ADP, ATP and Cellular Respiration
What Is ATP?Energy used by all CellsAdenosine TriphosphateOrganic molecule containing high-energy Phosphate bonds
Chemical Structure of ATP3 PhosphatesRibose SugarAdenine Base
What Does ATP Do for You?It supplies YOU with ENERGY!
How Do We Get Energy From ATP?By breaking the high- energy bonds between the last two phosphates in ATP
What is the Process Called?HYDROLYSIS (Adding H2O)H2O
How Does That Happen?An Enzyme!
How is ATP Re-Made?The reverse of the previous process occurs.Another Enzyme is used!ATP Synthetase
The ADP-ATP CycleATP-aseATP Synthetase
When is ATP Made in the Body?During a Process called Cellular Respiration that takes place in both Plants & Animals
Cellular RespirationIncludes pathways that require oxygenGlucose is oxidized and O2 is reducedGlucose breakdown is therefore an oxidation-reduction reactionBreakdown of one glucose results in 36 to 38 ATP molecules
Overall Equation for Cellular Respiration 6CO2 + 6H20 + e- + 36-38ATPsC6H12O6 + 6O2YIELDS
What Type of Process is Cellular Respiration?An Oxidation-Reduction Process or REDOX ReactionOxidation of GLUCOSE --> CO2 + H2O (e- removed from C6H12O6)Reduction O2 to H2O (e- passed to O2)
What Carries the Electrons?NAD+ (nicotinadenine dinucleotide) acts as the energy carrierNAD+ is a coenzymeIts Reduced to NADH when it picks up two electrons and one hydrogen ion
Are There Any Other Electron Carriers?YES! Another Coenzyme! FAD+ (Flavin adenine dinucleotide)Reduced to FADH2
Other Cellular Respiration FactsMetabolic Pathway that breaks down carbohydratesProcess is Exergonic as High-energy Glucose is broken into CO2 and H2OProcess is also Catabolic because larger Glucose breaks into smaller molecules
How Much ATP Do Cells Use?
It is estimated that each cell will generate and consume approximately 10,000,000 molecules of ATP per second
What are the Stages of Cellular Respiration?GlycolysisconversionThe Krebs CycleThe Electron Transport Chain
Foods used for ATP production
Where Does Cellular Respiration Take Place?It actually takes place in two parts of the cell:Glycolysis occurs in the CytoplasmKrebs Cycle & ETC Take place in the Mitochondria
Review of Mitochondria StructureSmooth outer MembraneFolded inner membraneFolds called CristaeSpace inside cristae called the Matrix
Diagram of the ProcessOccurs in CytoplasmOccurs in MatrixOccurs across Cristae
Glycolysis SummaryTakes place in the CytoplasmAnaerobic (Doesnt Use Oxygen)Requires input of 2 ATPGlucose split into two molecules of Pyruvate or Pyruvic Acid
Also produces 2 NADH and 4 ATPPyruvate is oxidized to Acetyl CoA and CO2 is removed
Fermentation Occurs when O2 NOT present (anaerobic)Called Lactic Acid fermentation in muscle cells (makes muscles sore)Called Alcoholic fermentation in yeast (produces ethanol)Nets 1 NADH per pyruvate
Fermentation continuedIf oxygen is not present, some cells can convert pyruvic acid into other compounds through additional biochemical pathways that occur in the cytosol.
The combination of glycolysis and these additional pathways is fermentation.
Fermentation does not produce ATP, but it does regenerate NAD+, which allows for the continued production of ATP through ETC (electron transport chain).
A Little Krebs Cycle HistoryDiscovered by Hans Krebs in 1937He received the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1953 for his discovery
Forced to leave Germany prior to WWII because he was Jewish
Also called Citric Acid cycle
Krebs Cycle SummaryRequires Oxygen (Aerobic)Cyclical series of oxidation reactions that give off CO2 and produce one ATP per cycleTurns twice per glucose moleculeProduces two ATP Takes place in matrix of mitochondria
Krebs Cycle SummaryEach turn of the Krebs Cycle also produces 3NADH, 1FADH2, 2CO2 and 1 ATP.Therefore, For each Glucose molecule, the Krebs Cycle produces 6NADH, 2FADH2, 4CO2, and 2ATP
Krebs CycleATPNETS: 3NADH, 1ATP, 1FADH2, & 2CO2
Electron Transport Chain Summary34 ATP ProducedH2O ProducedOccurs Across Inner Mitochondrial membraneUses coenzymes NAD+ and FAD+ to accept e- from glucoseNADH = 3 ATPsFADH2 = 2 ATPs
Electron Transport Chain Animation
. Electron Transport System:consists of a series of enzymes on the inner mitochondrial membrane
electrons are released from NADH and from FADH2 and as they are passed along the series of enzymes, they give up energy which is used to fuel a process called chemiosmosis by which H+ ions are actively transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane into the outer mitochondrial compartment. The H+ ions then flow back by the creation of a higher concentration gradient, a process that drives the process of ATP synthesis.
net yield of 34 ATP per glucose molecule6 H2O are formed when the electrons unite with O2* at the end of electron transport chain. [* Note: This is the function of oxygen in living organisms!]
Opposite of photosynthesis**Step 3- Isocitrate (6C)Step 4- Alph-ketoglutarate (5C)Step 5- Succinate (4C)Step 6- Fumarate (4C)Step 7- malate (4C)Step 8- oxaloacetate (4C)*http://www.science.smith.edu/departments/Biology/Bio231/etc.html*http://www.science.smith.edu/departments/Biology/Bio231/etc.html*