to movealongazigzag-shaped path,starting fromthe foreground and thenfollowingthe streamintothe distanceand to thehorizon,before noticingthebrighterareasof thesky. Sometimesthisintroductionof movement is subconscious,simply howyouhappentoobservethe scene, butit isalsosomethingthat canbe exploitedas partofthe composition. Thereis anotherreasonwhythe positioningof highlights aroundthe frameisparticularlyimportantinblack andwhite.Ahighlightwillbe especially noticeable and potentially harmfulifit liesclosetothepicture'sedge.Paper isalsowhite,andsuchbrightareascan easilyblendintothesurroundingpaper, makingthepicturelookas though notches havebeenchoppedoutof its rectangular shape.Theeyemayfollow such highlightsand beledoutofthe frame,soone solution is toaddablack borderormounttheprintinablack matte.Youcanalso clone awayor burn in these damaging patches of brightness, or cropthepicturemore tightly.Mostof all,doafinalreviewofthe imagebefore sendingittotheprinter. Above:Theeyeisimmediatelyattractedto blownout highlights,andinterpretstheimageaccordinglyThis sceneisnolongeraboutagrmmarshlandlandscape, butconfusestheviewer-theremaybean explosion on the horizon,or astrangelypositioned sunrise. Above:Highlightsguidetheeye around theframe. Lef:Evenvery smallareasofblown highlightsmay damagetheimage whentheyare positionedcloseto theedges.Here,a brightareaof skyis likeanotchchopped outonthe picture' leftside. DRAWNTOTHEBRIGHTLIGHTS27 -~~INCREASING DYNAMIC RANGE Whereascenecontainsaverygreatrangeofbrightness,sacrificingtheshadowsmaybe one option,butitisn'ttheonly one.Ifthe camera ismountedon atripod,another approach istotakeamatchingpairof images andmarrythemlaterinPhotoshop. EXPOSINGTOTHERIGHT "Exposingtotheright"can easilycaptureanimagethat, forallits wonderful highlight detail,isunusablebecauseof theproblemsintheshadows. Onceonyourcomputer screen,theblacks maywell be indistinguishablefromthe darkest midtones.You might tryboostingthe shadow contrastwithCurves orLevels, orPhotoshop'sShadow/ Highlightsadjustment,but therewouldalways be a danger of posterizationproblems.Even ifyouworkin16-bitmode,you couldendupdoingall sortsof laborious masking and other workto rescue shadow detail. REGROUPING Anotherpostprocessing workaroundistomaketwo differing conversions of theRAW file,andsandwichthemtogether. Alternatively,AdobeCamera RawandotherRAWconverters nowhavesliders for"filllight" whichcandetectshadow areas andlifttheirbrightnessand contrast.Soinstead of sandwichingtwo conversions. morecanbe achieved inthe RAW converteritselfatasingle pass.Butyouarestillworking with limitedimage dataabout the shadows. Above:Thisframewas"exposed tothe right."Itshighlightdetailisgreat,butthe standingstonesareindeepestshadow. I 28CAMERAWORK-CAPTURINGTHEBLACKANDWHITEIMAGE Lef:Itisoftennotanoption to liftthebrightnessof shadowsin an imagethat wasunderexposedtoprotect highlights-thedigitalnoise canbe horrendous. Lef:Asecondframe is exposedtorecord shadowdetail.This receivedanadditional threestops. ~-~~ +BRACKETING Whileblackandwhiteoftenletsyouget awaywithblockedshadows,agreat solutionistoblendbracketed exposures.With the cameraonatripod, meterasusualandshootapairof shots ofthescene,changingonlythe exposurebetweenframes.Oneframe is"exposedtotheright,"withthe highlightsfully capturedand the shadows lefttolookafterthemselves.The otherisusuallyexposedaccording tothecamerameter,blowingoutthe highlights.Thetwocaneasilybe matchedup inPhotoshopbyholding downtheShiftkeyasoneimageis dragged onto the other(or using the Photomerge tool). The final image containsthehighlightelementsfrom one,andthe shadowsfrom theother. Thedynamicrangeisatleastasgreat asfilm,and nordoesit challenge too manyscruplesaboutmanipulation. ID Sharpening Darken Black&White Shadowcontrast Overexposed Left:Thekeytothefinished image isin the bottomtwo layers.Theskywasmasked outoftheoverexposed frame, allowingthecorrectly exposedskyto showthrough. Below:Sandwiching exposuresincreasesyour camera'sdynamicrange,and providestheviewerwith interestingdetailthroughout theframe. INCREASINGDYNAMICRANGE29 I COLOREDFILTERS:NOT FORGOTEN Weareonlyadecadeorsointothedigitalera,andonemisconceptionisthatcolored lensfiltersmightstillbeusefultoshootblackandwhitewithadigitalcamera.Thisisa mistake.Foronething,we'vealreadyseenthatyouhavealotmorecreativechoiceif youconvertthecolorimagetoblackandwhiteoncomputer.EvenifyoushootinRAW format,afilterwillgiveyouanimagewithastrongcolorcastthatisverylikelytorestrict whatyoucandoattheblack-and-whiteconversionstage,andwillcertainlypreventyou frommakingstraightcolorprintsfromthesameframe.AndifyouareshootingJPEGonly,thenthere'snochanceatallofmakingacolorversionsincethecamerawillonly savetheblack-and-whiteimage.Evenifyouneveractuallymakecolorprints,whythrow awaytheversatilitythatcolorcaptureprovides? LENSFILTERS:COLORCASTS Newcomerstoblack-and-white photographyareoftensurprisedtolearn howintegralcoloredlensfiltershave beentotheart.Madeof opticalglassor resin,the filter allows light ofthesame colortopassthroughthelens,while interruptingothercolors.Thisprinciple givesthefilmphotographer lotsof control.Forinstance,aredfilterblocks greenandblue,andsoitmightbeyour choiceif youwantedtodarkenhowa blueskyappearsinblackandwhite. Alternativelyyoumightscrewagreen filterontothelensif yourintentionwas tobrightenfoliageandmakemore tonesapparentinalandscape. Experiencedblack-and-whitefilm photographerswouldtypicallycarry aselectionofvariousfilters-reds, oranges,yellow,blues,andsoon-and entirebookshavebeenwrittenon the subject. 30CAMERAWORK-CAPTURINGTHEBLACKANDWHITEIMAGE Lef:Ahugevariety of coloredfilters is available forcontrastcontrolwith black-and-white film. Lef:An orange filter woulddarkenskies andmakeclouds standouton blackand-whitefilm,but inthe digitalageit removescolor,leaving thismuch information toworkwith. Right:Acolorimage canbeeasily convertedtoappear asifshotonblack andwhitewithan orngefilter FILTERS:RAWALTERNATIVES Anotherreasonwhycoloredfiltersare notsuitablefordigitalphotography relatesto howdigitalcamerascapture images.Thesensorconsistsofagridof light-sensitivecells.Theseareusually laidoutinpatternsoffour,two ofwhich recordgreenbrightnessvalues,and one eachforredandblue.Inthecameraif youare shooting JPEG,or lateron computerforRAWfiles,thiscapture datais"demosaiced"to agridwhere eachcellor pixel hasred,green,and bluevalues.Broadlyspeaking,acolored lensfilterwouldblocklight fromsome ofthelight-sensitivecells,so aredor bluefilterwouldmeanthatonlythreequartersofthecellswerebeingused, whileagreenfilterwouldcutthatto half.This is often enoughtodegradethe imagequalityandatworstcancause bittyartifactsinsmooth-tonedareas. But mostofall,itissimplynot necessaryfordigital.Theunderlying principlesoflightfiltrationare unchangedandstillrelevant.It's just that they applynotwhenthe lightenters thelens,as withblack-and-whitefilm, butlaterwhenyouconvertthepicture to blackandwhiteandmanipulatethe red,green,andbluechannel values.If youareshooting JPEG-only,thisoccurs as thecameraprocesses thecapture data andcreatesthe JPEG,but ifyou areshootinginRAW format,the conversionstepoccurslaterinthe digitaldarkroom.Coloredlensfiltersare no longerneededforshootingblackand whitewithadigital camera,butifyou canfindacopyof AnselAdams'sclassic TheNegative,takealookattheuseof coloredlensfilters-theunderlying artisticprinciplesremainrelevantand translate directlyintothelanguageof thedigitaldarkroom. Above:Digitalsensorsconsistofagrid ofphotocells,eachsensitivetoone color channel. Above:InPhotoshop,makethepictures blackandwhiteandzoomrightin.The orange-filteredimageismuchnoisierthan therawcolor version. I@Edgeburning III Black&White I @ iiBlack&White Backgrund Above:ShootinginRAW and incolor allowsmuchmorecreativeflexibilityFor thefinalimage,twochannelfiltrations wereusedtomakethepictureblackand white,likeusingyellowandredlensfters fordifferentpartsoftheframe. COLOREDLENSFILTERS31 .~..~m.m..FILTERS FOR DIGITAL BLACK AND WHITE Afilterisoptical-qualitymaterial,usuallyglassorplastic,whichisplacedoverthelensand affectshowlightreachesthefilmorsensor.Glassfilterstendtobemoreexpensiveand screwdirectlyontothelens,meaningtheirthreadordiameterhastomatch.Resinor plasticfiltersslotintostandard-sizeholderswhicharethenattachedtothelensusing adaptersfor each thread size,sothis ismuch more flexibleifyouhaveafew lenses.Some lenses,likeultrawide-angles,onlytakegelatinfilterswhichslideintoslotsattherearof the lens.Thereisawide varietyoffilterstochoosefrom. Aswe'veseenonpages30-31, colored lensfiltersbelongtothe filmera,sothat'sawholelotfewer lensfilterstoweighdownyour camerabag.Butwhat filtersremain valuableforthedigitalblack-andwhiteshooter? FILTERS:GRADUATED "Neutralgrads"arefiltersthatare graduatedfromgraytoclear.Thegray halfdarkensthatpartofthesubjectby 1-3stops without altering itscolors. Thisis usefulwhentheskyis brightin relationtothelandscapeanditletsyou renderdetailinallareaswithoutoverexposingor"washingout"thesky.It is perhaps worth havinganeutral graduatedfilterjustincase,butif you areusingatripod,itmaybeaseasyto bracketacoupleof shotsandmatch themup laterinPhotoshop. 32CAMERAWORK FILTERS:NEUTRALDENSITY Neutral density filters simplycut downalllight entering thelens, "neutral" signifying thatthey affect allwavelengths uniformly. Sincelesslightisreaching the sensor,youneedtokeepthe shutteropenlongertoachievea correctexposure,sotheirbiggest useisa creativeone.Theyallow youtouseamuchslowershutter speedthanyouwouldotherwise. Whiletheneutraldensityfilter remainsuseful,there'salimitto theamountyoucancarryandthe polarizingfiltercanbeafine substituteinmanycircumstances. Itiseffectivelya2-2.5-stopneutral densityfilter.Touseit,setthe lowestISOvalue,stopthelens downto122,andattachthefilterthiscanoftenbe enoughto produce motionblurringorwaterand other movingobjects. Below:Useaneutraldensity filterand asmallaperture toblur water-this exposurelasted 2secondsat 122. FILTERS:POLARIZING There'slittledisputethat,for filmor digital,polarizersare byfarthemost usefulfiltersandit'sworthspending alittlemoreforgoodquality. Thepolarizingfilterisactuallya pairoffiltersthatpreventunpolarized lightfrompassingthroughthelens. Reflectedlightisun polarized,sothe filter means thecamera captures fewer reflectionsoff surfaces suchaswater, glass,polishedwood,andleaves.As a result,theseobjects'colorsarericher andmoresaturated.Sunlightalso reflectsoff particles like mistand haze, sothe polarizing filtermakesskies bluerandmakesclouds standout. Thestrengthofpolarization changes as yourotatethefilter'stoplayer.Itis Above:Thepolarizingfilter remainsasusefulin digital as itis in fimphotography. Right:Thepolarizingfilter capturesrichercolorsand usually makes iteasierto rendermoredetailinthe black-and-whiteimage. alsoaffectedbythetypeoflightandby itsdirection,beingstrongestwhenthe filterisat90degreestothesun. Sometimesthecolor saturationeffectis overpowering,orthefiltercancutout attractivereflections,soyouneedto decidefor each shot whetheritshould beusedandtowhat degree. Thelossof reflectionscanbe particularlyimportantforblackand white.Withoutthem,colorsmaybe moresaturatedbutthatdoesn't necessarilyimprovethe picture's appearanceandisn'trelevantformono. There'salwaysadangerthatapolarized imagewillappeardull andlifeless. Polarizationcan maketheskylook unevenandthemakepartsofittoo dark.Thisissomethingtowatchoutfor, especiallywithwideanglelenses. Alsorememberthatbecausethe polarizingfilterreducesthelight reachingthesensor,yourexposure needstobelonger.Whilethecamera's meteringsystemwillhandlethisfor you,generallyyoulose 2-2.5stopsand forsome shots this willmeanyoumay have to useatripod.Itiseffectivelya neutraldensityfiltertoo. Buttheseare disadvantagesare minorbycomparisonwiththepolarizing filter's hugevalue.Manyphotographers gladlycarryonepolarizerfor eachlens threadsize. TIP Alwayswatchoutfordarkcorers whenyoushootwithafilter.Thismay indicatethatthefilterisvignettingthe imageandisunsuitableforthe lens. Lef:Thepolarizingfltereliminates reflectedlight.Cloudsstandoutmore inblue skies,andheredifferentshades havebeenbroughtoutinthesea. FILTERSFORDIGITALBLACKANDWHITE33 DIGITAL INFRARED CAPTURE InfraredphotographyhaslongbeenaninterestingcreativenicheIntheblack-and-white medium.Itshouldnotbeconfusedwithnightvisionorthermalimaging,whereheat emissionsarecaptured.Instead,theinfraredphotographerusuallyworksindaylightand usesalensfiltertoeliminatethevisiblewavelengthsoflight,sothesensoronlyrecords lightfromtheinfraredpartofthespectrum.Oneofthegreatthingsaboutitisthatafter thewarmearlymorninglighthasdisappeared,youcanswitchtoshootinginfraredand makethemostof sunthatisdirectlyoverhead. Anotherimportantdistinctionis thatherewearetalkingabout capturinginfraredlightdirectlywith adigital camera,not simulating the effectinPhotoshop.Asimulation, liketheonedemonstratedon pages128-131,startswitha visible-lightpictureandmakesit looklikeitisinfrared-turningthe sky near-black,brighteningfoliage, and soon.Infrared photography,on theotherhand,captureslightthat wecannot see,andsoitoften recordsthingsthatwould nothave beeninaregularphotographofthe samescene.For instance,infrared lightisn'treflectedoffwaterinthe atmosphere,somistissimplynot recordedintheinfrared capture, whichconsequentlyrevealscloud patterns anddistantobjectsthat would not have beeninthevisiblelightphotograph. Shootinginfraredwithfilm meantloadingandunloadingthe rollsincomplete darkness,often withyourhandsinsideachanging bag.Bycontrast,digitalinfraredis soeasyyoucanshootoneframe conventionallyandthenextin infrared.Thereareessentiallytwo choices:havingyourdigitalSLR modifiedsoit captures infrared,or seeingifyoucanuseyourexisting camerawithaninfraredlens filter. Thefirstapproachpermitsshutter speedshighenoughtohand-hold thecamera,butit'scostlyand meansdedicatingthecamerabody to infrared.Thesecond approach 34CAMERAWORK-CAPTURING THEBLACKANDWHITEIMAGE usuallymeansmuch longer exposuretimesandforcesyou touseatripod.Thisisn'tabad thing-itopensupfascinating creative opportunities toblur movingobjectslikecloudsand produceadistinctivedigitalinfrared style verydifferentfromfilm-based infraredphotography.Whichever approachyoutake,it'sfasterand muchmore satisfying toachieve the infrared look in-camera than tofakeitinPhotoshop. Below:Infrared captures are fundamentally different from visible-light photographs. Here the infrared exposure was so long it blurred the water and the boats.It also shows the power stationover the estuary that wasn't in the visible-light picture (below leftshot atthe same time. INFRARED:DIGITALCAPTURE Digitalcamerasarenot allequally goodat capturinginfraredlight. Infrared(lR)degrades thequality of the regular image,socamera makershave goodreasons toaddanti-IRfiltersto the digital sensor.Their effectiveness varies, not just between camera makesbut betweenmodels.For example,Nikon used tohaveless effective IRfilters thanCanon,andsoweregenerally betterforinfraredphotography,but morerecentmodelshavebeen trumpetedashavingreducedIR sensitivity.One person's feature is another'sdisappointment. Whileyourcameramanualmay specify your camera's infrared capability, it'seasy toworkitoutforyourself.Set yourcamera'sexposuremodeto ManualandusetheBulbshutterspeed soyoucanholdtheshutteropenfora few seconds.Then,indarkness,release theshutter andfireaninfraredremote control-like theone foryour TV-into thelens.ChecktheLCDand seeifthe sensor has captured animage. fOnceyouknow your cameracan .. captureinfrared,youneedan infrared filter over the lens. These are madeofglass orgelandblock light fromthe visible spectrumsothat only infrared wavelengthsreach thesensor. Manybrandsareavailable,andtheyvary instrengthandthewavelengthabove whichtheybegintopermitlight. Infraredlight'swavelengthisover700 nanometers,andthehigherthisvalue, thepurertheinfraredcaptureandthe lessvisiblelightwillberecorded. Thisinfraredfilterfitsintoafilter holderwhileothersareavailablewhich screwdirectlyontothelens. B Theinfraredfilterusuallygives photographsaweirdredorpurple color.Youcaneliminatethisin Photoshopor youmaysavepostprocessingtimebysetting yourcamera toshootblackandwhite. Ifyourcamerahasnoblack-andwhitemode,try settingacustomwhite balance.Howyoudo sovaries,so check your camera manual,butusually it'sacaseof shootingamid-gray subject throughthefilter.Onceyou'vesetup thepreset,thecamerawillcapturea black-and-whitepicture,thoughaslight colorcastoftenremains. Lef:The infrared image willoftenshowared or purple colorcast before imageprcessing. DIGITALINFRAREDCAPTURE35 DA INFRARED:DIGITALCAPTURECONTINUED aUnlessyourcamera bodyhas , beenconvertedforinfrared,'Hphotographyusuallymeansusinga tripod.Thisisbecausemostdigital camerasneedsuchlongexposuretimes forinfrared,oftenmnyseconds,and youcan'tholdthecamerastillforthat long.Equallyimportantisthefactthat theinfraredfilteris soopaquethatyou can'tsee tocomposethepicture,even ifyourcamerahasanelectronic viewfinder.Somountthecameraona tripod,frametheshotandfocus,and thenattachthe lensfilter. fIt'salsoagoodideatostopdown Utheaperture.Thisisbecause infraredlightfocusesataslightly differentpointtovisiblelightanda smalleraperture'sgreaterdepthoffield willcounteractthisdifference.Asecond aspectisthattherearegoodcreative reasons forsettingaslowershutter speedandhavinggreaterdepthoffield. At!1or!22, digitalinfraredexposures maylast30 secondsorlonger,soyou canblurwaterandmovingobjectsand thiscreatesadigitalinfraredeffectvery distinctfromfilminfrared.Herethe exposurewasaminute,givingthe cloudstimetomoveacrossthesky. Noticetoo howwellaLith effectworks withinfrared. .. IfyouuseanSLR,thereisa Udangerthatvisiblelightcanreach the sensorthroughtheeyepiece,and this caneasilyoverwhelmtheinfrared light.Somecamerashave aswitchto closetheviewfinder,oraddaneyepiece cover.Youwon'thavethisproblem|!yourcameradoesn't haveanoptical viewfinderandyouusetheLCDto composethepicture. 36 CANERA WORK-CAFTURING THE 6ACK AND WHITE INAGE[ Preview.. ------ 050817018335Great Wakering.dng jMetadata 'Ievwordsl FiI;rties IPTC(IIM,legac) I IPTCCore ''CameraData (Exif Exposure ExposureBias Value ExposureProgram ISOSpeedRatings :18.0satf/22 :+1 :Aperturepriority :200 D Digitalinfraredexposureis slightly trickybutit'seasytofollowa "plan-do-review"cycle.Foryourfirst infraredcaptures,usethecamera's automaticsettingtodeterminethe exposure,andthenreviewthecaptures carefullyontheLCD-thehistogram canquicklytellyouhowmuchyouneed toadjusttheexposure.Youwillprobably needtomakeafewtestsbeforeyou candecidehowit respondstoinfrared. Mostof the workisdonebythe timeyou press theshutter.Ifyou haveset acustomwhite balance,you may just needtodesaturatetheimage inPhotoshopandremoveanyremaining. colorcasts.Alsohotpixelsmaybe visible becauseof thelong exposure, butthesecan be fixedeasily with Photoshop'sSpotHealingBrushtoolor by usingAdobeCameraRaw 4'sspot healingfeature. Here,AdobeCameraRaw picked upmycustomwhite balancebutthis infrared capture stillhasaslight color cast.IcandragtheSaturationsliderto -100%andquickly make it pureblack and white. Digitalinfraredissoeasyyoucan takeone conventional image,adjust theexposure,addthefilter,and shootthenext frameininfrared. Youcanthenstackthetwoimages inPhotoshopandapplytheColor blendingmodetothecolorimage. It'satechniqueIliketocallthe "infrared sandwich." Below:Classicinfraredsubjectsincludevarious shadesoffoliage,andinterestingskieswith brokenclouds.Noticethatthedigitalinfrared picturedoesn'thavethe gloworgraininess typicalofinfraredfilmphotography DIGITALINFRAREDCAPTURE37 DESTRUCTIVE TECHNIQUES Photoshop'sblackandwhitefunctionalityhas" history."Everyyearortwo,anewversion oftheprogramprovidestoolsthatmakebettertechniquespossibleorpractical.Layersof tutorialsaccumulateovertime.Anoutdatedmethodmightberecycledinanew-looking website,oraconvincingcommentatorinanonlineforummightnotmentionheusesan oldversion,ormayevenbesostuckinanearliererathatheseesnoneedfortoday'sbest practice.Youcanspendforeverworkingoutwhatbelongsinwhicheraofdevelopment, what'soldandbestforgotten,andwhat's thebest way foryoutowork. Inthe followingpagesweare goingtotrytomakesenseof thisaccumulatedknowledge andexaminesomeofthemany techniquesfor rendering acolor imageasblackandwhite.The olderways stillproducequality resultsandwon'tbeignored,but theyalsohavedisadvantagesin GRAYSCALE Therearesomeverysimplewaysto makeanimageblackandwhite,and noneissimpler thanImage>Mode> Grayscale.Thischangesallpixelvalues inthefiletograyscalevalues. Photoshopexamineseachpixeland takes59%ofitsGreenchannelvalue, 30%of itsRedand11 %oftheBlue,so a dark bluishpixelwhichhasanRGB valueof 35:35:82willbecomes58.This ratiocomesfromanassessmentofthe averagecolorresponsivenessofthe humaneye,so theresultsarepretty averagetoo. Itisquick,andtheresultingfilewill takeuplessdiskspacesinceallthe color informationisdiscarded.Onthe otherhand,onceyou saveand closethe file,theimage'scolorvaluesaregone forever,soyoucanneveradjustthe black-and-white conversion.Inother words,thismethodisn'tveryflexible andgivesyounocreativecontrolover theblack-and-whiteconversion. termsofflexibilityandcreative expression.Wewillthenexamine howmoremodernmethodsexploit the information intheimage'scolor 40THEDIGITALDARKROOMl-CONVERTINGTOBLACKANDWHITE channels,usingadjustmentlayer andmasks,sothefinalimageis thebestblack-and-whitetreatment youcanachieve. Lef:Italian protest rallies oftenseem motivated more bV funthan politics. DESATURATE AnothereasymethodistouseImage> Adjustments> Oesaturate orCtrl/O+ Shift+U,whichsimply discardsthe image'ssaturationvalue.Youcan producethe sameresultsbyadding aHue/Saturationadjustment layer and draggingtheSaturationsliderallthe waytotheleft. LiketheGrayscalemethod,it's a "one sizefitsall"approach,butit also ignores how the eye responds to colors. Again,theabsenceof creativeinput meansthis isonetoavoid. GRADIENTMAP TheGradientMapmethodmaps amonochromegradienttothe image'sluminosityvalues.Firstreset Photoshop'scolors(0)andthen add aGradientMapadjustment layer. Adjusting theSmoothness slider controls how the gradient relates to imageluminosity,while other sliders changethegradient's brightness range.Ineffect,theGradientMap method letsthe useradjust image contrast whilealsomaking theimage black andwhite,and perhaps thatis behinditscultstatus on the forums that is otherwise hard to explain. While you canget decent results, you'realsoignoring the colorchannels andlosingtheircreativepotential. -.-:I Smoothness% e-:- 1 IQ Hue/Saturation Background GradientMap Backgroundf Above:Thedestructivemethodscanall producegoodresults buttheir"onesize fitsall"approachmeansthereisnoscope forcreativity.Theyare bestavoided. DESTRUCTIVETECHNIQUES41 DESTRUCTIVE TECHNIQUES MATCHCOLOR Althoughthistoolis reallydesigned formatchingcolors,likeskintones, acrosssanumberofimages,itcan berepurposed foranunusual destructivemonchromeconversion. Therearetwowaysthetoolcanbe taken advantageof,depending on theoutcomeyou'relooknigfor.The simplest,forexample,istouseit onlyin reference tothe image you're lH8QEDlCD5LU0D8DCE[ 0 LClCI lDlED5lVI r8dEI 0 CNEuUZESelectImage> Adjustment > MatchColor.Adialogwill appearwithtwodistinctsections, ImageOptions at thetopandImage Statisticsatthe bottom.To usethe existingcolorfromtheimage,simply slidetheColorIntensityslidertothe lowestpossiblevalueandclickOK. R8QEl8l5llC5 U5E bElEClCD 0 bCuICE lC L8lCUl8lE LClCI5CUCE I===!;= 8EI :: = (L8 l85lC5 ...(o8VEol8l5lC5...Alternatively,if you're interested inusingthe colorfromanother image,thenbeforeyouclickOK chooseit fromtheSource drop-down. It's alsopossibletosaveyourfavorite statistics workingon,anddialdownthecolor intensity.Thatmightsoundidentalto desaturation,butinsteadofremovingall the coloraduotone-likeeffectis created,usingthe image's predominant colortocreatethetone.Theresultis dependantontheimageyoustartwith, butit canbequitepleasing. Thesecondwayofworknigwith MatchColor,at leastforourpurposes, 42THEDIGITALDARKROOM1-CONVERTINGTOBLACKANDWHITE istotakeadvantage ofits abilityto workfromothersourceimages.If, forexample,you'vefoundanimage withcolortonesthatyoulike,then simply select it and perform the same reduction oftheColorIntensity setting. Thistrickcanbe appliedtomorethan oneimage,givingthemmatching duotone-styleconversions. Lef:Theoriginalimage,whichhas ahighconcentrationofred. Lef:Theresultingimagefromthesimple ColorIntensity reductionmethod. Lef:Analterativetreatment,using thecolortonesfromthelakeimage. Lef:Thelakeimagehas amoresubtleblue/green feel,butthatstillhasan effectifconvertedusing theone-stepmethod. LIGHTNESS TheLightnessmethodinvolves switchingthe image'scolormode fromRGBtoLab,which recordsthe brightnessandthecolorvalues separately. Thecolorinformationis thenthrownaway,leavingjustblack andwhite.Liketheotherbasic methods,Lightnessisadestructive technique,changingpixelvalues permanently. Thecolorinformation remainsintheHistorypalette,but is lost when you close the file.Ifyouwant to fine-tune theconversion,youhave togobacktoyouroriginalphotograph. Lightnessalsoappliestothe fileasa whole,andoffersnoopportunitiesto use theindividualcolorchannelvalues tocontrol how individual tonesand areasareconverted. SelectImage>Mode> Lab Color. COLORBLEND Anotherquickconversiontechnique involvesadding aColorFilladjustment layerandselectingashadeofwhite throughtoblack.Thenchangethe layer'sblendingmodetoColor.This meansitsonlyeffectistorenderthe imageblackandwhite.It doesn't haveanyrealvirtue andIincludeit onlyforcompleteness. IColor LabCtrl+(., lightness a b [v]Opacity:llOO% ( Background E ActivatetheChannelspalette, deleteeithertheaortheb channel,andyou'redone.Alternatively, selecttheLightnesschannelandthen chooseImage>Mode>Grayscale, Right:Butof the basicmethods, Lightnessis probablythebest. Theresultingblackand-white picture isusually themost naturalorneutral renditionof the ori ginalscene' brightness.If that iswhatyouwant, don'truleoutthe Lightnessmethod. LIGHTNESSMETHOD43 CALCULATIONS UnderPhotoshop'sImagemenulurksthemysteriousCalculationscommand.Itsmain roleisinretouchingandcompositing,whereitisusedtomakesophisticatedselection masks,soCalculationsisnotsomethingmostphotographerswouldeverneedtouse. NonethelessCalculationscanmergethevalues fromuptotwocolorchannelsandoutput anew,black-and-whitePhotoshopdocument. Becauseyoucancontrolthemixing ofcolorchannelvalues,Calculations permitsmorecreativecontrolthan otherbasicmethodsoverhow tonesarerenderedinblackand white.Historically,italsomadethe mostoflimited computingpower anddiskspace,andpredates Photoshoplayers. Suchlimitationsarenowbehind us,andCalculationsis neitheras convenientnorversatileasmodern Above:Whenyouareexperimentingwith monoconversiontechniques,select imageswithavarietyofcolors,suchas thestronggreensandredsin thisrallv layer-basedtechniques.Thenew black-and-white document the command creates containsno color information,sochangingyourmind aboutthe color-to-mono rendition meansstartingalloveragain.Since suchfine-tuningissomucheasier nowusingothertechniques,itisn't immediatelyappealing.Calculations canproducegreatresults,butits awkwardnesscanlimityour creativeexperimentation. 44THEDIGITALDARKROOMl-CONVERTINGTOBLACKANDWHITE So whyisitcoveredhere? First,Calculationsisstilltouted oftenenoughthatit needstobe putinitshistoricalcontext.The secondreasonismoreimportant, andthatistointroducethe roleof channelsandcreativeblack-andwhiteconversion. Lef:Althoughitcan beawkwardtouse, Calculationsdoes offeradegree creativecontrol. Usingtheblue channeldarkensthe skintonesonthis man'sface,sothe photographercan conveythatheisa heavilytannedman. Italsotonesdown thebackgroundand changesthe emphasisof the composition. CALCULATIONSMETHOD s-..-ib1d.Zb1 ---..----...bOZ b1b100O0O ..,- -.--. c-.---. ---.. Dlnr c., -. --...., o MaSk...u.:.'--..--o ...a Choose/mg0 C/C/tOnSand godirectlytotheResultsectionat the bottom ofthedialogbox.Youneed to setthistoNewDocument,because whileCalculationsmaybe previewed intheworkingimage,itcanonlymake selectionsofchannelsthere.Also,the Layer drop-down boxes should in general beset toMerged,soanyretouching layersareincludedinthe process.Use theBackgroundLayerifthereareno otherlayers. Themostimportantcontrolsare twoChanneldrop-downboxeswhich enableyouto choosethechannelsthat Calculationsmergesintoits black-andwhiteoutputdocument.Forinstance, pickRedinonedrop-downbox,and Calculations'outputwillshowlighter skintones,becausetheredchannel valuesofskinarequitehigh.Choose Blue,andforthesamereason Calculations'monooutputwill render skintonesdarker.Tobring outmore tonesingreen,suchasinthe striped flaghere,you'dpickGreeninoneor bothChanneldrop-downboxes. s-..-1' b1...-'...c-.--.SIM:'::::~--.. | .. | ____..'lnUS""0.BeforePhotos hopCS3,you would haveclickedOpenImage aftermakingyourRAWconversion adjustments.Thatchoiceremains available,butthereis anew option that keeps therawconversioneditable: OpenObject. HolddowntheShiftkeyandthe Open Image button changes temporarily toOpenObject.To changeitmore permanently,clicktheWorkflow Optionshyperlinkbelowtheimage andtickOpen inPhotoshop as Smart Objects.ClickthisOpenObjectbutton andtheRAWfileissenttoPhotoshop's editingenvironmentasa"smart object",aspecialkindoflayer that contains therawdata. /hotoshooC535ma/tCb/ects canbettansfo/med. sha/oened. o/b|//ed-a||w|thoutdamag|ngthe|magedata.IWhywouldyoudothis?The obviousbenefitsareversatility andanon-destructiveworkflow. RegardlessofRAWconversionand specificblack-and-whiteissues,smart objectsareworthusingbecause they canbebig timesavers.Whenthey were firstintroduced,youcouldadd adjustment layersasnormal,butyou couldalsodo things like applyld|I>!an5!7!mtocorrectconverging verticalsandreverseorfine-tune those transformationswhenneeded. PhotoshopCS3wentfurther and introducedSmartFilters,which mean youcanalso apply filters likeUnsharp MaskorGaussianBlurtothesmart object,andchangeorremovethose settingswithoutdamagingtheimage. YoucanchangetheRAWconversion settingsofaRAWfilesmart object.Just double-clickthesmartobject's thumbnail in theLayerspalette.Thislaunches AdobeCameraRaw andafterwards Photoshopappliesanyfiltersandlayer styles.Since thesmartobjectcontains theRAWdata,you can saveyour work andadjust itonanothercomputeror sendthefileto acolleagueorclient. CANHA HAW AND SNAH OBdCS CONVERTING SELECTEDIMAGE AREAS Today'sbestblack-and-whiteconversiontechniquesrelyonadjustmentlayers.With enormousharddrives,there'snolongermuchpointinflatteningyourworkingfilesand losingthechancetochangeyourmind,tweakingorcompletelyreworkingyourblack-andwhiteinterpretation.Adjustmentlayershaveanotherbigadvantage,however,andthatis inenablingyoutomakedifferentmonoconversionsindifferentpartsofthepicture,using thechannelvaluesthatareright for those areas. Thisisimportantbecausewhen youbrowsethroughthechannels, onepartofthepicturemaylookat itsbestintheRedchanneland otherareasbebetterintheGreen. At worst,featuresmaybe unacceptableinoneorother channel.Theneweradjustment layertechniquesallowyoutohave thebestofbothworlds,whileolder "one-size-fits-all"methodslike Grayscale,Lightness,and Calculationsforcedyouinto uncomfortable workarounds.In black-and-whitefilmterms,these new techniques arelikehavingan infinite rangeofcoloredlensfilters, red-greengrads,yellow-redspots, andwhateverother"exotic"you mightneedforthesubject. To applymorethanonemono conversion,yousimply need additionaladjustmentlayerswith differentconversionsettings,and youusetheirlayermaskstotarget particularimageareas.We'lllookat anexampleof howyou dothis,and noteafewotherPhotos hop techniquesthatmakethework quickerand easier. Above:Intheoriginalimage,a polarizing filterturedtheskyarichblueandmade thegrassandtreeslook particularlv verdant.Onemonoconversionlaver mightnotbeenough. 62THEDIGITALDARKROOM1-CONVERTINGTOBLACKANDWHITE Lef:Thefinalimage.Youcanhavethe bestofbothworlds bVusingtwo-or more-maskedBlackandWhite adjustmentlavers.Onerendersthesky, theotherthetreeandtheforeground. CONVERTINGSELECTEDIMAGEAREAS63 CONVERTING SELECTEDIMAGE AREAS USINGMASKS iNormal[v)opaCi!V: Lock Od+IiFill: I Black&White Backgrund1 Preset:ICustom H ;. c:Reds -% 8 Yellows% 0Preview 8 Greens -0% 8 (vans -0% 8 Blues -% 8 Magentas -0% 8 DIint Hoe D' Saturation 0,.0 a Addyourconversionadjustment layer.HereIchosetheBlackand Whitetechniqueanddraggedthecursor alongwayleftintheblueareaofsky. Thisrendersblueasnear-blackin grayscale,but renderingtheskyinthis wayhasleftthe treeandforeground lookingverydull. Above:Paintontheadjustmentlayer's mask.Thisallowsyoutoconvertimportant imageareasusingdifferentblack-andwhitesettings. fPaintblackontoyourexisting Ii conversionlayer'smasksothose areaswillbeleftunaffectedbythe adjustmentlayer.Youcanuseanyofthe paintingtools,suchastheBrush(B)or theGradient(G).Here,Iactivatedthe Brushtool,usedthe[andIkeyboard shortcutstosetalargebrushsize,and thenShift+[tosoftenitsedges.Ithen painted black ontothemasksothetree andforegroundremainedincolor,ready forthesecondadjustmentlayer. 64THEDIGITALDARKROOM1-CONVERTINGTOBLACKANDWHITE PresetI Custom H :=..Reds: .% 8 Yellows:% 2 Greens: .% g evans: .% 8 Blues: .% 8 Magentas: .% Above:TheBlackandWhiteadjustment layerhasdarkenedthe blueskybutmade thetreeandfieldunacceptablyheavy. I Addasecondadjustmentlayer withdifferentsettings.Thereis noneed forthislayertohaveamaskitwillnotaffectanyimageareaswhich have already beenmademonochrome. HereIdragged the cursor tothe right across thetreeand foreground,causing Photoshoptosamplethoseareasand movethecorrespondingsliderstothe right,lighteningtheirgrayscalerendition.Black &White Black &... liII Block'Whit' Black & White Inthissortofwork,youoften needtocomparetheoutput withandwithoutyour adjustments. Youcanclicktheeyeiconnext to the adjustment layerandtoggleitsvisibility, butthatgetsmoreawkwardwhenone ofthelayersismasked.Anotherwayis todeletethemaskandthenUndoby pressingCtrl/O+Z. Alesswell-knowntrickisto Shift+click thelayer'smask.This temporarilydisablesthemaskso the adjustment applies to theentireimage area.Inthis example,whilethered X is present,youcansee howtheimage would look if only that layer were present.Shift+clicking themaskagain willswitch themask back on.To seethe layermaskonitsown,Alt/\+clickit. HI [Dic:DI --.[..-Above:Dragging theGreenandYellow sliders tothe right makes theforeground andthe tree are more luminousand springlike,butthesky andclouds look weak. TheGradient toolcanalso be used to paintthemask.Itsdefault behavioristo replace anyexistingmask, but youmaywanttoaddto a carefully paintedmask.Switchitsblendingmode toLightenorDarken-hereI chose Darken-and thendragtheGradient diagonallyfromthe bottomright. Whenthemonoconversionis donewithmorethanone adjustment layer,the transitionneeds tobesmooth.Forexample,myRed andGreen adjustment layers render the treeverydifferentlyanda join wouldbe obvious,evidenceof aBrushedgethat wastoohard. Youcanadjust themask'scontrast withregularimageadjustmentslike Levelsor smoothtransitionareasby applyingfilters like GaussianBlur.Make sureyou clickthemaskbefore applying afilter so youdon'tchangethe image pixels.You should see the mask'ssimple blackand white inthefilter's preview. a Youcanalsomove andstretchthe areaaffectedby theadjustment layer. TryusingEdit>Transform on themask,draggingthecornerpoints outwardsorreshapingitwithEdit> Transform>Warp. Thisemphasizesakey point-theversatilityof theadjustmentlayerbased conversiontechniques.Youmay startoffwithoneideaofhowdifferent areasshouldbe renderedasgrayscale tones,and thensave andclose yourwork, butyoualwaysretaintheopportunity tocompletelyrevisetheconversion andtheresultinginterpretationof yourpicture. CONVERTING SELECTEDIMAGEAREAS65 CREATIVE CONVERSION: PEOPLE Inthepreviouspageswehavelookedattoday'sbestwaysofconvertingcolordigital imagestoblackandwhite.It'sallverywellknowingmostofthetechniques,andit's essentialtodistinguishthegoodonesfromthosethatarenowlargelyobsolete.Butthe artofblackandwhiteisnotamechanicalprocesswhere"best"canbedetermined objectively.Thereisnoscientificallyperfectcontrastrangeorhistogramshape.Youhave choicesand creative decisions tomake. Thereisalotmoretoblackand whitethanturningdownyour TV'scolorsaturation,orpressing anautobuttoninPhotoshop.The monoconversionstepiswhere youmakekeycompositional choicesanddeterminehowyou wanttointerpretthedigital negative.Anumberofblack-andwhiterenditionscanbemadefrom thesamecolororiginal,changing thecompositionofgrayscaletones ortellingthevieweradifferent storyaboutwhatisdepicted.To seewhat thismeansinpractice, let'sexamineoneimage,focusing alotlessonthetechniqueandalot moreoninterpretingthepicture's subject.ThisisaprocessIcall creativemonoconversion. Lef:Thecolor originalshowsaweItannedmanwith a paleblueshirtbut theconversiononly needstopresent theviewerwitharealisticimage-not onethat isfaithfultotheoriginal. 66THEDIGITALDARKROOM1-CONVERTINGTOBLACKANDWHITE Above:Thefinalinterpretationofthis pictureisjustoneway to depictthe subject inmono. GRAYSCALE Ifyou merelywanttheblack-and-white imagetorepresenttheoriginal'stone, choosetheGrayscaleorDesaturation methods.Bothmethodsare quick,and Grayscaleproducessmalleroutputfiles andistheonlywaytoprepareapicture foratrueDuotone.Grayscale'srendition isrealisticandisclosetohowtheeye capturescolor(that's thebasisfor Photoshop'suse of59%green channel, 30%red,and11 %blue). Butmoreoftenthannot-andit's certainly the casewiththisportrait-the resultsareratherflat andlifeless.Do youreallywantto surrenderyour creative opportunities? LIGHTNESS Forinherentlyneutralresults,trythe Lightnessmethod.Again,youhave nocontrol-yousimplychoosethe commandImage>Mode>Lab and thendeletethe " a"channelfromthe Channelspalette.Whatremainsisthe image'sbrightnessvaluesalone,and theblack-and-whiteoutputisunaffected bythecolorspresent intheoriginal;any color information is discarded forever. TheLightness versionisusually the most faithful to the original colorpicture. Is accurate recording of brightnesswhat you reallywant to achieve? These methods sharea huge shortfall. They're destructive.While you are still working on thefile,youcanonly fine-tuneorreversethem by undoing subsequent work,up to the numberof Historstepsavailable.Once yousave andclosethe file,theconversionisfixed forever. Thesemethodswerefinefor an earliereraofcomputingandinearlier versionsofPhotos hop.Stickwiththem ifyou never changeyour mind later,but whyrule out that possibilityforever? CREATIVECONVERSION:PEOPLE67 ~ - ~~~-~~CREATIVC Forgetforamomentthecolorimageonthepreviouspage,asifyouhadneverseenit, andaskwhichofthesepicturesyoubelievefairlyrepresentsthesubject.Belowsitsa dark-skinnedmanwearingaverylightshirt.Inthenextshot,themanremainsheavily tanned,thoughhisshirtisdarker,whileinthethirdhisfaceislighterandlessruggedand theshirtdarkerstill.Withoutthecolororiginal,youhavenowayofknowingwhichIS "true."Eachiscredible,eachtellsadifferentstoryaboutthesubject. Theonlydifferencebetween these threeshotsis thewayIchoseto settheChannel Mixer,usingthe Blue,Green,andthenRedpresets. There'sjustasingleadjustment layer,no maskingordifferent conversionsappliedtoselected imageregions,andnoCurvesor Levels.Icouldhavedoneprecisely BLUE Thepixelswhichrecordskintoneshave lowvaluesintheBluechannelandhigher onesin theRed.Soifyouwanttomake skinlookdark,youmight useonlythe Bluechannelvalues.AddaChannelMixer adjustmentlayer,tickMonochrome,and settheBluesliderat100%andtheothers atzero.Alternatively,addaBlackandWhite adjustrentlayerandusethecursorto drag leftfror the face. Ineachcase,theBluetreatrent darkensskintoneandalsorevealsrore detailsandblemishestoo,soit usually worksbetterforsubjectswhereyou're aimingtoexpressageandexperience. Alsoconsiderhowtheirageis composedandwherethegrayscaletones arepositionedinthepicture.Heretheshirt isapaleblue,soitspixelshavehighBlue channelvalues,whichturnintoverylight grayscaletones.Thatmaybe desirablein some cases.Here,tomy eye,it unbalances thepicture.Withblackandwhite,the viewerisdrawnfromdarkareasto the highlights.Here,attentionisdrawntothe eyes,whichisgood,andthenstraight downtotheshirt;lessgood.Aselective adjustmentisonepossiblesolution. thesamewiththeothertwo adjustment layermethods-Black and WhiteandFilm/Filter-which alsoallowtheusertoexploitthe picture's channel information.It's notthetechniquethat matters so much,it'showyou use itto expresstheimage.PhotoshopCS3 introducedtheBlack andWhite 1*M THEDIGITALDARKROOMl-CONVERTINGTOBLACKANDWHITE adjustment,whichofferssixrather thanthethreetonesI'veexamined here,but thesearetheprimary colors.Theprincipleistochoose whichonetoemphasize,andthe extrathreecolorgroupsinCS3are reallyjustabonus. Preset:]s|c8&White w|th . i. tv I=OutputChannel|Gray SourceChannels Red:+Green:+Blue:+Total:+140Constant: + Monochrome GREEN Becausethehumaneyerecords greenmore thanredor blue,youcanrendertheimage morenaturallyby choosingtheGreenFilter presetsinChannelMixerorBlack andWhite dialogboxes.InChannelMixer,thissetsthe Greensliderat100%andtheothersat zero. Withportraits,Greentendstobe somewhat averageandinthiscaseitistheleast interesting orattractive version. RED Redchannelvaluesare higherinskintones, sotomakethembrightergrayscaletones, picktheRedFilterpresetsinChannelMixer orBlack and Whitedialogboxes. TheRedFilterstyleproduces softer, moreattractiveskintones.Somemenmay wellappearinsufficientlybutch,too gentle, butitcansuitwomenandchildrenbetter thanablue-biasconversion. Aswellassubjectappearance,also considercompositionalimpact.Here,the blueshirtisnowdarkenedandishardly noticeable.Again,contrastthattotheBlue Filtertreatment.Ontheotherhand,ifthe shirthadinfactbeenbrightred,itwould havecontinuedtodistractfromtheface. CREATIVECONVERSIONPEOPLE69 CREATIVE CONVERSION:LANDSCAPES Nobookondigitalblack-and-whitephotographycanavoidprovidingarecipeforAnsel Adams-stylelandscapes.Norshouldit.Adamshimself,whodiedin1984,wroteabout howmuchhelookedforwardtoelectronicimaging,andhispicturesandwritingcontinue toinspireandinfluencemanyoftoday'sphotographers.Equally,suchadigitalrecipe shouldnotbeoverblown.Instead,itshouldbemoreastartingpointforexpressingyour ownstyleof black-and-whitelandscapephotography. Above:Ifthereisatypical Ansel Adams scene,itoftencontains strongskieswith clouddetail,asinthisshot fromoneofhis oldstampinggrounds,ZionNationalPark. Right:Thefinalimagehasstrongsky detailsandalandscapefulloftonal information.It'stheresultofusingthe black-and-whiteconversionasakey stepinthecreativeprocess. 70THEDIGITALDARKROOM1-CONVERTINGTOBLACKANDWHITE CREATIVELANDSCAPECONVERSION Above:AsimpleImage>Mode> Grayscale producesablack-and-white imagebuttheresultislackluster.Thered rockcanyonwallandthetreesbecome similargrayscaletones. a Thehardworkisn'tapplyinga particulartechnique,Channel MixerorBlack andWhite,orusing masks.It'sevaluatingthepictureand decidinghowyouwanttointerpretit in yourblack-and-whitecomposition.Film photographersoftentriedoutdifferent coloredfilters,attaching themtothe lensor sometimesholdingthemupto theeyes.It'sthesamethingwhenyou runthroughthechannelswithCtrl;G+ 1, 2,3,- (tilde);youget agoodideaof the scene'smonoappearanceandexpose yourselftoalternativetreatments. Above:Thesky contains lotsof pixels with highBluechannelvalues,soCtrl; +3 showsitasvery brightgrayscaletones,in factsopalethatclouddetail isgreatly reduced.Thecanyonwall becomesvery darkandthetreeslookdead.Soifyou wantedto brightentheskyanddarkenthe landscape,youcouldaddaChannelMixer orBlackandWhiteadjustmentlayerand choosetheBlueFilterpreset. Preset::...-- c:Reds:e- Yellows: -1 Greens:e-(yans:e-Bl.es: eISO% Magentas:- I% Dllnt "" SaturationD%D SoforatypicalAnselAdams-style Ylandscape,addaBlackand White adjustmentlayerandchoosetheRed Filter presetasastartingpoint.Then dragthecursoroverareaswhosetone youwanttomodify.HereIclickedinthe skyanddraggedleft,makingPhotoshop darkenthatarea intheblack-and-white rendition.Therockwallwasthen lightenedbydraggingthecursortothe rightinthatarea. Above:Ctrl; + 1showstheRedchannel. Likethe black-and-whitefilmuser'sred lensfilter,thismakestheskyverydarkand makesthecloudsstandout.Boththe canyonwallandthetreesbecomemuch brighterandareseparatetones.Pick ChannelMixerorBlackandWhite'Red Filterpreset. # ' Ii## Highpasssharpen # @ B Adamswasanenthusiasticand highly skilleddarkroomprinterand was amasterof dodgingandburning, brighteninganddarkeningselectedareas of the print.We'll seehowtodothisin Photos hoplater-for now,noticehow theworkhasbeendonewithCurves adjustmentlayers andgroupedtogether. CREATIVECONVERSION:LANDSCAPES71 TONAL SEPARTION We'veseentwoexamplesofthekindofcreativechoicesyoucanintroduceduringthe conversiontoblackandwhite.Inthosecaseswefocusedoninterpretation,onwhyyou controltheconversion,andhowits grayscale output mighttelltheviewersomethingabout thesubject.Eachtreatmentalsoaffectedthebasiccomposition-thebrightnessofthe man'sshirtunbalancingtheimage,orthedarkenedskydrawingattentiontothecanyon wallandthetree.So,forathirdexample,let'slookathowyoumightaddsome compositionalcreativity,andtonalseparation,totheblack-and-whiteconversionprocess. 72THEDIGITALDARKROOM1-CONVERTINGTOBLACKANDWHITE Above:Theoriginalimage.Theleaves differin brightness,butanimportantpart ofthecolor composition istheline between thewetbarkandthegreenmoss. Rig ht:Anyof thechannel-based adjustmentlayerscanproduceexcellent resultsandletyouchoosehowto composeyourblackandwhite.Inthisfinal imageit seemedimportanttoseparatethe leaves' tonesanddarkentheirbackground. CREATIVECONVERSIONS WITHTONALSEPARATION Above:TheBluechannelor BlueFilter presets(ChannelMixerorBlackandWhite adjustment layer)maketheleaveslook closeintone.Bluevaluesarelowin red andyel/owThere'salackoftonal separationthatseemstomakethe composition lessinteresting. Preset. Customkeds:Yellows.CreensCvans:8lues:Haentas:E: . . :, : '**|review|+lnthuSaturatlonAbove:EmphasizingRedineitherthe ChannelMixerorBlackandWhiteFilter showstheviewerthattheleavesdiffer in color.Theresnotasmuch tonal separation asintheGreen Filteroutput(right),and noticehowthelowerredleafisalsomuch brighter.Isthatdesirable?Theresno simpleanswer;itsforyou-thecreative performingtheconversion-todecide. a It'sworthaskingwhytonal separationplaysapartatthe conversionstage,Afterall,switching the imagetoGrayscale modemightbe "goodenough, "andmaskedCurves andLevelscan"dodgeandburn"key featuresandimageregions.Looping throughthechannelsmakesiteasyto discoveralternativeblack-and-white renditions,It'salsoquickerandmore versatiletousethecolorchannelsfor selectivemonorenditionthantobuild maskswhichtargetspecificareas,and itdoesn'tleavetraces.Youcanstill dodgeandburnaswell. The newBlackandWhite adjustmentlayeristhe most interactive of the tools,helpingmakecreative experimentationsimple.Startwitha preset-I pickedtheGreenFilter-and clickanddragthecursor ontheimage, movingtotherighttobrightenthearea intheconversion,orleft,asIamhere,todarkentheredleaf. Above:In thispicture,theGreenFilter presetsproducethemosttonalseparation betweenthekeyelementsofcomposition. Theredleafisnowalotdarkerand,since itislowerintheframe,thisseemsto anchorthepicture.Again,whateveryour preferredconversiontechnique,thisis where judgementrightlytakesover. '--.. ... .... D.+il!. Onesizerarelyfitsall.Whilethe UGreenFilterpresetworkedwell fortheleaves,Iwantedto darkenthe barkand moss,soIaddedanother adjustmentlayerandcarefullymasked outtheleaves. TONALSEPARATION73 SETING THE BLACK AND WHITE POINTS Convertingthedigitalpicturefromcolortomono,andfixingoverallimagecontrast,need tobeseenasdistinctsteps.Withoutpushingtheanalogytoofar,theblack-and-whitefilm photographerchoosesacoloredfiltertocontrolwheretonesaredistributedaroundthe negative,andsetsthefinalprint'scontrast bypickingtherightgradeof paper. Inthe digital darkroom,you don'thavejustoneshotat settingthemostpleasingtonal compositionandcontrast,and there'saverygoodcasefor not tryingtodoso.Contrast maynotbeirrelevantwhen youlookatthepreviewand adjusttheChannelMixeror BlackandWhitesliders,butit issecondary tousingthe creativemonoconversionstep tocomposeingrayscale blocks,andsecondarytofully interpretingyoursubject.You cansortoutthecontrast later. Noteveryphotograph needstocontainthefullrange oftonesfrompureblackto pure white,butitcertainly helps.Sofirstsettheblack andwhitepoints. Right:Aswellas setting the black andwhitepoints withLevelsorCurves,a black borderhelpsanchor thetonesinthefinal image. 76THEDIGITALDARKROOM2-FINETUNINGTHEPHOTOGRAPH TONAL RANGE:LEVELSORCURVES? Black&White1 Background ` {hanH6I.LI ____ v --|nu\ LCVC!5.a UntilPhotoshopCS3,settingthe blackandwhitepointsmeant adding aLevelsadjustmentlayer.Inthe Levelsdialogthereisahistogram,and beneath itarethreetriangles.Drag the white triangleto theleftuntilit reaches thefar-rightlimitofthehistogram(the edgeoftheshape).Thismakesthe image's brightest pixelswhite.Similarly, dragtheblacktriangletotherightuntilit reaches the histogram's far-leftlimit. AboveandLef:UsingtheBlueFilter presetexaggeratedBryceCan von : heathazeand,unlikeRedandGreen, italsoseparatedthehoodoofrom thebackground.Althoughtheoverall contrastrangewaslowerthis separation wasveryimportanttothepicture.Pure blacksand whitescanberestoredasa distinctstep. fWithPhotos hopCS3,youcanuse UtheCurvesdialoginthesame way.AswiththeLevelsdialogbox,drag thewhiteandblacktrianglesbelowthe histogram.BecauseCurves giveyouso muchmoretonal control thanLevels, it'slikelythatthiswillbethebetterway toworkfrom nowon. I Ahelpfultipis to holddownthe Alt/\keywhile youdragthe triangles.ThisworksineitherLevels orCurvesandmakesPhotoshop displaytheimageinclippingmode. Assoonasdetailbecomesvisible, youknowthe whiteorblackpointis mappedtotheimage'scontentand thoseareasare"clipped"andcontain no visibledetail.Especiallywiththe shadows,atinyamountofclipping anchorsthetonalrange,butlarge areasaregenerally unattractive. SETTINGTHEBLACKANDWHITEPOINTS77 OVERALL BRIGHTNESS AND CONTRAST Afterfixingtheimage'sblackandwhitepoints,thenexttaskistoreviewthebalanceof darkandlighttones-theproportionsofshadows,midtones,andhighlights.Brightness andcontrastsayalotaboutthepicture.Wetalkpositivelyofhigh-keyimagesandmight applysuchabrightpalettetoweddings,fashion,orchildren.Adarker,grittierrealism seemsmoreappropriatetophotojournalismorreportageimages,whileamoreeven spreadoftonescansuitlandscapeshots with realistic ornaturalaspirations. 78THEDIGITALDARKROOM2-FINETUNINGTHEPHOTOGRAPH Lef:Thefinalimagehasa slightly greatercontrast and remainshighkey,butCurves isavery versatiletool, offeringvery precisecontrast and brightnesscontrol. CURVES:BRIGHTNESS ANDCONTRAST Above:After settingtheblackand white points,youneed toassessand setthe overallimagecontrast. Addingcontrasttoapicture obviouslymeansmakingthe shadow tonesdarker andthehighlights brighter,andtheCurves adjustment layerisidealfor controlling this process. Drag downthelowerleftregionofthe curveanddrag upitstopright.Hereit isexaggerated,butits characteristic shapemeansthecontrast-increasing curveis commonly calledanScurve. Tobrightenallimagetones,click anywhereonthecurvelineand dragit upward,looking allthetimeat its effect onthe image. Aninverted U-shapedcurvebrightensalltones. Curves have a daunting reputation butaren'treally thatdifficult;a fewtricks cangetyoua long way.The principle behindtheCurvesdialogis thatthe bottomofthechart orXaxis shows the brightnessvaluesinthe underlying image.Thecurvemapstheseinput values tothe values atwhichtheywill be output,shownonthe left side orY axis. Ifthe chartdoesn'tmakesenseatfirst, keepaneyeontheInputandOutput valuesinthesurroundingdialog box. Hereadarkgrayvalueof60willbe outputas 80. I 1-a AreversedScurvemakes , shadowslighterandhighlights darker,reducing overallcontrast. fDarkeningtheimageis doneby Uclickingthecurveanddragging itdownward.So hereamidgrayvalue of200willbe outputas180.You coulddoexactlythesamebydragging thetopsliderintheBrightnessand Contrastdialogbox,orbydragging thegraymidpointsliderinLevels. Curvesaremuch moreflexible,as we areabouttodiscover,butfornow it'simportanttorememberthata U-shapedcurvelikethisdarkensall tonesfromshadows to highlights. __-ThebeautyofCurvesisthe subtletyyoucan introduce.The keyistothink firstinnaturalterms aboutwhatthe picture needs-in this case,averygentleincreaseinthe shadows'contrastandthebrighter midtonesandhighlights tobelifted alittle.So here the curve'sdip below the diagonal"neutral"lineisvery brief,andthenit runsgentlyabove. OVERALLBRIGHTNESSANDCONTRAST79 FINE CONTRST CONTROL Controloftheblack-and-whiteimage'sbrightnessandcontrastwouldbeaprettyblunt toolifyoucouldonlyadjusttheshadowsorhighlightsasawhole.Somepicturesbenefit fromadjustmentsthatchangethecharacterofjusttheverydarkesttones,liftingtheir brightnesssotheviewernoticesdetailinthedeepestshadows.Thehighlightsmight needtobepulledbackatouchsotheydon' tappearfeatureless;orpartofthepicture maycontainmidtonesthatlooktoosimilar,orwouldlookbetteriftheywerebrighteror darker.Fortunately,onceyouhave gotthe hang ofcreatingU-shaped curvesforbrightness controlandcontrast-increasingS-shapedcurvesit'seasytomovebeyondthisandtarget individualtonalranges. Above:Thefinishedimage.Theshadows aremoreinterestingthantheirprevious near-blackstate,whilethebrighter highlightsmakethevallev seemsunnier Noticehowthesky ismuchbrighter. 80THEDIGITALDARKROOM2-FINETUNINGTHEPHOTOGRAPH CURVES:INDIVIDUALTONALRANGES Above and Right:WhiletheGreenFilter presetrenderedthislandscapeasaflat anduninteresting blackandwhiteimage, thecreativemonoworkerneedstoutilize thefullrangeoftonesthattheimage contains.Thearches' shadowsaretoo deep,butelsewheretheconversion containsplenty ofusabledetail. a Thekeytofinebrightnessand contrastcontrolis tomove beyondSandUshapes,andadd extra pointstothecurvethat identifyand targetindividualtones.Holddown theCtrl/c keyandclicktheimage area containingthetone whose brightnessyouwanttocontrol.This makesPhotoshopsampletheimage andadda point onthe curve. + E Youcandragthispoint immediately orsampleothertones fromthe imageandadd more points tothecurve. HereIinitiallywanted tobrightenupthe darkestshadows,butleave thedarker midtonesandhighlightsunchanged,so thecurvereturnstotheneutrallineafter itsbriefupwardmovement. / Above:Curves cancontrolmorethan one tonalrange.Aswel asliftingtheshadows, thiscure brightensthehighlightsbut leavesthemidtonesrelativelyunchanged. FINECONTRASTCONTROL81 ADDING CONTRST SELECTIVELY Somepicturesonlyneedonecontrastorbrightnessadjustmentbutotherpicturesbenefit frommoreselectiveapplicationofcontrastcurves.Althoughthismayseemlikeanew development,itisn't:asdigitalloomedoverthehorizon,darkroomtechniquescontinued todevelopandvariablecontrastpapersappeared,enablingphotographerstoprinttheir work withvaryingcontrastlevelsindifferentpartsoftheframe. Thisvalleylandscapeisagood exampleofwherecontrastneeds tobeaddedinoneareaofthe picture.Evenbeforeopeningup the arches' shadows,thesky looked relatively lightandthe imageseemedunbalanced.The initialblack-and-whiterenditionwas improvedbyadjustingthe shadows,buteveryphotographer hasastyletoexpress,andforme thispicturewasalwaysmoreabout thestormycloudsthanitwas abouttheviaduct.Suchcreative interpretationofthesceneoften meansyouneedtoapplymore thanoneadjustmenttoits brightnessandcontrast. 82THEDIGITALDARKROOM2-FINETUNINGTHEPHOTOGRAPH Below:Thesky'scontrastisvery different in thefinalversion,butthiswaspossible becausethemonoconversionstage focusedonprovidingafulltonalrange ratherthanongettingoverallimage contrastright.Therewasplenty ofdetailin theskyandthiscouldbeexploitedtofully interpretthescene. CURVES:WORKINGWITHMASKS D Add extraCurvesadjustment layersto controlcontrast,targeting eachoneon specificpartsof theframe by paintingonto thelayermask.The Gradienttoolisuseful forthis,especially on landscapeswithobvioushorizons. Clickand activatethemask,thendraw theGradient acrosstheimage in a long stroke to smooththetransition between adjustedandunadjustedareas. E Subtlecontrast differences,like darkandlightcloudareas,are thereto be exploited.Double-clickthe Curvesadjustmentlayer,and,rather thanguessingwhere theirbrightness values areonthecurve,usethe cursor andCtrl/O +click eachside of the contrastedge.Thissamplesthe image andaddspointstothecurve,whichyou canthendrag apart toincreasethe contrast betweenthose tones. 1 I Lef:Comparedto therestof theinitial monoversion,thesky herewasrelativelv weak,but whatwas moreimportantwas thatitcontained valuabledetail and a completetonal range. Lock [j [j Whiteandblackpoints Black& White1 C Highpasssharpen BackgrundI fUseasmanymaskedCurves Uadjustment layers asyouwant, usingdifferentgradients.Ctrl/c+J duplicatesanexistingCurvesadjustment layer,soyou canquicklyseetheresult of doubling theadjustment effect. Agoodlittletrickistoswitchthe Curesadjustmentlayerblendingmode toMultiply.Thisislikeaddingtwo adjustmentlayersatonceandsaves ondiskspace,andyoucanalways useUndo ormoderate theeffectby reducingits opacity percentage. SELECTIVECONTRASTCONTROL83 LOCAL CONTRAST Contrastcontrolusuallyappliestothewholeimageortothoseareasdeliberatelychosen bythecreativephotographer.Butamoresurprisingapplicationislocalcontrastadjustment usingamethodborrowedfromsharpeningtechniques,andwhichissometimesknownas wideareasharpening. Theideaisthatyouapply the UnsharpMask filterbut with settingsverydifferent from thoseneededforsharpening. Thisprovidesacontrastboost thatissensitivetotheimage's contents,andthelocalcontrast increaseissubtleenough nottocompletely distortthe picture'soverallappearance. RightandBelow:Wideareasharpening givestheimageacontrastboostwithout unbalancingthepicture'soverallcontrast. 84THEDIGITALDARKROOM2-FINETUNINGTHEPHOTOGRAPH WIDE AREA SHARPENING [Brighten midtones @Eyes W levelsl a If youareusingPhotoshopCS3, wideareasharpeningcantake advantageofthenewSmartFilter feature.Selectthemerged layerand chooseConverttoSmartObjectfrom theLayerspalette,orpickthe/||le|.COnve(l lO|oma(t/||le($command. ThischangesthelayerintoaSmart ObjectsoyoucanapplytheUnsharp Maskorotherfilters andremoveor adjust themlater. Amount: % Radius pixels Ihreshold:1 0JevelS - " Layer s .= I NormalIv]Opacity: lock:[ _+ Q Fill: Eyes IBlack& Whitepoints Black & White E If youare usinganearlier versionofPhotoshop,wide areasharpeningneedstobeapplied to animagepixellayer.Duplicatethe background layer,orholddown the AIV"Ckey,andchooseMergeVisible. This copies allyourworkintoasingle layer.Youcanalwaysreducethelayer's opacityto moderate the effect. Apply/||le(oha|0enUn$ha|0 Na$kandchoose valuessuchas ZU7 fortheAmount andTU fortheRadius,butalways leaveThresholdat Usoyoudon't get any artifacts.Therequired AmountandRadiusvary;Amountis morelikethecontraststrengthand ZU7 is aboutthemaximum,while Radiusisthe affectedareaandis dependentonthepicture's sizeand on thedetailswhichitwillaffect. Widearea sharpening should produceasubtle effect,so itcanbe agood idea to zoominor toworkin fullscreen modelI andremove distractionssuchas thepalettes(Tab). NewLayer...Shift+Ctrl+N DuplicteLayer DeleteLayer DeleteHiddenLayers NewGroup ... NewGroupfromlayers.. LockAllLayersinGroup... ConverttoSmartObject EditContents LayerProperties.. BlendingOptions... CreateClippingMaskCtrl+G LinkLayers SelectlinkedLayers MergeDown MergeVisable FlattenImage AnimationOptions PaleteOptions.. Ctrl+E Shift+Ctrl+E Alt+Ctrl+E LOCP! CONJHP5J 85CREATIVE CLIPPING ----------Clippingthehighlightsorshadowsissomethingyouoftenavoid,butthatdoesn't necessarilymakeitwrong.Completelyclippedorburnt-outhighlightsmightconveyan overwhelmingsenseofluminosity,whilesolidshadowscaninvokeemotionsofgloomor makethesubjectlookthreatening.Youcanalsouseclippingtohidedistractionsand imperfections.Forinstance,highISOimagescontaindigitalnoiseandtheshadowareas maybedarkenedwithoutundulyaffectingthesubject. 86THEDIGITALDARKROOM2-FINETUNINGTHEPHOTOGRAPH Lef:Thisimagewasshot withsuchstrongnatural sidelightthatalittlefill flashwasaddedtobalance theflowers' shadows.Buttheon-cameraflash producedshadowsof the stemsonthe background. CLIPPING:USINGCURVES Above:Clippingthe shadowsrealizedthis picture's ori ginal intention-complete highlightdetailintheflowersand apure black background. - x ncachedRefresh CompactView 0ExpandedView AllchannelsView 0ShowStatistics __0ShowChannelsiolor Evenwhenyoualreadyhavea Curvesdialogboxopen,youcan openupPhotoshop's histogram and get statisticalconfirmationofwhatyour eyesdetect.Here there'sagapatthe shadow endofthe chart,indicating that therearenorealblacksintheimage. R:lSi Ie: 73/7S% ) G: lSi)M:67/68% B,lSiY:66/67% K:82/90% 8-bit8-bit + .22.86 w: 30.65 rH: Doc:S7.4M/S7.4M Click imagetochoosenew color TheInfopaletteisalmost as valuable.WiththeCurves dialog open,movethecursoroverpixelsinyour imageandthepaletteshowstheirInput andOutputvaluesintheRGBsection. Hereatonewithabrightnessvalueof 15will be output as 3. Toclipshadowsaggressively, dragthecurve'sbottomleftpoint totheright.Herethe pointhas been moved to 27,andOutputisshownas O. Thismeansthatanypixelsdarkerthana brightnessvalueof27 willbe outputas oorpureblack. CREATIVECLIPPING87 SHADOWS AND HIGHLIGHTS Youcan'talwaysshootanimageinsuchawaythatboththeshadowsandthehighlights arecapturedproperly.Sometimesyou simplyhavetochoosewhichisthemoreimportant; atothertimesthemostimportantthingonyourmindistocapturethefast-changing action.Brightbackgroundsmaycausethecameratosettheexposurecorrectlyforthe background,underexposingthemainsubjectandleavingitdarkandunpromising.But when thereisdetailintheshadows,allisnotlost. Therearenowafewpost processing techniquesto deal with underexposed subjects.While you can always usemasks andCurves adjustmentlayers,agroupof more automatedalternativessimulate theshadow-brighteningeffect of usingfillflashatthetimeof shooting.Anewapproachisto usetheRAWconversionstepand AdobeCameraRaw'sFillLight slider.AnotherisPhotoshop's Shadow/Highlightsadjustment. Right:Underexposingthe subject often worksoutbetterthanunderexposingthe background-thecameracapturesplenty of interesting detailinthebackground, andPhotoshop'Shadow/Highlights adjustment canrescuethesubject. 88THEDIGITALDARKROOM2-FINETUNINGTHEPHOTOGRAPH SHADOW/HIGHLIGHTS:ALLTHEOPTIONS I Black &White1 Shadowlhighlight The Shadow/Highlights adjustmentchangespixelvalues, so alwaysworkonacopyoftheimage layerorconvertitintoaSmartObject usingthecommandFilter>Convert for Smart Filters.AsaSmartObject, theoriginalpixelvaluesareretained evenwhenfiltersorShadow/Highlight adjustmentsareapplied,so youcan alwaysremoveorfine-tunethose adjustmentslater. Amount: :-Amount: . B Image>Adjustments>Shadow! Highlights isan"adaptive" adjustmentand examinestheimagefor rangesorareasofsimilarbrightness. That'sverydifferentfromCurves,for instance,whichexaminesand changes each individual pixelseparately.So here itwill examinetheimage,findthelarger areasofshadowandlifttheirvalues. Shadows Amount:. % TonalWidth: 61% Radius: Preview HighlightS-Amount:'. % : Tonal Width:. % : Radius: :|--Color Correction:i Adju"m,,"..I M;dIO", ConI""" :: Black Clip:.. % WhiteClip:::. % Save AsDefaults I o Show MoreOptions E TickShowMoreOptionsinthe Shadows/Highlightdialogbox andyouwillhaveaccessto evenmore controloverthe wayPhotoshoptreats theshadowsand highlights. Lef:Whenthesceneisfast-developing, youdon'talwaysgetthetimetoget theexposurespoton.Herethecamera exposedforthebrightskyand leftthe subjectunderexposed. SHADOWSANDHIGHLIGHTS89 CONTACTSTRIPS Darkroomworkerscalculatethecorrectbrightnessandcontrastbymakingcontactstrips. Youcoverthephotographicpaperwitha cardandswitchontheenlargerlightforasecond; movethecard,thenswitchonthelightagain,andsoon.Eventuallyyouhaveapicture withaseriesofgraduatedstrips,eachalittledarkerthanthepreviousone.Bycomparing theresults,youcanpickthe " right"exposureforthefinalprint.Youalsogainagoodidea ofhowthepicturewillrespondtoalternativeexposures,whichmakesanydodgingand burningamuchmoreconsciousand creativeprocess. In the digitaldarkroom youcangain similarinsightsbyvaryingan adjustmentlayer'sopacity,by duplicating it,or byswitchingthe layer'sblendingmodetoMultiply orScreen.Whiletheseareall valuable,therearetimeswhen judgingresultssideby sideworks betterthanchangingslidervalues. Andinanycaseyoumay justprefer toassesstheimagefromcontact stripsonatestprintandgetbetter finalresultsthanexaminingthe imageonscreen.Thisisaquick methodthat worksnot justwith contrastandbrightness,butwith anyadjustmentlayertechnique. Top Right:Theoriginalimage.Portraitsof menoftenlookbestwith relatively high contrast,but it's easytogotoo far. Right:Thefinalimage.TheGradienttool andthePosterizeadjustmentwereused tocreatecontactstri ps justlikeinthe darkroom.Seeingthealterativessideby side,youcan easily decide whichcontrast levelbestsuitsthesubject. 90THEDIGITALDARKROOM2-FINETUNINGTHEPHOTOGRAPH LAYERSANDMASKS:MAKINGCONTACTSTRIPS a Addanadjustmentlayeras normal.InthiscaseIwas interested intheeffectofreducing imagecontrast,sothe curveisshaped likeareversedS.Thislifts theshadows anddarkensthebrightertones. jjIbCK WRI!E1b3C8|0UDDee E .... . . . . LUDE5...Previewa Withthemaskstillactivated, chooseImage> Adjustments> Posterize andselectavaluebetween 4 and10.Thisposterizesthemaskinto aseriesof strips.Examinetheimage, decide which treatment worksbest,and thenremovethemaskorpressUndo toremove the posterization strips. E Makesuretheadjustmentlayer hasamask,andclicktoactivate it.ThenpicktheGradienttool(G)and chooseabasic foregroundto backgroundpreset. bCK WRIEfThesame techniquecaneasily Ii be usedwithotheradjustment layers,suchasduringtheblack-andwhiteconversionstage.Heremyinitial thoughthadbeentoapplytheBlue Filterpreset,butIthenexperimented withGreeninstead. [ [ @ LUIvE5...bICK WDIIEb3C8|0UDD ! B Paintacross themaskina directionthatfollows theimage's importantcontents.Hereanydirection wouldwork,butaleft-to-rightdirection wouldworkbetterforalandscape, ensuringeachofthemask'stones includes skyandland. CONTACTSTRIPSDODGING AND BURNING: THE TOOLS Dodgingandburninghasalwaysbeenfundamentaltotheartofmonochrome.Great photojournalistslikeDonMcCullinorSebastiaoSalgadohadtheirnegativesworkedby experienceddarkroomprinters,andAnselAdamswasjustonelandscapemasterwho lovedtogethishandswet.Lighteningordarkeningpartsofthepicturecanemphasize somefeaturesandsubdueothers,balanceorwhollychangethecomposition,ordirectthe viewerintoandaroundtheframe,allthewhilerenderinganinterpretationofthescene thatremainsbelievable. We'lllookatthetoolsofthetrade, firstatoldertechniquessuchasthe DodgeandBurntoolsandOverlay layers,andthenatthemore flexibleCurvesadjustmentlayers andMasks.Butit'sonethingto know what thetoolsare,andquite anothertowieldthemcreatively. Sothefocuswillswitchfirmlyto thewhysofdodgingandburning andtothethoughtprocessesyou tomightwanttoinvokewithyour ownpictures.It'snot goingouton alimbtosaythatdodgingand burningarethekeytoexpressing yourselfinblackandwhite. Below:Theoriginalimage.Doyourblackand-whiteconversionfirst,thenadjustthe overallbrightnessandcontrast beforeyou dodgeandbur 92THEDIGITALDARKROOM2-FINETUNINGTHEPHOTOGRAPH Bottom:Thefinalimage.Overlaylayers increasecontrastandyourpaintingshould perhaps bemorecarefulthanmine-notice therimof brightnessaroundtheroof. STRAIGHTFROMTHEDARKROOM WhennewPhotoshopusershave darkroomexperience,theyimmediately understandtheDodgeandBurntools (0)whichinmanywaysmimictheir darkroomcounterparts.Selectthe appropriatetoolandthenjustuseit directlyontheimage. OVERLAYLAYERS Name:Layer! DusePreviouslayertoCreateClippingMask colorONen! ( -] =Opacity: o Fl with Oer1y-neutral color (SO grv) Anothervenerabledodgingandburning techniqueis topainton anewlayer withitsblendingmodesettoOverlay. Asyouclick theLayerspalette'sCreate aNewLayericon,holddownAlt/\,changetheblendingmodetoOverlay, andtickFillwithOverlay-NeutralColor (50%Gray). ThisOverlaylayeristransparentat first,butyou canpaintitwiththeBrush, Gradient,oranyother painting tool.This lightensthe composite image whenyou paintwithwhite oragraylighterthan 50%Gray,anddarkensitif youuse black oratone darkerthan50%Gray. Overlaylayersallowmuchscopefor Range:Midtones Shadows t TheDodge andBurntools work directly onalayercontainingimagepixels, somethingwhich feels verynatural todarkroom enthusiasts.Whenyou activateeithertool,itsoptionslet youchange thesoftnessandsizeof thetool,ratherlikevarying the tool's distancefromtheenlargerlens.It's agoodideatoreducetheOpacity percentageandbuilduptheeffect gradually.Youcanalsotargetcertain tones,so for instance chooseHighlights ifyouwanttobrightenthe whitesof the eyeswithoutaffectingthepupils. fine-tuningnowor in alaterPhotos hop session.Youcanhaveasmany layersas youneed,soyou mightsegregate differentdodgingandburningsteps, boosttheeffectwiththeCtrl/c +J duplicatelayercommand,orcutitback byreducingtheiropacitypercentage. Ontheotherhand,I'vealsotended toabandonusingOverlaylayers. EssentiallyIfindCurvesandMasks muchmore convenient.TheOverlay blendingmodeincreasescontrastand youneedtousemore shadesof gray, thenpaintarounddetailswithvarious brushsizesandsoftness.Ittakestime toproducesubtleresults. DodgingandBurning :....&=-.Background OvertimeI'velargelymovedaway fromusingtheDodgeandBurn tools,perhaps justusingthemfor whiteningeyesandteeth.Because theychange pixelvaluesforever, theyare" destructive, "andyou shouldalwayscopyyourimageinto anotherlayerifyoususpectyouwill wanttofine-tuneyourwork later. o.... o...':cc .......' :cco...o....o....o........&=-..Background@ DODGINGANDBURNING:THETOOLS93 ADJUSTMENT LAYERS Curvesadjustmentlayersarethemostpowerfulandflexiblewaytododgeandburna picture.TheymaynotfeelasfamiliartodarkroomworkersastheDodgeandBurntools, butCurvescan change every brightnesslevelinapictureand control contrast ineach tonal range.Adjustmentlayersdon'tchangepixelvaluesforever,soyoucanalwaysfine-tune yourworklater.Dodgingand burningis essentially localcontrastand brightnesscontrol,so youusethesametechniquestomanipulatethecurve. Photoshop'smasksareidealfor performingdodgingandburning work,giventheeaseofpainting differentlevelsofgray,oreven disablingthemaskaltogether.Just makesureyou'reworkingonthe masklayerwhenyoustartpainting. Above:UsingtheBluechannelinChannel Mixermadethemostof thelimited color contrastbetweenthewallandtheexhibits intheoriginalimage. 94THEDIGITALDARKROOM2-FINETUNINGTHEPHOTOGRAPH Below:Thefinalimage.Themoreyouget used tododgingandburingwithCurves adjustmentlavers,thelessvou'li focuson the tools.Instead,theimportantpart-how youwanttointerpretthepicture-prevails. TOOLS:DODGING ANDBURNING Above:Increase contrast by makingan 5curvewiththecurve'lowerleftdragged downwardanditstopleftpulledupward. TOOLS:GRADIENT An alternative totheBrushistheGradient (G)tool,whichpaintsa smoothtransition ontothemask.Varyitsopacityand choosedifferentpresetsasyouneed. Anotherhandycontrolisthe blending mode-set ittoDarkenorLightenand youcanapplymultiplegradientfillsto thesamemask. Just like working with regular image pixels,youcanadjustthemaskwith filters suchas GaussianBlur.Thiscan be usefulifyourmaskingwasn't smooth enough and your dodgingor burningadjustmentis tooobvious. Makesurethemaskisactive,andthen eitherblurthewholemaskormakea selectionand chooseFilter>Blur> GaussianBlur. Dodgingandburningwith Curves isreallyabouthowyoupaintthe adjustmentlayer' smaskand controlwherethecurve adjustmentapplies.It'sagood ideatostartbymakingarough LassoorMarqueeselectionof theareayouwanttododgeor burn.Thenadd theCurves adjustmentlayerbyclickingthe icon in theLayerspalette.Your selectionisimmediately convertedintoamask. Radiuspixels -Equally, you can reshape themasked areaswithEdit>Transform.This techniquecan be usefultostretch themaskandspreadtheCurves adjustment's effect overa widerarea. TOOLS:THEBRUSH TheBrush(B)isoneoftheeasiest waystopaintthemask.Usea soft- edgedbrushand varyits opacity;somepeopleliketo set itto under50%and build up the mask.Ifyouonlywant to dodge orburnsmallpartsoftheframe,it might makesensetofillthemask withblackandthenpaintwhite overthoseareas.Conversely,if youwanttheCurvesadjustment toaffectmostofthepicture,leave themaskwhiteandjustpaintblack overthoseareaswhereitshould notapply. Above:Useas many masked adjustmentlayers asyouneedto doyour dodging andburingwork, andusetools liketheBrush and theGradient to paint the masks. Oryoucanselect Transform's Warp optionanddragtheguidelinesto reshapethemask.TheLiquifyfilter canbe usedinasimilarway. ADJUSTMENTLAYERS95 DODGING AND BURNING: LANDSCAPES Partoftheartofblackandwhitehasalwaysbeendodgingorlighteningsomeareasofa picture,andburninginordarkeningothers.Attheriskofexaggeratingapoint,it'sworth repeatingAnselAdams'sanalogyoftheprintastheperformanceofthenegative'sscore. Yourworkcanbeplannedverydeliberately,oritcanresultfromintuitivetrialanderror whichcanperhapsberationalized after theevent.Usuallyit'sabitofboth. Right:To preservethe mistiness of this London scene,IusedtheBlue Filter preset intheBlack andWhite adjustmentlayer-exactlyhowI would haveworkedwithmonofilm. Below:Liftingthehighlightsand midtonesbringsmorelifetothe picture,whilediagonallymaskingthe lowerthirddrawstheeyeacrossthe RiverThamesto BigBenand away intothe mist. 96THEDIGITALDARKROOM2-FINETUNINGTHEPHOTOGRAPH THE THOUGHTPROCESS By the timeIhad reachedcentral Londontotakethisshot, the sun was cuttingthroughthe morningfog, so toretainthesky's highlightdetailsI underexposedthephotograph by2 stops andleftthe shadows tolook after themselves.Theresultisthat,while theskycontainsplentyofinterest, the lower third of the frameisdominated by darkertones which make thestraight picture feelvery bottomheavy.SoI neededto liftcontrastin theshadow tones and revealmoredetailinthe lowerpartof the picture. Ialsofeltthatthestraightprint lacked compositional directionaswell asshadow contrast.Atfirstglance,the picture seemstocomprise a heavy lowerthirdoftheframe,andthebig wheel onthe left.Myeyethen wanders straightupintothe skyand away.Most of all,thepicturefailstoemphasizean importantnarrativeelement-it'snot justabig wheel,it's thatone opposite BigBen.Darkeningthe sky, like shooting with a neutral grad, would THEINTERPRETATION Mostofthe workisdonewiththe Curvesadjustmentlayer" Brighter highlights andmidtones,"which dodgesthemiddle area,liftingthe highlights andthe midtones.Notice the pointto itslower left;Ialso experimented with a contrast-increasing Scurvebutendedupwithonethat simply anchored thestrengthofthe darkestshadows. top the frame.Andkeepingthebottom rightcouldlead theeyediagonallyfrom thebottom left, pastthewheel,and thenacrosstherivertotheHousesof Parliament andintothedistance. Highlightsmust not change Keepstrng Lead eyeintothedistance andover toParliament Lift shadows Darkenalllones Brighter highlightsandmldtones __- Thecurve'smostimportantaspect is themasking.Toprotectthelower rightand sky,theGradienttool (G)was muchfasterthanpaintingblackwitha brush.Noticehowthree whitetoblack gradientshavebeen applied:one directlyupward,onediagonally tothe lowerright.and asmallone atthe bottomleftthatsealsthatcorner.TopaintmultipletimeswiththeGradient filter, changeits blending modeinthe toolbarto eitherLightenorDarken. SettingittoDarkenmeansthatit only paintswhereitwill darken themask. The finishingtoucheswere to add two Curvesadjustmentlayers.One wasneededto burnin the sky andso waslimitedtothe topofthe frameby paintingthemaskwith theGradient tool. Asoftenwith landscapes,Istarted thegradientjustbelowfromthe horizon, butthen protected thesunwith asoft blackcircle.The secondlayeraddedthe coldbluetone-asusual,settingthe adjustmentlayer'sblendingmodeto Colorsoitdidn'tchange thebrightness andcontrast. DODGI NGANDBURNING:LANDSCAPES97 DODGING AND BURNING: PORTRAITS Dodgingorburningsmallfeaturescanmakeabigdifferencetothefinalimageandcan oftengiveportraitsthatcrucialfinishingtouch.Gentlyburninginthesidesofthefacecan emphasizebonestructureand,perhapsratherlikeapplyingmakeup,canmaketheperson lookslimmer.Meanwhile,toningdownaman'srecedinghairlineisanothercommon request.Dodgingiseverybitasuseful,whiteningteethordrawingattentiontotheeyes whilestillretainingthephotograph'sconvincinglynaturalappearance. Above:Theoriginalimage.TheBlackand Whiteadjustmentlayer'sRedsliderwas draggedtotherighttosoftentheman's ruggedskintones,butthe plainmono renditiondoesn'tdrawenough attention toafacethatreallyisfullofcharacter Right:Dodgingtheman'seyesandburing inthecoatmakesthefinalimageamuch truer portrait. 98THEDIGITALDARKROOM2-FINETUNINGTHEPHOTOGRAPH THETHOUGHTPROCESS Fromtheinitialimage,it'scleartheman is working ina shop orpharmacyor some otherenvironment whereacertain amountofcleanlinessisrequired.In fact itwasina foodmarket.Whilehiswhite coathelpsyoudeterminethepicture's context,itsbrightness seems to overwhelmtheportrait.First,it tends to pulltheeyeawayfromtheman'sface, thecharacterofwhichis byfar themost interestingpartoftheshot.Second,the whitecoatandtheshirt'sopencollar directtheeyedownwardandunbalance theimage,makingittop heavy.This imageneedsthecoattobeburntright down,and thebackgroundneedsto betoned downatthesametime. Withportraits,it'salwaysagood ideatochecktheeyes.They'reusually the picture's most important feature, thefirst thingtheviewerexamines,so youwouldprobably havecheckedtheir sharpnessbeforeyoudecidedtomake a black-and-whiteprint.Here,inplanning mydodgingandburning,whatseems important istheeyes'brightness relativetotherestofthe picture-the THE INTERPRETATION Ifyou'reusingmaskstolocalizeyour adjustment work,theorderinwhichyou dodgeandburnisusually uptoyou.So Istarted workby dodging theeyeswith aCurvesadjustmentlayer.Draggingthe curveupward,roughlyatfirstIthen filledthelayermaskwithblackbefore usinga small,soft-edgedbrushto paint back theshapeoftheeyes.Nowthat anyfurtherworkwouldn'taffectthe restofthepicture,ordistractme,I changedthecurveacoupleoftimes, allthe timewatchingtheeffectonthe image.Don't trytogetit rightfirst time-the beautyofthe adjustment layer isthatyoucango backandfinetunethecurveorthemask.Inthis case Idraggeditupalittlemoreuntilthe eyeswereniceandbright. whites, arenot differentenoughintone fromtherestoftheface.Justlikeinthe traditional black-and-white darkroom,a littlecarefuldodgingcanworkwonders. Earand sideof face toolight Shirt and coatvery bright;they needto be toneddown --t-Toning downthecoat'spurewhite wasthekeytowhatIwantedfromthis picture:aportrait ratherthanasnapofa maninawhitecoat.SoIburntthecoat inwithaparticulartypeofCurves adjustment layer.Torenderwhitesas midtones,youdragthecurve'stopright pointdirectly downward.It's a distinctive curveand,asitruinstruewhites elsewhereintheimage,not oneIever usewithoutpaintingthemask.Here, IusedtheGradienttool topaintthe effectinfromthebottomof thepage, andthenburntinthebackgroundby paintingwhite with a soft brush around theman's head.Notallpartsof Botheyes toodark Background clutteredand distracting Above:Groupingthedodgingandburing layersmakesiteasiertoadjusttheir opacitytogetherandreducetheireffect. apictureneed the sameamountof darkening,sonoticethemask'supper lefthasagrayareapaintedwiththe brushopacitysetto50%. DODGINGANDBURNING:PORTRAITS99 DODGING AND BURNING: REPORTAGE Dodgingandburningisn'talwaysaboutgrandchangesofemphasis.Whileafinished landscapephotographmightcontainanelementofperformance,thereareothertimes whenthephotographwouldsimplybedevaluediftheviewerfeltithadbeenmanipulated inanyway.Let'slook,forexample,atasuchaphotograph,inthiscaseareportageshot fromSpeakers'CornerinLondon'sHydePark. RightandBelow:Thebasicblack-andwhiteconversionwas donewithasingle BlackandWhiteadjustmentlaver.The Greens sliderwas dragged tothe left rendering thegrassand leaves much darkerthanintheoriginalimage and emphasizingthe picture'ssubjects. 100THEDIGITALDARKROOM2-FINETUNINGTHEPHOTOGRAPH ANYONE THETHOUGHTPROCESS Asalways,stepbackforamomentto considerhowyouwant tointerpretyour image.Decidewhat'simportant.what isn't,andidentifyanything distracting. Thispictureisclearlyaboutthe preacher,hishandgesture,thetwo listeners,andtheplacard.Theytellthe viewerwhatisdepicted,butaswellas a simpledocumentarypurposetheyalso helptheviewernavigatetheframe. Workingfromlefttoright.myeyesgo straight to the preacher,then follow the lineoffaces andloop up totheplacard; or alternatively,theyfollowhishandand thelistener'sarmuptotheplacard,and thenseethethirdman.Thesekey features reallyneedtostandout. Therest ofthescene,already thrownoutoffocusbyanf4aperture, isalmostcompletelyirrelevant.But somebuildingsdoseemtooobviousin thebackground,and some contain the highlight tones closetothe placard that drawyourattentionawayfromit.As well assubduingthe background, these highlightsneed tobetoned down. THESOLUTION lBlack & Whltel Background Thedodgingandburningis donewith agroupofthreeCurvesadjustment layers.Don'tbeafraidtouseasmany asyouneed.Eachlayer'smaskwas painted witha soh-edged brush.Where themaskiswhite,theadjustment affects theimage.Where it's black,the imageis unchanged by theadjustment. TheDarkenShadowsMidtones layer(alsotheEdgeBurnlayer).isa conventionalU-shapedcurve.Notice howI'vepaintedonthemasksothe facesandtheplacardareunaffected. It'sanidenticalthought process whetheryou'reworkinginthedarkroom orwithPhotoshop.Youhavetojudge eachpictureonitsmerits.Overall,Ifeel amoresubdued background that Backgroundneedstobedarkenedto help the facesand banner stand out TheDarkenHighlightsadjustment layeristhemostinterestinganddeals withtheproblembuildingsandother distractions.Draggingdownthecurve's whitepoint,thetopright corner,made Photoshop darkenthebrightesttones untiltheywerenolongernoticeable.To avoiddarkeningtheshadowtonesas well,Iaddedextrapointsonthecurve and draggedthemupward,helpingmy workblendin.FollowingthatIpainted onthemask,targetingjust thebuildings, paths,andoneortwootherhighlights. Burninginthebackgroundmakes the facesandplacardstandout,but maintainsthe picture's realism.Incases likethisit'simportanttomaintainthe photo'sdocumentarycharacter. obscuresthebuildingswillmakethe subjectssufficientlyprominentandalso suitthecomposition.It'sahighly subjectivedecision. / Lef:Heavy manipulationofthis imagewoulddetract fromits jouralistic charcterbutsubtle changescanenhance thesubjectand composition Distracting highlights Handneedstobe emphasized,sodarken thetonesaroundit / DODGINGANDBURNING:REPORTAGE101 GENERAL SHARPENING Digitalimagesconsistofagridofusuallysquarepixelsandthatmakestheminherently soft.WhenthecamerastoresthepictureasaJPEG,itappliescertainsharpeningsettings, butRAWcapturesarejusttherawandunsharpdataandsotheyneedsharpeningatsome stage.Thissharpeningisanincreaseincontrastbetweenneighboringtonalareas,the edge'sdarkersidebeingdarkenedanditslightersidebeinglightened,andit'sanoptical trickthat makesthepictureappear sharper andmore focussed. Sharpeningisa"destructive" process,changingpixelbrightness values,soit generallyneedstobe donelateintheeditingprocessthoughBruceFraserconvincingly distinguished betweenthree sharpeningphases.First,alittle "capture"sharpeningmay be appliedat thestartof theediting process-usingdefaultvaluesfrom AdobeCameraRaw,forexample. Thenthereisanoptional"creative" phasewhereyouselectfeatures liketheeyesandsharpenthem. Finally,youalwaysneedtoapply "output"sharpeningtothefinal imagethattheviewerwillexamine. Outputsharpeningisusually the mostimportantandyouneed to relateitsamountorstrengthto the finalimage's physical dimensions andtotheresolutionoftheoutput device.Whicheversharpening techniqueyouchoose,different settingsapplyto300 ppiinkjet printsand1000by600pixelweb siteJPEGs.Thegoalistoapplyas muchsharpeningas youcan withoutitbeing identifiableinthe finaloutput.Todothiswell,you need to understandthebasic techniques,how toapplythem selectively,andhowtomakeit easytofine-tunetheeffectafter youexaminethefinaloutput. Top:Theoriginalimage,likealldigital images,isinitiallvsoftandneedssome formofsharpening.Thecameradoesthat forvouwhenitissettosavevourpictures as JPEGs,butRAW captures require sharpeninginpostprocessing. 102THEDIGITALDARKROOM2-FINETUNINGTHEPHOTOGRAPH Above:The sharpenedimage.Sharpening's effectneedsto be judgedatthefinal outputresolution.On-screenviewscan be misleading.Forweboutput,it matterslittle asthepixelisthefinalunit,butthefinal printislikelvtobeat300ppisoneedsto beexaminedcarefullv. UNSHARPMASK I Toning I Black&White1 -j IBorderf.. Efects Stroke D Retouching [ 8c.rou: t D Sharpeningisinherently destructiveandis bestdoneona copyofthe imagelayeras oneof the finalstepsbeforeprinting.Thiskeeps youroptionsopenif youwanttoalter orfinetuneyourworklater. Atthat point,theremaywellbea number oflayers-separateonesfor retouching,black-and-whiteconversion, andcontrastcontrol,forinstance. Beforeyou makeamergedlayer,hide anylayerswhichmightaffectthe sharpeningorwhichmightrestrictyou. Inthiscase,somemarks onthe wallneeded cloning awayandthiswork wasdoneonits ownlayer-which needed sharpening likeany other image pixels.Another layercontainsaTa-pixel border which wouldshowasanasty sharpeninghalo,sothatlayerhasbeen temporarilyhidden.Theotherlayersare hiddenbecauseI prefertosharpenan unadjustedcolorimage-toavoid repeatingmysharpeningworkifIever produceacolorversionof thepicture. [@I Toning [ Black&White1 [ D Bo:eI I. @ Efects @ Stroke [ [ Me(:[@ D Retouching [@ [ 8ackgrou: Onceyouhavecheckedthe correctlayersarevisible,hold downtheAlt/\keyandchooseMerge VisiblefromtheLayerspalettemenu, andmaketheotherlayersvisibleagain. Of course,shouldyoudecidetodoany furtherretouchingaftersharpening,you wouldhavetorepeatthesesteps. I e.|e= '^ Lount. ----- -----au|uso|xe|seou e.e|sOEl/|l| cI|O| U|$I|ON$Iisawell-establishedsharpening toolandproducesgreatresults.F or generalsharpeningforprint,choosean AmountbetweenT UU andZUU, aRadius ofT-3, andalow Thresholdvalue. Cpac|tv %Ck. CaocelMode:Ilumjnas;! i?|ev|ewD Immediatelyafterapplying , UnsharpMaskto colorpixels, choosethecommandLd/l ldU|$I|ON$I. orusethekeyboard shortcut Shift+Ctrl/c+F.Setthe blendingmodetoLuminosity,andclick OK.ThisquickstepmakesPhotoshop apply thesharpeningto thepicture's brightnessvaluesandnotto thecolor values,andsoeliminatesthechance ofcolorartifactsbecomingvisible. GNHAL SHARFNING 103 HIGH PASS AND SMART SHARPENING Buildingonthe"traditional"UnsharpMaskmethodareanumberofnewer,andfrequently moreeffective,sharpeningmethods.Which one youuseis,ofcourse,amatterofpersonal preference,butdon'tdiscountthem-especiallySmartSharpen-becausethey'renotthe mostcommonlyused.Alotofpeoplearejustusingoldbooks. SMARTSHARPENING Smart Sharpenis thenewestofthe main sharpening techniquesand combines sharpeningandartifact protectioninthesamedialog box. OntheSharpentab,Amountand Radiushavesimilar functionstotheir namesakesinUnsharpMask.More interesting istheRemovedrop-down boxwhich givesyouthechoiceof counteracting differenttypesofimage softness.Gaussianproduces results similartoUnsharpMask,andMotion is geared to motion blur,butthebest choiceisLens,whichisdesigned for optical blur. ChoosetheAdvancedoptionsso youhaveseparatecontrolof sharpening inthehighlightand shadowareas.Work firstonhighlight sharpening,asthe brighterdetailstendtobemoreobvious thanthoseinthe shadows.Thekey control hereisFade,whichisyour safeguardagainstartifacts. Right:Thekeytosharpeningistoapplyas muchasyoucanwithoutanyonenoticing. UnsharpMask,HighPass,orthenewer SmartSharpencanall producegreat results.Butalwaysexaminethefinal printanddon'trelyonyourmonitor. 104THEDIGITALDARKROOM2 .3. L i-. -(i..!8 Lef:Aswellassharpeningthechurch steeple,lookoutforartifactssuchas themottlingin the background.These excessivelyhighRadiusand Amount settingshavequicklydegradedtheimage. THEHIGHPASSMETHOD Thethirdmainsharpeningmethodis HighPass.First,it's very important to setthemergedlayers'blendingmode tooneof thecontrast-increasingmodes: Overlay,SoftLight,orHardLight.Then chooseFilter>Other>HighPass. HardPass'sonlycontrolisthe Radiusslider,but itproducesgood, ratheraggressivesharpeningthat is idealfor printing. SMART OBJECTS Sharpening needstobejudgedby examining thefinal output,theprintor weboutput.Youmaynotalwaysgetit right first time,soit makessenseto keepyouroptionsopen.Photoshop's Undo functionandtheHistorypalette areusefulenough,butPhotoshopCS3's SmartObjects featureis abigtimesaver when redoingsharpeningwouldmean hidingandmerginganumberoflayers. It isideallysuitedtofine-tuningyour workandworkswithany ofthese sharpeningtechniques. To convert themergedlayerintoa SmartObject,eitherchooseConvertto SmartObjectfromtheLayerspalette's menu,orusethemenucommandFilter >Convertfor Smart Filters. Thenapplyany ofthe sharpening filters.If yousubsequently changeyour mind abouttheeffect, justdouble-click the filterlayerintheLayerspaletteand youcanchangethesharpeningsettings. G 100% G Radius:3.5I pixels ,-DarkenSky IBlack&White1 \100%[ Fill\100%. E Curves1 Black&White1 Highpasssharpen Backgrunda Above:TheSmartObjectlayer is amerged duplicateof thelayersbeneathitsoit's alwayspossibletoreturtotheimageand makeadjustmentswithouthavingtore-da your sharpening. HIGHPASSANDSMARTSHARPENING105 SELECTIVE SHARPENING Sharpeningshouldneverbeseenasastandardrecipe.Youneedtoexaminetheinkjet printwebJPEG,orwhateverthefinaloutputmaybe,andindividualpicturesrequire differentdegreesofsharpening.Aportraitmaycontainareasofgentleskintoneorablue skymaycontainsmoothgradationswhichrequirenosharpening.Otherpicturesmay requiresharpeninginsomeareas,butnotinothers,somethingonlytheartistcan determine.This is whatismeantby"creative"sharpening. Above:Intheoriginalimagea longdepthoffieldhasrendered everythingbroadlvinfocus. Right:Inthefinalimage,the cemetery's backgroundwasleft softandunsharpened,aswere theless distracting twigsand brancheson eithersideof themonuments. 106THEDIGITALDARKROOM2-FINETUNINGTHEPHOTOGRAPH MASKEDSHARPENING aInsteadofapplyingsharpeningto thewhole merged layer,you can usetheselectiontoolstoidentifyjust those areas which needit.Sothe sharpening isn'ttooobvious,the selection's edgesneedtobesoftened or"feathered"usingAIt/'+CtrI/O+D. Or,as shownhere,youcouldpainta selectioninQuickMaskmode,blurits edges,andthenapplyyoursharpening to thetargetarea. I' , Smart Object - @Efects @Stroke . Sm,""',," @UnsharpMask ELayers andmasksoffermore versatilecontrol.Youcantarget sharpening on certain features,protect otherpartsoftheimage,and fine-tune thesettingsinlaterPhotoshopsessions. Thisworksthe samewayas with selectiveblack-and-white conversionor dodgingandburning,so let'sexaminea moremodernapproach usingacouple ofthelatestPhotoshopCS3features. Thereareafewtricksgoingonin thisLayerspalette.Mostofall,the imageisn'tonaBackground layerbutis aSmartObject-noticetheiconinthe thumbnail.TheoriginalRAWfilewas openedviaAdobeCameraRaw4,andI applied thegrayscaleconversionthere. ButmoreimportantlyI held down theShiftkeyat thesametimeasclicking theOpenbutton.ThismakesPhotos hop "place"the picture asaSmartObject, and hasacoupleofuses.First,theRAW conversion remains editable-doubleclickthethumbnailandAdobeCamera Rawreopens.Thiscanbeveryuseful Lef:Creativesharpeningis allaboutconsideringeach imageonitsownmerits. Thiscemetery'background contains lotsofsmall branches,butfinelvrendering theirdetailisnotnecessary. Ifthey weresharpened,they wouldbecomemoreobvious andadistraction. with difficultRAWconversions,orin thisexampleIcouldgoback,remove thegrayscalesetting,and theAdo the mono conversion with oneormore regularBlackand White adjustment layers.Second,the sharpening adjustment canbe addedasaSmart Filter whichcanalsobeeditedor completelyremovedinthefuture. Forgoodmeasure,aborderwasalso addedas aLayer Style. Sobyusingthe SmartObjectand SmartFilterinconjunction,asingle layer canholdtheRAWconversion, black-and-whiterendition,selective sharpening,andaborder.It isallnondestructive so youcanreverseorfinetuneeverysetting.Infact,the Photoshopfileactuallycontainsthe originalRAWimage data,so acolleague couldchangetheRAWconversion. Whileit'snotnecessarilyanapproach thatonewouldalwaysrecommend,it illustratesthepowerfulpossibilitiesof ahighlyversatilewayofworking. SELECTIVESHARPENING107 EDGE SHARPENING Abigdangerofsharpeningisthatitcandamageevenlytonedimageareas.Artifactsmay appear,forinstanceinachild'sskinorblueskies,andthisisespeciallyharmfulifyouare workingin8-bitmodeoronaJPEGoriginal.Sharpeningmayalsohaveotherundesirable side-effects,suchasmaking digitalnoise moreobvious. 108THEDIGITALDARKROOM2-FINETUNINGTHEPHOTOGRAPH Sharpeningisinherently destructive,soit needstobe preciselytargeted.Thecontrast edgesaretheimportantfeaturefor sharpening,soifyoucouldselect onlytheimage'sedges,youcould thensafelyapplymuchmore sharpeningtothoseareasand maketheend result lookverysharp indeed.This techniqueisoften called" edgesharpening." Lef:Thefinalimagehasbeendodgedand bured alittle,andtheedgesharpening techniquehasbeenapplied. Above:Atexactly thesame zoomlevel, itisapparentthattheoriginalimageis considerablysofterthanthefinal. LLLL cl-llLlLa . :~` Edgesharpeningisadestructive techniquethatchangespixel brightnessvalues,somakesureyou duplicate theimagelayerfirst.Then chooseFilter>Stylize>FindEdges. Thisconverts theduplicatepictureinto a grayscale line drawing. a / Whentheselectionlooksright, hidethelinedrawinglayer.Make anothercopyoftheimagelayerormake itintoaSmartObject.andwiththe selection active,applytheUnsharp Mask using Filters> Sharpen>Unsharp Mask.HereIappliedasharpening amountof500-far morethanwould be safewithoutthisedgeselection technique-andtheselectionbecomes amaskontheimagelayer. LHH6!` KL. 'HDU! 66 EBecausetheblackpartsofthe linedrawingwillbesharpened andwhitepartswillbeunaffected,we need toeliminateanygray areasand cleanup thewhites.Todothis,apply Filter>Blur>GaussianBlur withalow valueanduseImage> Adjustments> Levels tomaketheblacksandwhites much purer.Youmayneedtoapply eachtechniqueacoupleof times,and alsoconsiderpaintingthedrawingwith asoftbrushasawaytotargetor protectselectedfeatures. _ 67XOKcaateire.ie=I OI0l$ei ie.eis..........E Selectjust the black areas.Activate theMagic Wand(Wl.adjustits optionstoahigh valuesuchas30,and makesuretheContiguouscheck box is not ticked.Zoominona black lineand click it withtheMagic Wand.Toavoid unnatural edges, feather theselection usingAIt'+Ctrl/c+O.Here| used a valueof5andswitchedtoQuickMask mode(Q)tocheckdetailed selections. 1llTheedgesharpeningtechnique is ideallysuited to beingrecordedasa Photoshopaction,butmakesure you includeenoughdialogbox pausesand don't justapplythe actionwithoutcreative input. Be|ow: The edge sharpening technique hassharpened theeyeswithoutaffecting therestoftheface(right).Thesame Unsharp Maskvalue isunacceptablysharp whenapplied to theentireimage (center). EGE SHAFFEN!NG 1O9TONING Theartofblackandwhiteextendsbeyondshadesofgray,withtheveryword monochromemeaningonetonebutnotsayingwhich.Addingacoloredtoneisalongestablisheddarkroomtechniqueforfinishing thephotographandmakingitexpressother qualitiesandmeanings.Inthedigitalenvironment,toningnolongerinvolvesof tenunpleasantquick-fixsolutions,andexperimentationnolongercarriestheriskofruining yourwork.WithPhotoshop,yourtoningpalettehasnolimits. Somephotographershaveastrong preferencefortonessuchassepia andbluesthatarefamiliarfromthe darkroom.Butthereismuchmore tosuchtraditionaltonesthan stubbornconservatism.Bluescan conveycoldness,whilesepiascan Above:Beforeyouadd atone, convert your image to black and whiteascreativelyasyoucan, squeezing outthemostdetail and thebest balanceof tones. 112CREATIVE EFFECTS denotewarmthandromance. A subtlebrown might mimica darkroomtechnique,suchasthe cyanotype,orthetonemay suggestaperiodofhistory. Apurplishbrownorsepiasuits 19thcenturythemesyetcanlook wrongfortimesbeforethe inventionofphotography,whichwe seemorethroughblack-and-white lithographs.Non-traditionaltones, redsandgreens,orprimarycolors canmovethephotographintothe realmofgraphicart. Above:Usingeither Hue/Saturation or Photoshop CS3'newBlack and White adjustment,acyantonecan maketheimageconveya cold, detached feeling. ALTERNATIVEMETHODS Edit:jMastervi C Hue: D 1- Saturation: .- Lightness: i ). Colorize ,Preview Thesimplestway toaddatone isbyaddingaHue/Saturation adjustmentlayer toyourblack-and-white picture.TickColorize,andthenadjust theHueand Saturation sliders.Here I'vedraggedtheHueintothecyan-blue rangeandthencutbackthetoneby draggingthe Saturationslidertotheleft. Preset:ICustom HE-C Reds: .% rCance(I 8 Yellows:% o Preview 8 Greens: .% 8 (yans: .% 8 Blues' -8 Magentas:.% 8 0IInt Hoe . 8 - Saturation 1 EPhotoshopCS3'sneWBlackand Whiteadjustmentintroduces another quickwaytoaddatone.Tick the Tonecheckboxatthebottomof thedialogboxanddragtheHueand Saturationsliders-they workjust like theHue/Saturationadjustment. Fill: aaFormoreadvancedwork,it's generallybetterto separate theadjustmentlayersyouusefor theblack-and-whiteconversionfrom theonethataddsthetone.Here,for instance,Iwantedto usetwoBlack andWhiteadjustmentlayers.The BlueFilter presetrenderedmore detailfromtheyellowishwater-blue beingyellow'sopposite-whilethe GreenFilterpresetrevealedmore tonesinthefoliage.Usingmasks meantIwouldhaveneededto repeatthetoningoneachlayer. ,vOpacity:'.aa Fill:'.aa1"LContrast Curves Black &White2 Background UsingCurvesfortoningoffers themostflexibilityandsoitis themethodIprefer.It'simportant to set theCurvesadjustmentlayer's blendingmodetoColorsoittargets theimage'scoloranddoesn'tchange its contrastand brightness. TIP Whichevertoningmethodyou prefersaveapresetsoit'seasy toapplyyourfavoritetonetoother imageslater. Preset: Jcustom Cnannel:URGB : , Output @ UsingtheChanneldrop-down box,dragtheRed,Green,and Blue curves separately.Makethe tone moreredbydraggingtheredcurve upward,andlessredbydraggingit downward,andadjustthe other curvesinthesameway.Herethe particularcombinationofmorered andlessblue has producedacold sepiaorbrowntone. Above:Thiscoldsepia-brwntone,added withaCurvesadjustmentlayer,givesthe pictureahistoricalfeeling.Awarmsepia wouldmakeitlookmoreromantic. TONING113 SPLIT TONING Splittoningisaddingmorethanonetonetoablack-and-whiteimage.Inthedarkroom,a printcanbetakenfromonetoningsolutionafteronlythehighlightshavebeentoned,and placedinanothersolutionwhoseeffectfirstappearsintheshadows.Thehighlightsare tintedonecolor,the shadowsanother,andtheresultcanbeveryinterestingandattractive. Photoshopoffersachoiceof methods.Iused toliketoadda ColorBalanceadjustmentlayer, draggingthesliderstoseparately colortheshadows,midtones,and highlights.NowIpreferCurvesfor singletones,partlybecausethey makeiteasiertoexperimentwith splittones,too.Youcansaveyour favoritecurvesas presets,so Curvesoffer efficiency and consistencygainsaswellas fascinatingcombinationsofcolor. 114CREATIVEEFFECTS Below:Before youaddatone,convert your imagetoblackandwhiteanddo anynecessarydodging and buring. Leavetheimage inRGBmode. TIP SaveyourfavoritecurvesasPresets. Thismakesitvery easy and efficientto applyanidenticaltonetoaseriesof pictures.Saveyour presets inafolder thatiscovered byyour backup proceduresandwon't beoverlooked whenyoubuyanewcomputer. SavePreset.., LoadPreset. ., ---- h DeleteCurrentPreset SPLIT TONING:USINGCURVES aHolddownAlt/\,addanew Curvesadjustmentlayer,and settheblendingmodetoColor.This meanstheCurvewillonlychange thepicture's colors,andwon't affectits contrast or brightness. Below:Thefinal image.Curves make it easy to experimentwith split toneseffectivecombinations can be produced almost bV accident. Preset:ICustom Cn,""," I- Output 0 Input: )DShow(l;pplng FromtheChanneldrop-downbox, chooseone ofthechannelsand dragitscurve downwardatoneendand upwardatthe other.HereI'vedragged downRed'slowerleftpartandpulledup theupperright-thisreducesthered channelbrightnessintheshadowsand increases it inthehighlights.Initiallythis producesblue-greenshadowsanda pinktoneinthesky.NoticetoothatI alsoaddedsomepointsanddragged thecurvesothatthemidtones remainedunchanged. Preset:ICustom Cn,nn,',--- Output . Input: Repeatthesteps onanother channel,butthistimedragthe curveintheoppositedirection.You don't havetobetooprecise-partof thebeautyofsplittoning withCurves isthewayyoucan discoverattractive combinations.Iwantedto tone the shadows blueandthehighlights sepia, soherethecombinedRGBviewshows thatIliftedBlue'slowerleftandpressed downitshighlightarea. SPLITTONING115 DUOTONES Peoplesometimesspeakofmaking"duotones"inPhotoshop,butyoucan'talwaysbe sureiftheyarereallyreferringtosplit toning orareindeedprocessinganimageinDuotone mode.Thelatterreferstoaprocess inwhich a grayscaleimageisprintedwithtwoprinting plates,andthereisalsoTritoneandQuadtone forthree- andfour-plateprinting. ThoughDuotone modeapplies tocommercialreproductionand pressesratherthaninkjetprinters, someblack-and-white workers enjoy,orhavegrownusedto, applyingtonewiththistechnique. Ithasdrawbacks,though,notleast thatPhotoshopCS3requiresthe imagetobein8-bitmodeand thatswitchinganRGBimageto Duotone modewilldestroy existing layers.Soifyou'vedoneany work onlayers-carefully masked adjustmentlayers,forinstancesavethefileanduseaduplicate forDuotonework. 116CREATIVE EFFECTS Above:Simple black andwhite subdued the originalimage,leaving me convinced thatit could be stronger. Below:Acoldblue-and-blackDuotone remindedme of the bleak,wet dav I spent hiking along thecoast. CREATINGADUOTONE Use your preferred channel-based conversiontechniquetomake yourblack-and-whiterendition,and then savethefileorconsiderworkingon aduplicate.Working inDuotonewill destroy your adjustment layersandany carefulmasking.InthelmagO ^odOmenu,switchto8-bitmode,thento Grayscale,andlastlychooselmagO^odO |uotonO:6: ::6: - : X 80:X .:~ -: ~ :: ~ -:~- 40. X 100: X50. Xa Youcanchangehowinkresponds , tobrightnessvaluesbyclicking thechartthumbnail-whichopensthe DuotoneCurvedialog-anddragging the curve ina similar way totheregular Curvesdialog. .--.'a.-.---lnk1 [ lnkz. D. t:c:-,0"00[-- 00verDr|nt.-.)rev|ewTheDuotoneOptionsdialog showstheinks that replace your blackandwhite,listeddarkestfirst. andyoucanchoosevariouspresets byclickingtheLoadbutton.Afteryou closethisdialogbox,chooselmagO^odO /uotonOagainto reopenit. INormal lock S CureCkgr0undfYou canadd various adjustment Ulayerstoanimagethatisin Duotonemode.Someadjustments areunavailableinDuotonemode, especiallythoseaffectingimagecolor. &1,oe cOIOtn8m8tOseIecttInthecOIOrI|st.Changetheinkcolorbyclicking thecoloredsquaretoopenthe ColorLibrariesdialog,andconsider savingyourtoneasapreset. utput:n-ut ; ; ShOwLI|pp|ngCurveDispb.yOPllons --5hOwAmOuntOl. |S5_ _ ..... . b0 lChannel rlaysBaseline0HISloqram 01nlersectionUne SmOOth(c_.-...ev|ew InDuotonemode,Curvesare Uavailablefor contrastand brightnesscontrolandfordodgingand burning.BydefaulttheCurvesdialog workstheoppositeway round tohowit worksinRGBmode,butifyoufindthis confusing,clicktheCurveDisplay Optionsbuttonandsetthedisplayto showLightratherthenInk(orpigment). Leh. TheMaskLayer(seestep5highlightsthesharpedgeoftherock andusesagradienttosoftlyfadeaway wheretheCurveislessneeded. DUOONES 33?A MEASURED TONE Whenyouprepareacollectionoftonedblack-and-whitepictures,itcanbeanicetouchif thetoneisconsistent.AswithmostthingsinPhotoshop,there'snosinglewaytodoit. Whenthesourcetoneisinadigitalimageandwascreatedwithanadjustmentlayer,you canjustdragthe toninglayer fromone image toanother.Ifyouhave flattenedthelayersin thetonedimage,orif the source isa scanned darkroomprint,trytheImagemenu'sMatch Coloradjustment.Itcanworkwell,thoughitcanbeabithit-and-miss,andisalso destructive,changingthe actualpixelvalues. Afarmoreflexiblemethodisto measurethe sourcetoneandthen transferthose valuestoaCurves adjustmentlayer.It'snotadifficult task.Inshort,openyoursourcefile inPhotos hop,makeablack-andwhite copyofthetonedlayer,and measure the difference between thetonedandtheblack-and-white layers.Photoshop'sColorSampler toolisthekey. 118CREATIVEEFFECTS Lef:MV tone'ssourcewasa10vear-old darkroomprint.Itsreddishtoneresulted frommv choiceofpaperdeveloperand seleniumtoning. BelowLef:MVtargetimagewasamore recentdigitalcapturethatI'dconverted toblackandwhitewithaChannelMixer adjustment laver. Below Right:Thefinaldigitalimagenow hasatonesampledfrom ascanofthe originaldarkroomprint. MATCHINGTONESWITHTHE COLORSAMPLER Openthesourceimagein Photoshop,checkitslayersare flattened,andmakeaduplicateofthe image.Changetheduplicateimage'sto Lab Color mode withImage> Mode> LabColor,anddeletethe"auchannelin theChannelspalette.Thisreducesthe duplicateimagetoitsbrightnessvalues. K:C: M: Y: K: 8-bit8-bit x' +.y w PH: #lR:19#2R:115 ? G: 19 ? G: 115 B:19 B:115 #3R:159#4R:217 G:159 ?G: 217 B :159 B:217 Doc:14.7M/29.4M Clickimagetochoosenewcolorsampler. UseCtrlfor additionaloptions. ExaminePhotoshop'sInfopalette -itslowersectionshowsthe RGBvalues foreach marker.Write downthevalues foreachpixel. , Changetheduplicateimage's modetoGrayscalewithImage> Mode>Grayscale,and,whileholding downtheShiftkey,dragtheduplicate's imagelayeranddropitinthesource image'swindowsoitcontainstwo layers-the toned sourceandthepure brightness version.Youcannowdiscard theduplicatefile. MARKERCHANNELBWTONED Red1926 Green1918 Blue1929 2Red11588 Green11586 Blue11591 3Red159132 Green159130 Blue159134 4Red217204 Green217200 Blue217203 Hidethepureblack-and-white layerandwritedowntheRGB valuesforeachpixel-thesewillno longer show identical values sincethe markers arenow measuring thetoned original.Youshould nowhavealittle tablethatcomparestheblack-and-white valuetoitstonedversion.Ifyouwish, youcanmeasuremoreRGBvalues andextendthetable. j,Sample Size:PointSampleV ActivatetheColorSamplerfrom theToolspalette.Setitsoptions toPointSample-thisletsyoumark individualpixels.Withthepureblackand-whitelayeractive,zoominonan areawithamixtureoftones,suchas therocksinthestream.Youneedto seeindividualpixels-herea500% zoomwasenough-anduse theColor Samplerto clickpixelswiththreeorfour differenttones.Clickandmarkacouple ofmidtones,ashadow,andahighlight. Channel: nnnnnInput: Output: Thesevalues cannowbe transferred intoa curve.Adda newCurvesadjustmentlayerto your targetimage,selecttheRedchannel, andclickthecurve.Thentypethe two red channel measurementsinto the InputandOutputbox.Hereabrightness valueof19willbeoutputas26.Repeat thisprocessfor theothermarkers'red values,addingapointandentering thecorrespondingvalues,anddothe sameforthepairsofgreenandblue measurements.ClickOK.Thecurve willproduceatonethatwilloftenvery close to the original,andcanbe dragged andfinetuneduntilit's justright. AMEASUREDTONE119 CLASSIC TONES Tonescancomefromasimpledecisiontomakeanimageacertaincolor,orjustbethe happyoffspringofexperimentingwithCurves.Buttheycanalsobetheresultofamore consciousthoughtprocess,forinstancetoaddwarmthtoasunlitsceneorstressthecold ofawintryday.Theycanalludetoolderphotographictechniques,whichperhapsonlythe initiatedmightrecognize,or,liketheclassicsepiatone,theycanevokehistoricalperiods. Sometimestheyaretheperfectfinishingtouch,sohereareafewrecipes-and,justas important,someofthethoughtsthat made meapplythemtospecificimages. PALLADIUM Until it became much more expensive inthe1920s,palladium wasusedinsteadofsilverfor photographic paper,and some darkroomenthusiastsstillusethe process.Ichose toapplythetone toa statue which belongs toa series erected duringthat period. Palladium generally addsa soft, warmtoneanditmight bebest suited to expressingmore romanticor nostalgic feelings. Createapalladiumtoneby pushingtheRedchannelalittle upwardonthecurve,especially inthehighlights,andpullingthe Bluechanneldownacrossthe wholerangeoftones. PLATINUM Platinumwasusedinanother commontypeofphotographic paperthatfellintodisuseand wasthenrevivedasafineart material.Typicallyitlookscolder thanpalladium,butthatseems to makeitsuitableformore differenttypesofimage-less thewarmthof palladium,and muchmoreblack-and-white with atwist.Itriedapplyingallthe tonestothisVenicecarnival picturebut platinumseemed rostappropriate. Makeaplatinumtoneby adding aCurvesadjustment layer and dragging theBluechannel curvedown.PushRedup,but onlyintheshadowtones. 120CREATIVEEFFECTS CYANOTYPE Acyanotypeis a19thcentury printingprocessnamedafterits distinctivecolor.Youcanapplythe tonetotrytoevokepicturesof theera-stilllifeisgoodsubject material-oryoumightsimplyuse itto make thescenelook chilly. HereI'veappliedittoafoggy morning scene, taken whensuch thoughtsofstillnessandcold wereuppermostinmymind,as wellasWhistler'snocturnes. Tocreateacyanotypetone, addaCurvesadjustmentlayer and dragtheBluechannelcurve sharplyupward,andtheRed sharplydownward.Asusual,set thelayer's blending modetoColor. SELENIUM Seleniumis atonerthatthe darkroom workercanuseona chosenphotographicpaperand give theprintawiderangeof tones.Thechemicalalso increasesarchivallife,andwas popularinthe19thcentury.That's whyIchosetoapplyittothis picture;acoldsepiamighthave workedequallywell,butI'dseen someprintsinamuseumthathad thisdeeppurplishbrown. Aselenium toneresultsfrom dragging downtheGreenchannel, justa little, dragging theRedsup inthe shadows,andaddinganS curveintheBluechannel. CLASSICTONES121 CALOTYPES AND SALTED PAPER PRINTS TheCalotypewasone of theearliest photographic processesthatpermittedmultipleprints ofthesameimage./ "papernegative"wasusuallymadebycontactprinting.Thiswasa processofsandwichingthenegativeandasheetofsensitized"SaltedPaper,"andthen exposingthemtobrightsunlight.InPhotoshopthey'requickandfuntomimicandcan producestrikinggraphicresults. PbCve. The forest is agoodplaceto findthe kindofsimpleobjectsthat werepopularsubjectsforCalotypes. 1 LH!P1!V! !!!!L1cr!"'3.. .~ . 0 .`':V. `' .: '.!,4-... " \ 'JPOOve: Thisfinalimagebecamepartofa series,andsometimesImadetheleafinto anegativewithanInvertadjustmentlayer `'_` . i r . 4.. , )".." CREATINGACALOTYPEEFFECT Right:Scan some textured material into Photoshop using File>import. IDarkenHighlights IBlack& White1 Photo imagescombinedintoonelayer stack.HereI scanned insome textured paper,openedmyleaf picture,and draggeditintothepaper'swindow. IthenresizedtheleafwithEdit> Transform,madetheimageblackand white,andadjustedthecontrastwith a Curvesadjustmentlayer. Earlyphotographicprocesseshad greatersensitivitytobluelight,soskies wererecordedlighterandskintones darker,so for thiseffect usehigherblue channelvaluesanddon'tmakethe imagetoocontrasty. Layers:x IvOp. Thekeyistomakeuseofoneof Photoshop'smostunderusedbut powerfulfeatures:blending modes. Changing your image layer's blending modetoMultiplywillmakethepaper layer'stextureshowthrough. Unlikemodernphotographs,where theimagephysicallyliesonthepaper's surface,Calotypesformedpartofthe saltedpaper. Select:I ,Sampled Colors [vl-Fuzziness: II SelectionPreview:I QuickMask [v I Youcanpaintonthepicture's masktomakethepicturesblend morehaphazardly.HereIfirstused Select>Color Range toisolatetheleaf. Oncethedialoghas beeninvoked,click ontheleaf.Shift +clickafewmore timestobesure-ColorRangewill addsimilarcolorstotheselection. To finish,useaCurvesadjustment layertoaddagentlesepiatone, pullingtheRedchannelcurveupward andtheBluecurvedownward. CALOTYPESANDSALTEDPAPERPRINTS123 HAND COLORING Peoplehavebeencoloringblack-and-whitephotographssincethe19thcentury.Theprint wasoftenpreparedbybeingtonedandwasthenpaintedbyhandwithafinebrush, buildingupthecolorgraduallyuntilanear-realisticcoloreffectwasachieved.Evenafter colorprocessesremovedthisbasicneed,thetechniqueremainedvaluableforitsartistic effect,evokinghistorictechniques,offeringaninterestingalternativetoreal-worldcolors, orsometimesjustaddingastriking splashofinterest. Startingfromadigitalcolorimage,thereareessentiallytwoapproaches.Firstwewill lookatwhatIcall"partialconversion,"whichisselectivelyleavingsomeoftheoriginal imagecolorintheblack-and-whiteversion.Thenwe'llgoalotfartherandmanuallycolora monophotograph-digitalhand coloring.Andwhynot combinethetwoapproaches? MASKMETHOD a Sometimesyou'veproducedyourblack-and-white image,andspenttimedodgingandburning,and itstilldoesn't lookright.Thatwasthecasewiththis picture.Ifeltthe weatherboardingandthewindows within windowswerebetterinmono,buttheoverall image seemedlessinterestingonce the tablelamp's colorwas removedanditbecamejusta blobofwhite. Sowhynothavethe bestof bothworlds? 124CREATIVEEFFECTS Ii .. E: Contrast curves E This approach isveryeasy:justpaint themask oftheadjustmentlayerthatconvertedthe image toblackandwhite.ActivatetheBrush tool(B) andusethe[andJkeystosetitssize,alsoholding Shifttochangeits softness.Thenpaintblackontothe adjustment layer's mask.Youdon't need tobegood atpainting todothis.SwitchtotheEraser(E)oruse Undotocorrectmistakes.Thelamplightfelloffvery gradually,soIusedthe Brushatitssoftestsetting and just paintedthemask blackwhereIwantedto restoreitsoriginalcolor. Lef:The final image.Paint on the black-and-white adjustment layer'smask and choose where the original color should show through. HUE/SATURATIONMETHOD Blendlf. [fueJV) "Thislayer:255Underlyinglayer;J06 ] J65 ______s__ Alternatively,addyour favoriteblackand-whiteconversionadjustmentlayer asnormal.Then right-click thelayerin theLayerspalette,chooseBlending OptionsintheLayerStylesdialogthat appears,andselectyour color fromthe BlendIf drop-downbox shown.Drag theUnderlyingLayertriangletotheleft untilyourcolorstartstoshowonthe black-and-whitepicture.Theholddown AltJ"anddraghalfof the triangle away fromtheother,smoothing thetransition betweenblack- and-whiteandcolor. Thismethodisto convert theimageto blackandwhiteusingaHue/Saturation adjustmentlayer.From theEditdropdownbox,chooseeachcoloranddrag itssaturationdownto -100.Leaveone ortwocomplementarycolorssetto0or above.In this exampletheeyansare setto+44butallothersare-100. Edit:!faster 9'vl C E Hue: a Saturation: a-lightness: E a [,, Lfo|otieI5\45brev:ewBelow:Manipulating the blackandwhite adjustmentlayer can quicklycolorizethe image and make agreat starting pointfor addingcolor manually. HANDCOLOURING125 HAND COLORING Aswe'veseen,youcanmanipulatetheRGBchannelsduringthepicture'sconversionto blackandwhite,andthisisa quickwaytoproduceamonoimage withinterestingsplashes ofcolor.ButcreatingacolorizedpictureusuallymeansdoingalittlePhotoshoppainting. It'snotadifficulttechnique,andcanbe great fun. Aninterestingnextstepcanbe applyinganoveralltonetothe imagebeforeyoubegintocolorize anyspecificareas.Asepiaora blue,even justafaintone,can oftenformabasethatunifiesthe imageand makesthepaintedcolor looklessartificial.Thenpaintcolor onontoaseriesoflayerswhose blendingmodeissettoColordetailsshowthrough,butin whatevercoloryouchoose. Above:Startwithyourbestblack-andwhiterendition.Thesettingmaybealittle drab,but thecariscuteandthepicture couldbetransformedwithatouchofcolor. Right:Coloringblack andwhiteprintsis atechniquealmostasoldasphotography itself.Addanoverallbackgroundtoneand asmanycolorsasyouwant. 126CREATIVEEFFECTS COLORLAYERS I I Black&White1 I D Add abasetonewithaCurves or Hue/Saturation adjustment layer and remember toset its blending mode toColor. Tostartcoloringthepicture,add anewlayerandsetitsblending modetoColorsothatimagedetailswill showthroughyourcolor.Thenactivate theBrushtool(Bl,choosea color,set thebrushsizewiththe[and Jkeys,and adjustitssoftnesswithShift and[orJ. Thenpaintdirectlyontothelayer. Lef:Comparethis versionwiththefinal imageon page126. For me,the absence of a background tone seemswrong. IIfyouwish,youcanpaintother colorsontothesamelayer,but it's generallybesttoadd anewlayerfor eachcolor.This givesyoumore control ofeachcolor'sstrength-youmight reducethelayeropacity orapplyfilters oradjustmentstoit. Let'ssay thatyoudecide youwant tochangeonelayer'scolor.Therearea fewwaystodothis.Ctrl/O+clickthe layerintheLayerspalette,which selectsonlythepaintedpixels,then press Alt/\ + Backspaceand fillthe selection withthecurrent foreground ground. Alternatively,activate the layer, gotoImage> Adjustments and choose Curves,Levels,orHue/Saturation, amongothers. Amore flexible method istoaddan adjustmentlayerimmediatelyabovethe color layer,andgroupthem together. Addtheadjustmentlayerasnormal, then holddown Alt/\and movethe cursoroverthelinebetweenthetwo layers.Clickwhenitchangestoalock, andtheadjustmentlayerwillappear indentedandwillonlyaffectthecolor ofthe layerwith whichitis grouped. Analternative coloring methodisshownonthisLayers palette.Insteadofusingastandardtransparentlayer,you addaColorFilladjustmentlayerandpaintonitsmask.The advantage ofthistechniqueisthatyoucanchangethe color veryeasily-justclickthethumbnailin theLayerspalette. HANDCOLOURING127 INFRRED EFFECTS Welookedearlierathowtocaptureinfraredlightwithadigitalcamera,butthereisan alternativetotherealthing,andthatissimulatinginfraredphotographyinPhotoshop. Fakingis usuallyeasierifyoustartwitha shortlist ofthekeyfeaturesyouwanttosimulate, andblack-and-whiteinfraredfilmdoeshavethreeorfourmaincharacteristicsworthnoting. Itonlycapturesinfraredlight,soatmospherichazeiseliminatedandcloudsstandout clearlyagainstskiesthatarenearlyblack.Secondly,becausechlorophyllreflectsinfrared light,foliagesuchasgrassandtreesarerenderedverybrightlyandalsotendtoshimmer. Lastly,themostcommoninfraredfilmisusuallyverygrainyindeed.Sowhatyouneedto imitatearethetonalityoftheskiesandthefoliage,theshimmering,andtheobviousgrain. Manydarkroomworkers liketo printinfrared negativesusing techniqueslikelithprintingor toning,andsuchcombinations workequallywellinthedigital environmentandaredefinitely worth tring.Anotheraltemative ishandcoloring. Right:Theoriginalimage.Infrared, simulatedorreal,oftensuits pictures containing blueskieswith puffy clouds, andtreesandother foliage. 128CREATIVEEFFECTS FinalImage:Makingthetree'sleaves appearbri ghtiscrucialtothisinfrared-style Photoshoptreatment. INFRAREDEFFECTS129 INFRRED EFFECTS BUILDINGTHEIMAGE Preset:Infrared None Blues: Magentas: Blue Filter GreenFilter HighContrastSlueFilter HighContrastRedFilter Infrared MaximumBlack Maximum White NeutralDensity RedFilter Yellow Filter Custom PreYiew Infrared'sdistinctivetonalityisthe mostimportantcharacteristicthat youhave to mimic.Thekey isthatyour black-and-white conversionshould darkenblueskiesuntiltheyarealmost black,whilefoliageshouldappear almostwhite. IfyouhavePhotoshopCS3,adda BlackandWhiteadjustmentlayerand trytheInfraredbuilt-inpreset.Itrenders greensandyellows-foliagecolorsverybrightlyandmakesbluesandcyans verydark,exactlywhatwe needfor simulated infrared. 130CREATIVEEFFECTS Whilethepresetisapretty good startingpoint,fine-tune the settingstomatchyourimage. Eitheradjust the colorslidersor drag thecursoracrossareasoftheimage. Here thepointerisoverthe canyon's redrocks,sodragginguportothe rightwillbrightenthereds. Remember thatwe'renot rendering greensasverybright monovaluesbecausetheyare green.What'simportantisthat greenfoliagecontainschlorophyll whichreflectsalotofinfrared light.Youdon'twantothergreen objects tobeunusuallybrightin blackand white,andasimilar considerationappliestothings thathappentobebluewhichyou wouldn'twanttodarkenas much asthesky.Somasksuchobjects intheinfraredadjustment layer andusefurther adjustment layers torenderthematamoresuitable levelofbrightness. Preset:ICustom Ivl I Output Channel:j Grav H Source Channels EPrevlew Red:GO/o 0 Green:% 0 Blue:% --Total:+100% Constant:Q% ----r---=-0Monochrome B Alternatively,addaChannelMixer adjustment layer.SincePhotoshop CS3 thishasalsocome withanInfrared preset.Again,it'sonlyastartingpoint andIpreferredastrongereffect. IdraggedtheBluesliderfartothe leftand movedRedtothe right.Notice howallthreechannels'percentage valuesadd upto100%. Color Range. That'sbecauseinfrared isbest suited to landscapes andittakes timeto lassoallthosetreesandleaves. This methodworksbestifyou firstsetthe foreground color to a shade ofgreenthatmatchesthefoliage. Temporarilyhidetheblack-and-white adjustmentlayersanduse the Eyedropper to andsamplealeafcolor, then chooseSelect>Color Range. The dialog previews the selection itwill make fromsimilar greensinthepicture. Addother greentonesby holdingShift andclickingtheimage,adjustthe Fuzzinessslider,andPhotoshopwill makeaselectionthatispreciseand isalreadyfeathered. 1Overlay:80pacity:1100% [ Lock:Ed +il Fill:1100% l Filmgrain IBlack&White1 I1--1ChannelMixer1 Shimmeringfoliage Backgrund UseCtrl/c+Jtocopy yourfoliage selectionintoitsownnewlayer. Youmay havetouseamaskorthe Erasertool to remove greenobjects that don'treflect infrared.ThenuseFilters> Blur>GaussianBlur toapplyasmall amountofblurtothelayer.Youcanalso reducethelayer'sopacity-theeffect shouldbesubtle. Lastofall,addacoarsegrainlayer atthetopofthelayerstack.Todo this,Alt/\+clickthenewlayericon,set theblendingmodetoOverlay,andfillit withmidgray.Thensettheforeground andbackgroundcolorstomidgrayand black,andapplyFilters> Artistic>Film Grain.Ifyourimageisin16-bitmode, youmayneedtocreatethis grainlayer inanew8-bitdocumentandthendrag itintoyourpicture.Punchyskies, shimmeringfoliage,andplentyofgrain aretypicalcharacteristicsofblack-andwhiteinfrared. ..... . INFRAREDEFFECTS SOLARIZATION ANDTHE SABATIER EFFECT Solarizationcommonly referstothedarkroomtechniqueinwhichapartlydevelopedprint isexposedtoaflashof light.Thedevelopment process isthencompletedandtheresultis ablack-and-whiteprintwithpartiallyreversedtones,andsometimeswithlinesaround tonaledges.ItisalsoknownastheSabattiereffectandisoftenassociatedwithMan Ray'sworkinthe1920s. It's very easy to mimic the range of solarization effectsinPhotoshop, andtherearenumerous recipesin booksandon theweb.Photoshop itselfhasaSolarizefilter,available underFilter>Stvlize in8- or16-bit mode.Itneedstobeapplied directlytoapixellayerandis "destructive,"changingthose pixels forever,sowork ona copyof theimagelayer.Eitherholddown Alt/\andchooseLaver>Merge Visible,orusePhotoshopCS3's newFilter>ConvertforSmart Filters commandtochangethe imagelayerintoaSmartObject. Thisletsyoureverseanyfilter operationsappliedtoit.Sowhat's wrongwiththebuilt-inversion? Nothing much,exceptit's possible todobetter. 132CREATIVEEFFECTS Lef:Theoriginalimage.SolarizationisbestAbove:Solarizationcan bethefinalstep, suitedtopictureswithclearoutlines.oryoucancontinueandaddinteresting tonestofinishthepicture. SOLARIZATIONWITHCURVES D Digitalsolarizationrecipesmimic thepartialtonalreversalsthatcan beachieved in thedarkroom.Sincethe resultsvary,it'snotsurprisingto find avarietyofapproaches.Someofthe mostconvincingarecommonlyknown bytheirlettershapes-V,W,andM. That'sbecausetheirunderlyingprinciple isessentially thesame:toimitatea partialtonalreversal.youpartiallyinvert aCurvesadjustmentlayer. ...-,...,iaa.. 0d+I. iaaI:..TIP Solarizationisan idealtasktorecordin anaction,whichremindsyouof your stepsandmakesitquicktoexperiment onnewpictures. t Startwithyourblack-and-white conversion andadd aCurves adjustment layer.Dragthetop-rightcornerofthe curvedownward,anddragamidtone pointdirectlyup.That'saVcurve,and W andMarevariationson thesame theme.Myownfeelingis thattheM curvecomesclosesttowhatI'vebeen able to achieveinthedarkroom,but experimentandsee which letter shape worksbestwithyourpicture. E Toimitatethelinesaroundtonal edges,you needtoaddasoft outlinetoyourpicture.Makeacopyof theimagelayer,desaturateit,andapply theFindEdgesfiltersothelayer becomesalinedrawing.Applythe GaussianBlurfilteranduseaLevels adjustmenttomakethehighlightspure white.Thenchangethelayer'sblending modetoMultiply.Thewhitebecomes invisibleandthelayeraddsitsshadowy outlinetothecomposite picture. Asanalternative totheblurredFind Edgesmethod,changethecopylayer's blendingmodetoOverlayandapplythe HighPassfilter. SOLARIZATIONANDTHESABATTIEREFFECT133 SIMULATING LITH Lithprintingisadarkroomtechniqueinwhichcertainphotographicpapersaredeveloped inaverydilute " lith"developertoproducedistinctivehigh-contrastprints.Typicallythereis astrongsplit-toneeffectwiththeshadowsremainingcoldandgrainyandthehighlights becomingverywarm,withstrongpeachandbrowntones.Theresultscanbesubtleand verybeautiful,andlithstillholdsitsownin fine-art photographiccircles. Replicatingthethreemain characteristics oflithprintingcontrast,splittone,andgrain-is areasonablystraightforward Photoshoptaskandisalsoonethat isideallysuitedtobeingrecorded asanaction.Thesamehighcontrastrecipedoesn'tsuit every picture,so aslongasyouwork withadjustmentlayers,youcan quickly experiment withyourlith action's effectonotherpictures andfine-tunetheoutputlater.So firstwewilllookat themechanics ofdigitallith,andthenconsider howthebasictreatmentworks withothertypesofphotograph. 134CREATIVEEFFECTS Lef:Theoriginalimagecontainsstrong patters,and anicesenseofdepth, butlackedmuchinterestasasimple blackandwhite. Above:Thefinishedpicturehad such highcontrastthatIfelta strongborderwasneededto containtheimage. lLLlLl1lL 1lL LLLLith printsarecharacterizedby highcontrastwithharshshadows, fewmidtones,anddelicatepeachand brownhighlights. Makea black-and-white conversion asnormalandaddaCurves adjustment layer.Thecurve'sexactshapewill dependontheimage,butingeneral itshouldbeasteepScurvewithits shadows pulled downso they are harsh andhigh-contrast,andthehighlights draggedupandtailingoffgently. IeGrain I ToneI High conlrast Lith printstend to containharsh, grittyshadows,souseyour preferredmethodtoaddagrainlayer. HereIcreatedanew8-bit blank documentthatwasthesamesizeasmy picture,addedanOverlayadjustment layer, applied somegrainwithFilter> Artistic>FilmGrain,andthenheld downShift asIdraggedthelayerinto mypicture. It'susuallybetterto control contrastandimagecolor separately.HolddowntheAlt/\key andaddasecondCurvesadjustment layer,settingitsblendingmodetoColor. Thismeansthattheadjustmentwillonly affecttheimagecolorandnot change itsluminosityorcontrast. From theChanneldrop-downbox, selectRedanddragupward atthe highlightsarea,thecurve'stopright. Initially,thiswilladdredtoallthe Styles -BlendingOptions BlendingOptions: Custom o Drop Shadow I GeneralBlending BlendMode:'Opacity Opacity: o Inner Shadow o Outer Glow AdvancedBlending o Inner Glow Fill Opacity: Channels:0R0G Knockout: None . picture'stones,sorestrictthecolor shifttothehighlightsbyclickingthe curvenearitsmidpointandagainin shadow tones.Pullthe points down so the midtones and shadows areneutral. ThengototheGreenchanneland repeattheprocess. Arealisticlith printtonecanrange betweenawarmpeachand acool brown,so thereisnoformula forhow faryoumanipulatetheRedandGreen channelhighlights. =_0B I OK Cancel New Style... Preview o BevelandEmboss DComour DTexture IendInteriorEfectsas Group 0BlendClippedlayers as Group o Satin Transparency Shapes layer Dlayer Mask HidesEfects\ o Color Overlay DVectorMask HidesEfects o CradientOverlay o PatternOverlay BlendIf: ThisLayer:0 DSlroke --. Underlyinglayer: .d Limitingthegraintotheshadows isquick,thankstoPhotoshop's conditionalblendingfeature,BlendIf. Right-clickthegrainlayerandselect BlendingOptionsandgototheBlend 0 Ifareaatthebottomofthedialogbox. NowdragtheUnderlyingLayerslider's whitetrianglehardtotheleft,andyou shouldseethatthegrain layernolonger showsin areaswheretheimage brightnessvalueliestotherightofthe 255 a 51I103 whitetriangle.Iftheimagebrightness valueliesbetweentheslider'sblack and whitetriangles,thengrainisshown. Adjustthewhitetriangleuntilthe grainisonlyvisibleinthedarker shadows.This cancreateuglytransition lines,soholddown Alt/\andpullthe twosidesofthewhitetriangleapart. Youcan nowadjustthemseparatelyand controlhowthegrainfadesawayinthe midtonesandhighlights. SIMULATINGLITH135 SIMU ACTIONS Lithprintsvarywidely,andit canbetrickyto repeatexactlythesameeffecttwiceinthe darkroom.Equally,whileyouoftenendup throwingawaymanyspoiledcopies,peopledo appreciatethedifferencesbetweenindividual prints.Photoshopactionsmakerepetitionrather toosimple,andarealwaysashortstepaway fromapplyingaone-size-fits-alllithrecipethat doesn'trespecttheactualphotograph. Onewaytoavoid thisisto record theaction andthenedititsothatit pausesat important points.In theActionspalette,clicktheempty squaretotheleftofthekeystepandasmall dialogboxappears.HereIhavesettheaction against thestep which adds thecoloradjustment layer-Imight do thesamewith thestepthat adds thecontrastadjustmentlayer.WhenInext runtheaction,Photoshop willpauseand display theCuresadjustment dialog,lettingme click OK to confirmtherecipe's color,oradjustitand then continue. wbtLOefaul t Actions fVEJohn's lith /JV)ohn`sl ithIor(53WI tMake adjustmentl ayer frt --tMakeadjuslmentl ayer VMakeadJustmentfayer Type:curvesPresentKind:Custom Adjustment:curves adjustmentl ist curves adjustment Channel :redchaOel Curve:paintl ist po|nt.0,0po|nt.62,63point:128,I30po|nt. \90,230point: 255, 255(urvesadJustmenl Channel :greenchannel Curve: pointl ist point:0,0 point:63,63point:128,128point:172,190 point: 255.255tMakeLayer AddNoiset5etcurrenll ayer vStop Message:"Adjustcontrastand colorcurves... Lef:Infraredeffectsare verysuitabletobeing recordedasanaction, especiallyifyouuse adjustmentlayers.Set pausessoyoucan finetunetheresults each timeyouplaythe action. USINGYOUR ADJUSTMENTLAYERS Anequallygoodapproachistolet theaction run,andthentakeadvantageofadjustment layers.Recordtheactionsothecontrast,color, andgrainareaddedwithadjustmentlayers, not withthe destructiveImage>Adjustments commands.Playtheactionon anewimage, then double-click theCurves adjustment layers and fine-tune theireffecttosuitthepicture. You canalsovarythestrengthof thelith tone bychangingtheadjustment layer'sOpacityslider, orfurtherrestrictitseffectbyusingtheBlendIf controlinthelayer'sBlendingOptions. Right:Reducethelayeropacityto changethestrengthofthetone, contrast,orgrainlayers. 136CREATIVEEFFECTS W LhectsTOneighcontrast0arkenskvAbove:Awarmpeachseemedwrongfor thisimage-thetail endof ahurricane reachingNewEngland.Reducingthelayer's opacityproducedamorebalancedlithtone. -. -'INFRARED Forsome reasoninfraredseems especially suitableto alith finish,and, thoughit'sonlyanecdotalevidence,a high proportionofdarkroomlithprints seemtobefrominfrarednegatives.Two factors maybeatworkhere:infrared andlithshare amoregraphicappearance thansimply realisticphotographs,and theyareboth naturally highincontrast. That'spartly speculation,butthe infrared-lith combinationseemstowork wellwhetherthepictureiscaptured digitallyorsimulatedinPhotoshop.One thingtowatchoutforisthecontrastsinceinfraredimagesarehigh-contrast, there'slessneedtointroduceadditional contrast inthelitheffect.Soamuchless sharpScurveshoulddothe job. / / Above:Infraredimagesarenaturallyhighcontrast,soyourlitheffectcontrastcanbe muchmilder Above:Thefinalimageretains strong, neutral blacks,whilethetreesandgrass containlotsof soft,warm highlights. Lef:Blackskies and bright, shimmeringfoliage aresuresignsof infraredcapture. SIMULATINGLITH137 GRAIN AND NOISE Whilethebestthatcanbesaidfordigitalnoiseisthatit'sasmallpricetopayfortheability tosetcapturesensitivityonthefly,filmgrainhasalwaysseemedtodividephotographers. Someabhoritsodeeplytheysticktoslowfilmandfine-graindevelopers-andthese pageswillnotbeforthem-whileforothersgrittinessistheveryessenceofblackand white.Now,inthedigitalera,filmgrainisnolongerfixedforeverbyyourchoiceoffilm stock.It'ssimplyacreativewaytofinishthepicture. It'sworththinkingalittleaboutwhygrain.Youmaywantthepictureto youmightseektodegradethelooklessclinical,lessperfectthan imagequality,giventheeffortyouthehi-resdigitaloriginal.In probably putintoproducingtheportraits,suchgraininesscan bestpossiblepicturein thefirstemphasizecharacter,whilesome place.Foronething,thesubjectlandscapes may benefitfroma mayitselfhelpyoumakethe decision.Areportage-stylepicture may becaptureddigitallybutfit betterintoitsintendedgenrewith theadditionofgrain-forinstance, DonMcCullin's1960sphotographs ofwarandpovertyhavelotsof 138CREATIVEEFFECTS pointillist-stylesoftnessoracoarse qualitythatmatchesfoulweather. Lastbutnotleast,try usinggrainto addinteresttoimperfectionssuch asblown-outhighlights-orindeed to disguisedigitalnoise. Below:Intheoriginal image,aBlackand WhiteadjustmentlaveremphasizedVellow andgreen,makingthegrasslighterandthe wallscorrespondinglvstrongerButthere's onlvsomuchvoucandowithafoggV Decemberafteroon. -LL |LlL |lL|L8mount: % O-rDistribution OUniform 0Caussian oMonochromatic . |Preview It'sbesttokeep thefilmgrainona separate layersoyoucanvaryits opacitypercentage,as well asleaving the pictureeditable.Hold downAlt/"asyou adda new layer,setthe blendingmode toMultiply,andtickFill withOverlayneutralcolor.ThenchooseFilter>Noise > Add Noise,selectGaussianandtick Monochromatic,andadjustthesliderto suittheimage. Alternatively,youcouldtryusingthe FilmGrainfilterwhichis foundunder Filter> Artistic. 'u|tia| ....-.. 0d +aOneproblemwithgrainand noiseis theycanremovesome importantdetails oratleastmakethem less obvious.Here'swheretheseparate layerisso useful-paintonthelayer's maskandreducethegrain'seffectin thosekeyareas.TheBrushopacity generallyneedstobesetlowsoyou can buildupthemaskgraduallyand avoidgrain-freepatches. HereIpaintedthetree andthe walls because thetreewasalready indistinct,andthegapinthestonewall containedinterestinggatepostdetail. Tocoverupmy work,Ialsoapplied someGaussianBlurtothemask. E Noisecanbe helpful tohide blown-outhighlights.Hereisa detailfromthesameshot,although I'vecrudelyincreasedtheexposurein AdobeCameraRawandmadethesky white.Itmaynotbetoeveryone'staste, butIthinkaddingthenoisecreates somemuch-neededdetailin thesky. Below:Grainand acoldbluetone broughtthemostoutofthisgray and foggy landscape.Tomakethegrainmore obviousinprint,I also sharpened the noisewiththeUnsharpMask. GRAINANDNOISE139 SIMULATINGFILMTYPES OneofthemostpopularPhotoshopeffectshasalwaysbeentosimulatetheappearance offavoritefilmstocks.Youcaneasilyfinddozensofrecipesinbooksoronthewebthat trytogivedigitalcolorpicturesthatsaturatedVelvialook,andyoucancomparesuch slidefilms'typicalcharacteristicsbyexaminingactualtransparenciesonalightboxor projectedontoascreen. Therearealsomanymethodsfor simulatingspecificblack-and-white films.Someoftheseinvolve standaloneprograms,thoughthe bestareusuallyPhotoshopplug-ins thataddacommandtotheFilters menu.It'sdefinitelyworthpausing toaskifyou'refoolingyourselfby thinkingmonofilmslikeHP5orTriX everhavea"typical"look.The basicchoiceoffilmstockisjust onevariable.Thatfilm'scolor responsecouldbecontrolledwitha coloredlensfilter,forinstance,and itsgraincharactervariedwiththe developer,dilution ratio,and agitation technique.Beyondthat eventhepaperandcontrastgrade hadaneffect.Inthedigitalagewe needto ask ourselves,"Howare we printingthis supposedly typical TMaxorPanFnegative?"To my mind,thosearequitebiglimitations, andthat'sbeforewequestionwhy weshouldseekimitatethefilm mediuminthefirstplace.But bearingthat inmind,download the plug-in trialversionsanddecide for yourself. Right:Inasingledialogbox,awelldesignedPhotoshopplug-inlikeRealGrain canapproximatethetonalitvandgrain pattersof varioustvpesof filmstock. 140CREATIVEEFFECTS USINGTHE REALGRAINPLUG-IN Right:Thecolorsinthe original image areal quitesimilar. Convertingit to black and white canadd definitionand exaggerate the differences betweenthem. lastFilterCtrl+F ConvertforSmartFilters Extract...Alt+Ctrl+X FilterGallery... Liquify...Alt+Ctrl+X PatternMaker...Alt+Shift+Ctrl+X VanishingPoint...AIt+Ctrl+V Artistic Blur BrushStrokes Distort Noise Pixelate Render Sharpen Sketch Stylize Texture Video Other OJimarc (maenom Let'slookatoneplug-inthat's availableforbothPC andMacRealGrainfromImagenomic.Others tolookoutforincludeAlienSkin's Exposure,PowerRetouche'sBlack! White StudioPro,andConverttoB&W fromtheimagingfactory. Likemostofthesetools,RealGrain is essentiallya black-and-white conversionadjustment withgrainpattern noise.Itisn'tanadjustmentlayerbutis "destructive,"directly adjusting pixel values,so alwaysmake acopyof the image layer first.Thenlaunchthe plug-in from the Filters menu. Settings IK .. .-Groups:IBlack & WhiteFilms [ Presets: IlfordXP2Super400 [v FujifilmNeopan100Acres f FujifilmNeopan1600 I Grain 5ItfordDelta100 tlfordDelta100 (Pushed1 Stop) 1""' IIfordDelta 400 IIfordDelta3200 :lu IIfordDeltaPlus125 Co IlfordDelliPI",400 Grai IIfordDelta Super40 ,Theseplug-insgenerallyletyou choose fromalistof popularfilm typesandthenadjustthegrayscale renditionofcolorstomatchthefilm's typicalspectralresponseandgrain pattern.RealGrainmimicscolorfilms too,sohereI'vechosenthe black-andwhitegroupandpickedtheHP5preset. As wellaslettingyouvarythe cannedrecipe'sgrain,RealGrain alsoseeksto mimictheuse of colored lensfilters.Choosingafilterpreset varieshowthecolorsare mappedto blackandwhite,andworksinamanner similartoPhotoshopCS3'sBlackand Whiteadjustment. Tomethisposesadilemma:doyou wanttoimitateafilm,ordo youwant themostpleasingblack-and-whitetonal composition?You'llneedtoresolvethat oneforyourself. Realgraln- Blue I Another aestheticissueisthat plug-infiltersoperateonthe entireimageandtherearemany instanceswhenoneoverallconversion isn'ttheoptimumblack-and-white treatment.Herethecolorof the battle re-enactor'sjacketis alittletoocloseto his skintones.Ideallyitneedstobe darkenedto drawmoreattentionto his facialexpression,butdarkeningthe jacketalsorendersthefacein darker grayscaletones.Togetroundthis,use masksandmultipleimagelayers. SIMULATINGFILMTYPES141 SIMULATINGPINHOLE CAMER PHOTOS Whilesomephotographersfeeltheneedtoownthelatestandmostexpensive equipment.otherstakeequaldelightinshowingwhattheycanachievewiththesimplest andcheapest.Manypinholecamerasarelittlemorethanawoodenboxwithatinylens. Theresultingpicturescanbeofgoodquality,butperhapsthemostcharmingaspectsof pinholeimagesaretheirimperfections.Butallisnotalwayswhatitseems.Recently Iwatchedanenthusiastcircumventamajorlandmark'stripodbanbyplacingatapedtogetherbox(withpinhole)directlyontothe ground.Itwasabitofadisappointmentwhen Ilearnthewouldscantheresulting negative andfinishthepictureinPhotoshop,butthenI thought.whynottakeadigitalcaptureandmakeitlooklikeapinholecamerapicture? Imitatinganeffectisusuallya matteroflistingafewkey characteristicsand thenbeinga littleresourceful.Thebest starting point fora"typical"pinholeimage isprobablyawide-angleshot with asmallapertureand good depthof field.Evenbetterifithasobvious signsofalongexposuretoo,but blurredmotionandvignettingcan beaddedinPhotoshop.You'llnever fooleveryone,norshouldyou,but it'safuneffectand wellworth experimentingwith. 142CREATIVEEFFECTS Below:Choose awide-angleshot withgood depth of field.Many pinhole imagesaresquare format souse onewhich workswell with a near-square crop. USINGSURFACEBLUR G100%m Radius pixels -Ihreshold: levels OK Preview ==-- TheSurfaceBlur filtercanbe usefulforeliminatingsubtle detailswhilepreservinglargershapes. In thispictureit helpssimulatehowa slowerexposuresmoothesthewaternoticehowtheripplesofthepost's reflection intheoriginalaregonein thefinishedversion. E o ( Cancel Preview E 67% [ Angle: 8 Distance: pixiels ELessfluidobjectslikeclouds, vehicles,orthisgoosewould havemovedduringalongpinhole exposure.Tryselectingandcopying themintotheirown layer,andthen applyingtheMotionBlurfilter. Thisfilterblurs the selectionalong theplaneofmovement,bothinfront ) ) andbehindtheobject,obscuringits shape.Whilethismightresemble apinholeexposure,it makesmy gooseanugly,unrecognizableblob. Onesolutionwouldbetoclonethe birdaway,oryou couldrestoresome detailbyreducingthelayer'sopacity. In this case,Ipaintedblackontothe layermaskso thatthemotionblur wasonlyvisiblebehindthegoose. E Vignettingischaracteristicof many pinhole images.Afterdoing routinedodgingandburning,adda Curvesadjustment layeranddarken thehighlightsandmidtones. Next,activatetheadjustment layer'smask.Pick thecircularMarquee tool,holddown theAlt/\key,anddrag outwardfromthecenteroftheimage. Ifyou croppedyourimageintoarough squareformat,likemanypinhole images,alsohold downShift asyou drag-this constrains theMarquee to makeacircularselection. Filltheselectedpartof themask withblackso the Curveonlydarkens thecorners.Thencleartheselectionand blurthemask-thevignettingneedsto remainobviousbutblendingradually. Lef:I finishedthispinhole-stylepicture bVdistressingitwithaMultiplV blending modelayer.TheCloudsfilterwasapplied withtheopacitywasreducedto10%, retainingthathome-brewedqualityso typicalofpinholeimages. SIMULATINGPINHOLECAMERAPHOTOS143 PHOTOREALISTIC LINE DRWINGS I'velookedmanytimesatthelithographsandwoodcutsbygreatRenaissanceartistslike Durer,orthoseofunknown17thcenturyengravers,andwonderedhowonemightmake photographslookthatway.WhileIhaveastronginterestinphotographinghistorical subjects,youcanalsoseemoremodernexamplesofsimilar,relatedtechniques.Aquick searcharoundthehouseturnedupaselectionasdiverseascomputermanualcovers, banknotes,andculturaltourbrochures,all which usephotorealisticline drawingstoconvey traditionandtimelessvalue. Reproducingtheseeffectsin Photoshopalwaysseemed challenging.Theyareessentially linedrawingswiththedensityof shadingbuiltupbycross-hatching strokes.Mostmodernexamples involvedthesortofdrawingskills fewpossess-MichaelHalbert,for instance,combinesscratchboards andPhotoshop-andI'vebalkedat buyingplug-ins.Buttheideahas neverbeenfarfrommy mind. Creating alinedrawingwasan easystep.Bigger obstacleswere howtoselectareasforshading less laboriously,creatingline patterns that"tessellated"or repeatedperfectly,and howto accumulateormultiplythe lines so theycouldformthecrosshatching thatbuiltuptheshading.Ihope you'llagreeit'saninteresting combinationoftechniques. Right:Thefirstfewtimesyoutrythis technique,useanimagewithrelatively simpledetail. Far Right:Onceyouhaveconstructedthe linedrawingandaddedthecross-hatched shading,anicefinishingtouchisto manuallyfine-tunetheshading.Activate theBrushtoolandpaintthelayermasks. 144CREATIVEEFFECTS PHOTOREALISTICLINEDRAWINGS145 PHOTOREALISTICEDRWING LAYEREDMETHOD Thefirsttaskistopreparethe edgedrawing.Startoffwithyour picturein8-bitmode,withanylayers flattened,andconvertedtoblackand white.Createacopyoftheimagelayer usingCtrl/c+J,thenresetPhotoshop's colorsbypressingD,andselectFilter> Sketch>Photocopy.PushtheDarkness sliderup tothemaximum,and then adjust theDetailslideruntilthe layer isrenderedasa coarsedrawing. TAU \HLP|\L L!t\cRadius pixels Theedgedrawingwillprobably containsomesmalldetails;these shouldusuallyberemovedsotheimage lookslesslikea photograph.Apply Gaussian blurwith aradiusofU1Turnnow tomakingthepatterns ofdiagonal andhorizontallinesthekeytomakingthepictureresemble anengraving.Themostobviousand elegantmethodiswithPatternpresets. Createa small,squaredocumentand drawapattern similartomine.Notice thetwolines,onejustinthe corner,and imaginehowthecorners wouldmatch upif thepatternwererepeatedlikewall tiles.Thegoalistocreatea tessellating pattern,soitfillsanareawithmatching lines.Youcouldtryzooming rightinand painting individual pixelswitha1-pixel hard-edged brush. Whenyou'redone,chooseEdit> DefinePatter andaddthepatternto yourpresets.Createa second,mirror imagewithImage>RotateCanvas> FlipCanvasHorizontal,andalsosave thatasapreset. |ncreasethecontrastbychoosing Image>Adjustments>Levels and dragging the white andblack points inward.If necessary,repeattheprocess orusetheErasertooltoremoveany distractingdetail.Yourpictureshould nowhavetwo layers,theoriginaland theedgedrawing. Ii . [ bC8gDu00Makingatessellatingpattern oftenprovesverytrickyand,for allthecareyoutake,youcanstillendup withjaggedlines.Testyourpresetby adding anewPatternadjustmentlayer toablankimage. KE5DlU!DD lDDu!. 411.48 DlXE!5JDCDU!DU!. DlXE!5JIDh :.|rE!DD U5E. !!DDEbCfEED...[vLu5!DG d!!EIH C Ipreferamoreprosaicwayto makethepatterns.Createanew documentthatisthesamesizeasyour picture,duplicateyourimage,and deleteallthelayers.Makesureitisin Grayscalemode,andfillthebackground layerwithapalegray.Thenswitchitto Bitmapmode.Settheoutputresolution to600pixels/inchandchooseHalftone Screenasthemethod. right:Youcanmakephotographsinto linedrawingswithanumberofdifferent Photoshopfilters.I preferredPhotocopy inthiscase becausetheresultsarequite coarse,morecraftsmanlike. 1lOnce youfollowhowthistechnique works,leavethebaseimageincolor andkeepanyconversionadjustment lavers.Youcanthenuse Select>Color Rangetoselectindividualcolorareas andvarythecrosshatching. - HalftoneScreen Frequency I 15I I lines/inch Angle: 1-45 1 degrees Shape:I Line [ Round Diamond Ellipse .._---rCross ! HalftoneScreengivesachoiceof thepatternusedto simulatethe palegrayas ahalftone.SelectLinefrom theShapedrop-downbox,andchoose anangle-here,minus45degreeswill produceadiagonalline. Atthesametime,setthe Frequency-but nottoohigh.Anumber between15and20linesperinchwill printwellwitheachlinebeingdistinct. PHOTOREALISTICLINEDRAWINGS147 PHOTOREALISTIC LINE DRAWINGS L/+LlLL LLL |LLlllLLLIlLinepattersdon'talwaysdisplay properlyinPhotoshopif youhave zoomedoutandmadetheimagefit yourdisplay.Tocheckapatter's trueappearance,zoomin to100%. PI Thenselecttheentireimageand useEdit>Define Patter tosave thispattern.Youwillalsoneedacouple of alternative linepatterns,souse Ctrl/c+ZtoreverttoaGrayscaleimage. ThenmakeitBitmapmode,butwitha plus45degreeangle.Savethepattern andrepeattheprocesswith0degrees so thatthelinesarehorizontal. 148CREATIVEEFFECTS Select:SampsFuzziness: SelectionPreview:Mask ,; Onceyouhavesavedtheline patterns,it'stimetoreturntothe mainimageandapplythem.Firstmake thePhotocopy layerinvisible,thenreset Photoshop'sForegroundcolor(Dl.and chooseSelect>ColorRange.Dragthe Fuzzinessslideruntiltheshadowsarea distinct,recognizableshape.ClickOK. Scale: % Linkwithlayer Il (SnaptoOrigin \# y Halfonelines MI Horizontal Minus4S .. Photoshopnowhastheshadow_ tonesselected.Holddown Alt/\ and addaPatternadjustmentlayer, choosingoneofyourHalftonepatterns, andsettheblendingmodetoMultiply, whichwillmakethepattern'swhite areasinvisible.ClickOK andPhotoshop addsyourpatternandturnsthe selection intoamask. Lef:PatterFill adjustmentlayerdialog. m Theshadowsneedtobecrosshatchedmoredensely,soadd furtherPatternadjustmentlayersusing theMinus45 andHorizontalpatterns. Remembertouse theMultiplyblending mode,too.Butinsteadofcreating masksontheselayers,holddownAlt/\ andclickthedividinglinesbetween thethreelayers-thisappliesthelower layer'smasktoallthree.HereIgrouped themintoaLayerSet. lock: 0.+8 I I 10% r l rrJ60% I 50% I I 60% la1 Nowlightentheforegroundcolor toamidgrayand repeatsteps9, 10,and 11forthedarkmidtones.Select >Color Range willmakeaselectionof thebaseimage'smidgrays.Withthe selection active,youthenaddPattern adjustment layers.Reduce theiropacity percentage-50-60%workswell-and considervaringthepattern,perhaps byonlyusingtheHorizontalpattern. Followthesameprocessforthe lightgrays,using 10-20%opacity. Forgetthehighlights;thefinished pictureneedspurewhitespace. Atanytimeyoucanpeekathow thefinalpictureisbuildingupbyjust togglingthePhotocopylayer'svisibility. 1 SwitchingonthePhotocopy layer'svisibility,theresultis now alinedrawingwithcross-hatchedareas oftone.The lines canlookalittle mechanical,soyoucan paintonthe maskstochangehowtheadjustment layersareapplied.Orduplicatean adjustmentlayerandchooseLayer> Rasterize >Layer,whichconvertsit toastandardpixellayer. BeforeAfter Thisopensupmanypossibilities. Forexample,youcanuseEdit> Transform>Warp andbendsomeof thelines,usetheSmudge tool,orapply afiltertotherasterizedlayer. Adding morecross-hatchinglines, orincreasingthelayers'opacity,doesn't really reflect howlithographsusewider linestodarkentheshading. To dothis, pressthekeyboard'sUpandLeftarrows andnudgetherasterizedlayerafew pixelsupwardandleft.Fourorfive pixelsisenough.Don'tletagap appearbetweenthelines. PHOTOREALISTICLINEDRAWINGS149 SOFT FOCUS Manydarkroomenthusiastsfashionavarietyoftoolstoaddsoftfocustotheirprints. Oftentheseareassimpleasshrinkwrapstretchedoveranoldpictureframewhichyou holdbetweentheenlargerlightandtheprint,justmovingthetoolgentlysoyouavoidany telltaleshadows.Inthedigitalerathetoolsaremoresophisticated.Theyaresonumerous, andtheeffectssovaried,thatyouneedtodevelopgoodhabitstomakeexperimentation easierandmoreproductive. Softfocushasmanyuses.Itmight giveapicturearomantic,dreamy, orImpressionisticappearance. Withportraits,youmaywishto hideimperfectionsintheskinor simplysoftentheirappearance,in thesamewayasmanipulatingthe channelsintheblack-and-white conversion.Equally,lowkey imagescanbemademoregloomy andmenacingwhenthedetails are indistinct.Andlet'snotforgetthat addingsoftfocuslatercandisguise thefactanoriginalimagewasn't completelysharp. Right:Theoriginalimageisnotentirely sharp,andlacksanyreal distinction. 150CREATIVEEFFECTS Above:Thesoft-focuseffectinthisfinal imagehasobscuredtheoriginal'slackof pin-sharpfocusandgivenitadream-like fairytaleatmosphere. SOFTFOCUS151 SOFT FOCUS SELECTIVE SOFT FOCUS Opacity:170%[ Lock:ild +aFill:1100% [ BeforePhotos hopCS3,itwas alwaysbesttoworkonacopyof theimagelayer.Youcouldthenaddsoft focuswithFilter>Blur>GaussianBlur, andfine-tunetheeffectby changingthe layer'sopacity percentage orremoving thelayercompletely. Right:Only thegirl'sface hasbeen leftsharp.This wasdonebypaintingon theSmartFilter'smask. 152CREATIVEEFFECTS fSincePhotos hopCS3ithasbeen Ypossibleto convertanimagelayer intoaspecialtypeoflayercalleda SmartObject.Thisallowsyoutoapply afiltertothelayerandre-runitlater withdifferentsettings.ChooseFilter> ConvertforSmartFilters,andthenapply Gaussianblurorany other filters.To adjusttheresults,justdouble-clickthe filter'siconintheLayerspalette. IBluefilter Whileacompletelyblurredimage maysometimesbetheintention,it's morecommontoletsomeofthe originaldetailappear moredistinctly. OnewayistopaintontheSmart Object'smask,removingblurfroma subject'seyes,oryoucanreduce theblurlayer'soveralleffectby reducingitsopacitypercentagein theLayerspalette. II Multiply Normal Dissolve Darken B Opacity:1100% [ Fill:1100% [. I ,_........._..... __.__...._ ........._.._... ____ ..,. LinearBurn DarkerColor Lighten Screen ColorDodge LinearDodge(Add) LighterColor Overlay SoftLight HardLight VividLight Linearlight PinLight HardMix Diference Exclusion Hue Saturation Color Luminosity Lessobviousis what you can achieveby changing thelayer'sblending mode.TryScreen with highkeypictures.This lightenstheresulting image,though blacks arepreserved,and youmay wanttoadd more Curves orLevels adjustment layerstobalancethetones.The resultstendtobemoregentlerand moredreamy. Below:Changingthe blurlayer's blendingmodetoMultiplymakes thepicturelookmorelowkey andgivesitamysteriousfeel. Above:Softfocusworksbestwhenit applestoselectedimage areas.Here ithas beenrestrictedtothedarker areas bV usinglayerBlendingOptions. r Blending Options III Cen.,.1Blending BlendMode:I Multiply [ Opacity: a% rAdvancedBlending 6 Fill Opacity:, al% Channels: R 0C 0B Knockout: I None [ BlendIf: I Gray ThisLayer: d o BlendInterior Efectsas Croup Blend ClippedLayersas Group Transparency Shapeslayer LayerMaskHidesEfects o Vector MaskHidesEfects [vJ 069I132 UnderlyingLayer;0 D 255 6< Aswellas changingtheopacity percentageandadjustmentlayers, anotheroptionisto restricttheblurlayerto certain tones by using theBlendingOptions (underLayerStyles).Heretheblurlayer's effectisonlygoingtoapplytotones betweentheBlendIfslider'sblackand whitetriangles.UseAlt/\todrag either triangleapart andsmooththetransitions. |I I SOFTFOCUS153 BORDERS Particularlywithablack-and-whiteprint,thehighlightscanoftenbeverycloseintoneto thepaperandthosearoundthepicture'sedgeeasilybleedoutandmergewiththe surroundingwhitespace.Examinethetwoimagesonthefacingpage-thebrightclouds atthetopleftmaketheborderlessimagelookveryragged.Ifthepictureisframedand mounted,themattecanhelpholdtheviewer'seyewithinitsrectangularformat.butnot always.Moreoverfewofusframe everypicture. Oneobvioussolutionistoadda borderandtheexamplehereshows howneatlyaborder cancontainthe picture'scontents.Aswith most thingsinPhotoshop,therearegood andbadwaystodoit. 156PRESENTATIONANDOUTPUT Below:Addingaborderisn'ttheonly solution,butitholdstheviewer'seye without becoming adistraction. Opposite:Withnoborderthereislittle difference between thehighlightsinthe pictureandthepaperThisisespecially damagingatthetopleft. ADDINGABORDER E EO OU5E llEVOU5 VEI IO LfEIE L!DD!HQ N35K (oloo NO0E MO0E.' NUlDV I DY EFIiI W!ID NUI!DV~DEUII COOI\WP!IE1*L0td*zdrL- rClwLMl190v^LC Oel avAvoidadding edges directlyto image layers.Instead,addanew layer beneath the original and increase theoverallimagesizeusingtheImage> Canvas Size dialog. Nowreselectyourimagelayer, whichwillhavesomesurrounding transparentpixels,and,usingthe BlendingOptions(accessedviathe "Jx" button in the layerspanel),choose Stroke.Chooseacolorfortheborder andset thepositiontoOutsidetoavoid obscuringanypixelsoftheartwork. E Youshould usuallyaddaborder layerasoneoftheverylaststeps beforethepicturegoestotheprinteror theweb,generallyafterrunningany sharpeningactionsorplug-inswhich oftenworkonapixel layer created by merging thevisiblelayers.Here, for example,theHighPass sharpeninghas alsosharpenedtheborderand produced alightrim.So eitherswitchoffthe borderlayer'svisibilitybeforerunning suchsharpening processes,oradd the borderafterward. vBorder10pixel s vMakelayer Using:layer Name:"Edge" Mode:Multiply WithFillNeutral v Set Layer Styles of currentlayer To:Layerstyles Scale:100% Stroke:stroke WithEnabled Position:inside FillMethod:Color Mode:Normal Opacit:100% Size:10pixels Color:RCB color Red:0 Green:0 Blue:0 BORDERS157 DECORATIVE BORDERS Manyphotographerslikesimpleborders,othersnoneatall,whilesomeprefersomething fancier-ifnotallthetimethenatleastforone-offspecials.Inthedarkroomthisoften meantplentyoftrialanderror,andruiningperfectlygoodprints,butwithPhotoshopthere issomuchfreedomthatoneregularlyseesgruesomebordereffectsproudlydisplayed. Iwon'taltogetherexemptthoseonthesepages-afterall,tasteisindividual-butwhat's moreimportantistheunderlyingmethodandknowinghowtousethestyleofdecorative borderthatlooksrightwithyourimages. Right:Try paintinga borderusingyourown Brushshapes.These can bederivedfrom theimageitself. Lef:Addadecorative borderbychoosingone of Photoshop'Brush presetsor by addinga LayerStyle. 158PRESENTATIONANDOUTPUT -LLlL -LLLL-llVL cLLLa Tomakespaceforadecorative border,increasethecanvassize. Zoomouta little,pressDto reset Photoshop'scolors,thenactivatethe Croptool(C)andselectthewholeimage area.Holding downShift and Alt/,drag outwarduntilyouhavemadeenough space.HittheReturnkeyordouble-click insidetheimagetocommit. j' E Whileyoucandrawtheborder freehand,theresultscanbea littletoo inconsistentandsirplynot worthwhile.Instead,paintatonecorner, holddownShift,andthendab thenext corner.HoldingShiftmakesPhotos hop drawastraightlinebetweentwopoints. Here' triedtoecho thegate'sshape. 8rushHeets8rush1ip 'hapeI'hape1vnam|cs['catter|nqb[exture1ul5ru>hM['o|orDvnamics W,' s 1 * I Alwaysdrawbordersonanew layer.Asusual,thisis so youcan reverse orfine-tuneyourworklater. ActivatetheBrushtool(B)andexpand theBrushespalette.Youcanchooseone of thebrushesshown,orexpandyour choicebyloadinga preset.ThoseinDry MediaandFauxFinish haveparticularly good textures.HereIchoseabrushthat remindedmeofJapanesecalligraphy. Name i m sh tt__ ''Cance|_I Anotheridea istopaintaborder withyourownBrushshapeand useelementsderivedfromthecurrent image.Here,forexample,Iduplicated ryrainimageandappliedLevels adjustmentsuntilthegate'ssilhouette wasallthatremained.Selectingthe wholeiragearea,/a|t. De|neB|J$h/|esetaddedrynewbrushshapeto theBrushes palette. LxpandedViewNew8rushreset'|ear8rush 'ontro|seset 7|||ocked'ettins'opvTexture\ther1oo|sename8rush ...1e|ete8rushestOn|vY'ma||ThumbnauLarqe1humbnai|'ma||1stLarge1st'troke1humbnai|PreseManaqer. .eset8rushes ..Ioad8rushes..-'ave8rushes..-ep|ace8rushes ...7ssorted8rushes8asic8rushes'a|||qraph|c8rushes1rop 'hadow8rushes1rvMedia8rushes aux In|sh8 tishesohn'sCursorsNatura|8rushesNatura|8rushes'pecla|Lffect8rushes'uuare8rushes1h|ckHeavv8rusheswetMed|a8rushes8rushresets 'cattetL 8oth7xes8rush1ip 'hapeo|f! ['hape1vnamics _ __ ____ [1uaj8rush G` _ _ _ _i_! ['o|or 1vnamics Gontro| d -[ther dvnamics G|Noise|wetAdqesI7|rbrushL'moothinqM`Mb`|ProtectTexture m'.. Youcanpaintwiththebrush straightawayorexperirentwith someoftheBrushespalette'sother settings.TheScatteringcontrolsare greatformakingarepeatingpattern. ECORAT!VE BORERS 1B0FILM REBATES Foraperiodinthe1990sitseemedinvoguetoprintimageswiththenegative'srebate showing.RatherlikeMadonna'sfamousbra,whathadpreviouslybeenhiddenwasnow displayed,andthefilmstockandsprocket holeswereusedastheborderofthefinalprint. Onemethodwastocontact-printfromlarge-formatnegatives,oryoucouldfiledownor customize theenlarger's negative carrier.The rougher thebetter. Atfirst this technique seemeda strikingdemonstrationthatthe photographerhadsolittleneedof digitaltrickerythattheimagecould bepresentedrawanduncropped. Whileinterestingat first,printing withvisiblerebateseemedto becomeamoretiresomereaction totheunstoppableriseofdigital,so perhaps there's acertain ironyin seekingtoimitateitinPhotoshop. Below:Theoriginalimagerevealsitsdigital originswhencomparedtothefinal.Hereit isseenwithout itssquarecrop. 160PRESENTATIONANDOUTPUT Lef:Thefinalimage,with "rebate"addeddigital/v. Onceyouhavescanneda stripoffilm,cleanitup andsaveitasatemplate. Thiscanthenbeapplied toany image. THEPHOTOSHOPMETHOD aIfyou'venevershotonfilm,and don'thaveanyavailable,afew templatesareavailableontheinternet as JPEGorPhotoshopfiles,orintheory youcouldcreateyourownwith Photoshop's drawingtools.Ifyoudo have access tosomeoldfilm,it'sfar easiertodo withascanner. Myflatbedscannerhasa transparencyadapter,soIplaced a stripofmedium-formatfilmontothe glassplatenandscanneditdirectlyinto Photos hopat1600dpi.Suchahigh resolutionwasn'tforopticalqualitybut sothe acquired scanwouldbesimilarin sizetothedigitalcaptures.Inthiscase my 2% inch(6cm)square negative wouldbecomea3-4,000 pixelscan. fThescanusually needssome Ustraighteningandcroppingand theremovalof obviousdefects,but thebiggesttaskisto remove the negative'sexistingimage.Double-click the backgroundlayertomakeitintoa regularlayer,andthendelete the central areausingPhotoshop'sselectionand maskingtools.Taketimeoverthis,and you'llbeleftwitha template witha transparentcentralarea andwhichyou canapplyto asmanyimagesasyoulike. I @ DarkenMidtones I @ DarkenShadow RWithboththefilmtemplate Uandyourmainimageopenin Photoshop,dragthefilmtemplate layerfromtheLayerspalette.Ifyou needtoresizethefilmframe,use Ctrl/O+ TandholddowntheShift keyso the frame's proportions are maintained. FILMREBATES161 EDGE BURNING Edge burning isagentledarkeningaroundapicture'sedgethatisalmostimperceptibleyet isstillsufficienttocontainandholdtheimagetogether.Itsfunctionisclosertoaborder linethanitistothetypicallycompositionalorinterpretativeroleofdodgingandburning, thoughthemethodsaresimilar.Employedonitsown,edgeburningmaybeallthatis needed,butmarginallydarkeredgeareasandasimplebordercanbeanidealcombination. Howmuchtodarkentheedge areasisasubjectivedecision. Ansel Adamsreckoned5-10% andalsodescribedacoupleof alternative methods.Theywere burning inallfoursidesatonce,or burning ineachsideindividuallyso thatthecornerreceiveddouble helpings.Aswellasthe strength ofburning,consider howwide theborderareashouldbe. 162PRESENTATIONANDOUTPUT Above:After dodging thepoles andBelow:Thefinalimageincludesthe edge buring inthe surroundings,this pictureburing effect anda fine border for much still feelsuncontained,with bright cloudsatstronger definition. thetopleft. SELECTIVECURVES a Start by usingtheMarqueetoolto make arectangularselection.The selectioncanbeclosertothoseedges whichare alreadydark.Theninvertthe selection(CtrI/Cmd+1)soit onlycovers the border areas. Iliketo feather theselectionby entering Quick Mask mode andapplying someblur.PressQ,whichcoversmost ofthe image witha mask(which isred bydefault) and leaves theborderareas clear. ApplysomeGaussianblur,using thered maskto judge thesoftnessof theselection'sedges,and exitQuick MaskmodebypressingQagain. / / / D Add aCurvesadjustmentlayer andpullthecurvedownto darkenthe edges. Eachpictureshouldbe judged individually.HereIdraggeddownthe curve's top-right corner,raking all tonal ranges darker and rendering pure whites aspalegrays.Thiswas because this picture containeddistractingbright cloudsnearthe top-leftedge.Ithen shapedthe curvesothatshadowsand midtonesweren'tsignificantlydarkened andwouldn'tcreateuglydark areas aroundtheedges. Highpasssharpening EIf the transitionistooobvious, applymoreblurtothe mask, changethe adjustmentlayer'sopacity, or use otheradjustmentsandfilters. Edit>Transform>Warp canalsobe usefulforreshapingthemaskand changing thedarkenedborderarea. Thisimagebenefitedfromasecond edge-burning area,initiallyappliedasan experiment.TheLayerspalettealso showshowI'vekeptedgeburning separatefromthe dodgingandburning layers-one Scurve adjustmentlayer addscontrastto"shape"thescene, andasecondcurveliftsthe shadow detailin the poles. EDGEBURNING163 FLIPPING THE IMAGE Mountingthefilminthenegativecarriergivesdarkroomworkersanopportunitytosee,if onlyforamoment,howtheimagewouldlookifitwerereversed.Itseemsnobigdealto flipthenegativeandprintthepictureinthedarkroom.Butoncomputerexactlythesame actionoftenseemstobeonlythefirststepontheroadtodeviousdigitaltrickery.Butin thelistofdigitalmisdemeanours,thisisaveryminorinfringementindeed.Youshould neverbe afraid toflip animage. FLIPHORIZONTALLY Clearlyyoumight not wantto flipa well-knownlandscape,pictureswith lettering,or anythingwhichwould underminetheimage'scredibility. Portraits,still-lifes,andabstracts, however,canoftenbenefit.In Photoshop,chooseImage>Rotate Canvas>FlipHorizontally.If theresult doesn'tlookright,chooseUndo. Alotdependsontheexact composition,andalsoonour wayof looking at apicture.Intheexample here,theman'seyesarepositioned centrally,soperhapstheimageworks wellineitherdirection,butthepicture certainlyseemedmuchmore"closed" whenitwasoriented correctly.I immediately sawtheeyes,andthen stoppedlooking.Thismay well bedue tobeingaccustomedtoreadingfrom lefttoright-thecorrectlyorientated pictureforcedmeto jumpleftward twice,first fromthenearereyeand Above:The eyesintheoriginalimage are centrally positioned so thispicture can workeitherleft-to-nghtorreversed. 164PRESENTATIONANDOUTPUT then fromtheother.Reversingthe imagemademeread thelefteye,then theright,andthencontinueintothe space.It made"reading"thispicture feel morenaturalandtheresulting compositionseemed moreopen. Below:The black-and-whitecomposition looksmore"closed"thantheoriginal. Opposite:Flipping thisimagemakesthe picturereadfromlefttoright. FLIPPINGTHEIMAGE165 PRINT OR OUTPUT SHARPENING Fromthemomentlightsignalsareregisteredbythesensor,rightthroughtowhenthe picturegoestotheprinter,theimagelosessharpnessanddefinitioneachtimeitis transferredfromonemediumtoanother.Theprintedpicturewillnotmatchthesharpness oftheimageonyourmonitor,andfurthersharpeningisnecessarypurelyfortheprinting process. ThisiswhatBruceFrasercalled" outputsharpening." Outputorprintsharpening needs tobe doneattheveryendofthe editingprocess,afterthepicture hasbeenscaledto itsfinalprint size.Thisisimportantbecause sharpeningislikearimorhalo aroundtheedgeswithinthe picture,andremainseffectiveyet imperceptibleifitisaround1/100 ofaninch(0.25 mm)on thefinal output.Ifyoucorrectlysharpeneda pictureandprinteditatLetterorA4 sizeona300 dpiinkjetprinter,that sharpeningrimwouldbetoosmall tobe effectiveifyouthen decided toresizethepictureandmakea smallerprint. Right:Computer screensand printers have very differentoutput resolutions. You shouldalwaysevaluate sharpening byexamining thefinal print. 166PRESENTATIONANDOUTPUT -- -- -- -HOWSHARP? EyEs LI...L|... III bCK WDI!EIDDEOb3C8OHUDD/DOVC. Always keepsharpening onitsownlayer. Ifyoudo needtoresize yourimage, itcanbebesttocreateatemporary duplicate ofyourmasterfile,resizing the imageandsharpeningit.This preventsyouaccidentallysavingyour changes, particularly resizing,to the masterfile. Afteryoumakeyourprint, youcandiscardtheduplicate file ifyou don'tanticipatemakingfurtherprints ofthatsize inthe future. /DOVC. Correct print sharpening looks unacceptably coarseon yourmonitorat100%. G100%G Amount: % Radius: pixels Threshold: levels r-------------/DOVC. Aradiusof O produces aprint sharpeningrimthat iseffectivebutnot tooobvious. Ingeneral,it isbest toworkona copylayer-again,theprincipleof workingnon-destructivelyapplies.Hide anyborderoreventext layersso that theydon'tgetsharpenedtoo,andthen holddowntheAlt /"keyas youselect Merge VisiblefromtheLayerspalette. Onthisnewsharpening layer,apply yourpreferredsharpeningtechnique. Aradius of3 is generallygoodfor 300dpiprintingsince itequatesto 1/100 ofan inch, andan amount of 150-200% isa goodstarting point. /DOVC Zoomoutto 25-50%toexamine sharpening'simpactontheimage. Youneedto evaluateprint sharpeningbyexaminingtheprint and notfromthesharpening'sonscreen appearance.Yourmonitorhas alower outputresolutionthanaprinterand acceptableprintsharpeningusually looksbrutalonascreenat100%.Itcan helptozoomoutto 25-50%,buteven thenyouarestillcomparingappleswith oranges-judgeyoursharpeningby examiningthefinalprintitself. || L1 L!! Ct/1L|||' PRINTERS Theinkjetisbyfarthemostcommontypeofphotographicprinterandoffersagreat balancebetweenqualityandaffordability.Manufacturersarecontinuallyupdatingtheir productrangesanditisdifficulttokeepupwiththelatestdevelopments.Beforebuying, checkreviewsinphotographicmagazinesandtakeadvantageofthevastnumberof resourcesnowavailableovertheinternet.Someone,somewherewillhavealreadyused theprinter youareinterestedin,andwillhavepostedanonlinereview. 168PRESENTATIONANDOUTPUT Lef:Withtheright paper,withproperblack andwhiteink,thequality oftoday'sprinters enablesyoutodigital printsthat canrival thebeautyofafine darkroomprint. PRINTERS:INKJET Almostanyinkjetprintercanprinta photograph,butfor decentquality youneed to lookatthemodelsthat manufacturers producespecifically forphotographicprinting.Theseare moreexpensive,buttheiroutput qualityismuch higher-as insomany things,yougetwhatyoupayfor. Photographicinkjetprinters havemore colors,usually6or8andinseparate cartridges,whilestandardinkjetsoften only havecyan,magenta,yellow,and black,allinasinglecartridge which hastobereplacedassoonasone colorruns dry.Withextracolors,the moreexpensivephoto-qualityprinters offerbettercolorrendition.Most manufacturers nowinclude extra grayscale cartridges suchaslight blackforbettermonoreproduction. Right:Moderprinterssuchasthe Epson2400have additional ink cartri dges for grayscale outputand increasingly sophisticateddrivers. PRINTERS:CONTINUOUSFLOW Someprinterscanacceptcontinuous flowsystems.Theseareoftenfrom third-party suppliers,sometimesfrom the printermanufacturer,andusually consistofself-standingink bottleswith tubesconnectingthem to theinkjet cartridges.Afteraninitialcost,running costsaremuchcheaperandeven relativelymodestprintingvolume can justify the outlay.Onebig advantage isthatyoucanusespecialized blackand-white inkswhichtheprinter manufacturermaynotproduce. TIP Archival longevity shouldalsobea majorconsideration.Thebetter photographicprinterstendtohave inksbasedonpigmentswhich tend tobemuchlesssusceptibleto fadingthandye-basedinks.Thisisa fast-movingarea,soit paysto reviewthespecificationscarefully whendecidingtobuyanew printer. Above:Many printerscanaccept continuousflowsystems.These canreduceinkcostsconsiderably, but involveinitialsetupcosts. PRINTERS169 NEUTRAL BLACK AND WHITE ~~~There'sacertainironyincolorbeingoneofthebiggestproblemsofblack-and-whitedigital printing,andit'simportanttomaintainahealthyscepticismwhenreadingaboutnew printers'black-and-whitecapabilities.Thefreshprintmaylookfinewhenitisviewedin daylightorwithadaylight-balancedlight,butit'sadifferentstoryonceyouseetheprint underregulartungstenhouselighting.Whathadpreviouslyseemedpureblackandwhite suddenlyexhibitsamagentacolorcast.orisoccasionallygreenish.Theunwantedtoneis differentwhenthelightsourceisfluorescent.anditalsovariesgreatlydependingon which paper you use.Youcanchange your printer,andalotof other things too,butalotof photographersmakethe best ofabad job and discoveranew enthusiasmfor splittoning. 170PRESENTATIONANDOUTPUT SPLIT TONING There'sanunderlying technicalobstacle here.For acolorinkjet printer,printing atonedor split-tonedblack-and-white imageis littledifferent fromcolor printingas it canblendthetone from halfadozencolorcartridges,and thenaddblackfromoneormore grayscaleinks.Butprintinganeutral blackandwhite presents aproblem, evenforatop-of-the-rangeprinter. Oneortwograyscaleinksare not enoughtoproduceasmoothtone. Tobalancethis the coloredinksare alsoused,andthe printerdrivertries to combine theminabalancethat results inaneutralized(gray)color. Theoutputmaylookrightindaylight butit's inevitablya compromise. Thingsaregettingbetter.Printer manufacturersareintroducingthirdand fourthgrayscaleinksso less usehasto be made ofcoloredinks cartridges. Driversarealsoimproving,thoughthose fromprinter manufacturerstendto coveronlytheirownbrand papers.Even then,manufacturers'claimsneedtobe puttothe test.Check theprint under normal house lighting and afaint color castis often visible. Somephotographersarehappy withthemonooutputfromthird-party RIPssuchasImagePrint,OuadToneRip, andQlmage.Theseare replacements fortheoriginal printer driversand havea rangeofspecialistfeatureslikereducing ink usage,supportingawiderrangeof papertypes,andprint queuing.They also haveblack-and-whitesettings. Butopinions differ.I'veonlyever been reallysatisfiedbyusing dedicated black-and-whiteinksets.Theseare available from companies such as Piezography,Lyson,and Permajetand arereplacementcartridgesor continuous flow systems.At their simplest,one swaps theblackand white cartridgesinand outas needed, tapingovertheir nozzleswhennot in use.Because there is no needto compromise anduse colorinks,the results aremuch more neutral-simply blackandwhite. Opposite:Specializedinks producethe mostneutralblack-and-whiteresults. WarmneutralCoolneutral AboveandBelow:Specializedblackand whiteinksareoftenbasedoncarbon pigment andhavecarbon'warm undertone.Theyusuallycomeinsets whichletyouadd tonalvariation. NeutralCoolsepia NEUTRALBLACKANDWHITE171 CMYKOUTPUT Commercialreproprintingisaspecializedandhighlyskilledfield.Formanyphotographers, thewholetopicofCMYK,thefour-colorprintingprocessusedbymostcommercial presses,hasthemysteriousstatusofablackart.CMYK needsthepicturetobeseparated intocyan,magenta,yellow,andblackcomponents,fromwhichfourprintingplatesare madeandattachedtothepress'srollers.Eachthenappliestheappropriateinkcoloras paper passes throughthepress.While the computercandotheRGB-to-CMYKcalculation, thescreen'sRGBimagecontainsawiderrange,orgamut,ofcolorsthanthepresscan accuratelyreproduce.Theseout-of-gamutcolorswillbeclipped.Alternatively,theRGB colors need tobe adjusted before the CMYK separation. Thatadjustmentis usuallymadeby theprinter,notthephotographer. Manyprophotographershave neveroncebeenaskedtosubmit CMYK-separatedmaterial,andthat includessomeacquaintanceswith 40years'experience.Theyhand overtheirpicturesinRGBform, andtheirpublisherorprinter handlesalltheCMYKissues.For thephotographertoperformthose taskswouldinvolveamajor transferofcommercialriskand responsibility.Fromtheperspective ofthoserunningthepresses, generallythe lastthingtheywould wantwouldbe non-experts submittingerroneousattemptsat CMYKcolor separations. Whileitis uncommonforthe black-and-whitephotographerto handleCMYKseparationand printing,Photoshopgivesyouafair chanceofdoingagoodjob.Ithasa groupofsoftproofingtoolsthat previewthegamutproblems,so youcanthendecideexactlyhow theimage'scolorrangeis compressedtoremainwithinthe rangeofcolorsthattheprintercan output.Anysuchworkisusually bestlefttotheveryendofthe 172PRESENTATIONANDOUTPUT editing process sincesomefamiliar Photos hopfeaturesbehaveslightly differently inCMYKmode.So complete your regular editing work asnormal,resizing the picture toits output dimensions andsharpening it,andsaveamasterfileinRGB format.ThenpreparetheCMYK versionusinga duplicatefile. Whenyouaretaking responsibilityforsomethingso critical,itisimportantto communicatewiththeprinter Above:Conversionissuesparticularly affecttonedimages.Thispicture'sstrong cyanotype-stylecoloristoobrightto reproduceproperlyonaCMYKpress. andkeepproperdocumentation. PlantosubmitboththeRGBand theCMYKfiles,accompaniedby aninkjetprintforreference. Opposite:Thefinaloutputstayssharp withmanuallyadjustedCMYK channels for betterdefinition ofcolorsthatwere outofgamutafterRGB conversion. Below:CMYK separatesthepicture intocyan,magenta,yellow,andblack componentsandisusedinmost commercialprintingpresses. Clrl+-(Irl+1 (Irl+2 (Irl+3 Ctrl+4 CMYKOUTPUT173 COLORMANAGEDCONVERSIONS ',.;~- - .....>..-..| NurllIPH ..-..~....$ ,r, .c$cw.?chIc . ^1D PSVlIDddCVdHCCCVOIK,IIlS IRDOIIdHI IO RdKCSUIC VOUI ROHIIOI lS CdlDIdICC dHC DIOICC,dHC IO SCI DOIOSDODS COOI SCIIlHS SOIDCV dIC COIICCI OIIDC DIIHIlH DICSS.lHIDC LCPIDdIVOUCCHCIdVRCdH CDOOSIH |OIID PRCIlCdICDICSSZ. 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