AdenineRibose3 Phosphate groupsATPAdenosineATP StructureATP = Adenosine TriPhosphateHigh Energy Bonds
ADPATPEnergyEnergyAdenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)PartiallychargedbatteryFullychargedbatterySection 8-1Figure 8-3 Comparison of ADP and ATP to a BatteryATP-ADP Cycle
Energy Flow ChartPLANTS BY PHOTOSYNTHESISIn the bonds of GLUCOSEALL ORGANISMSBY CELL RESPIRATIONIn the bonds of ATPactive transportMuscle contractionProtein synthesisDNA synthesisCell divisionALL OF LIFEs PROCESSES!!!
WaterO2SugarsCO2Light-Dependent ReactionsCalvinCycleNADPHATPADP + PNADP+ChloroplastPhotosynthesis: An OverviewLight
Absorption of Light byChlorophyll a and Chlorophyll bVBGYORChlorophyll bChlorophyll aSection 8-2Figure 8-5 Chlorophyll Light Absorption
Photosynthesis occurs in 2 stepsStep 1 -The Light Dependent Reactions (requires sunlight; has to happen in daytime)Step 2 - The Calvin Cycle or the Light INDEPENDENT Reactions (does not require sunlight; can happen any time of day)
Step 1 Light Dependent RxnsWhat happens: light energy is absorbed, water molecules are brokenWhere: in the thylakoid of the chloroplastChemically speaking: 2H2O ---> 2H2 [which goes to next step]and O2 [given off as waste]
Step 2 - the Calvin Cycle (the light INdependent reactions)What happens: glucose is produced Where: in the stroma of the chloroplastChemically speaking:CO2 and H2 combine to form sugar C6H12O6
Photosynthesisincludesoftake place intakes place inusesto produceto produceuseThylakoidmembranesStromaNADPHATPEnergy fromsunlightChloroplastsHigh-energysugarPhotosynthesis Concept MapNOTICE THISWrite the complete chemical reaction here reactants and products6H2O + 6CO2 6O2 + C6H12O6
Photosynthesis (visualized)Sugars + O2CO2 + H2Othylakoid membranestromachloroplast
Cellular RespirationProcess by which potential/chemical energy in glucose is TRANSFERRED...The large amount of energy in glucose is repackaged in the bonds of ATP to ATP!
Cellular Respiration: An OverviewGlucoseGlycolysisCytoplasmPyruvic acidElectrons carried in NADHKrebs CycleElectrons carried in NADH and FADH2Electron Transport ChainMitochondrionGo to Section:
The 4 steps of aerobic respiration:(inluces glycolysis + cell respiration)Step 1: GlycolysisStep 2: Pyruvic Acid BreakdownStep 3: Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs)Step 4: Electron Transport Chain
Step 1: GlycolysisWhat: a glucose molecule is broken into two pyruvate molecules; 2 ATP s are used, 4 are producedWhere: in the cytoplasm [outside the mitochondrion]Chemically speaking:
Step 2: Pyruvic Acid BreakdownWhere: through the membranes of the mitochondrionWhat: the three-carbon molecules are broken into two-carbon moleculesChemically speaking:CC
Step 3: Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs)Where: in the matrix of the mitochondrion (the liquid)What: the two-carbon molecules are broken into one-carbon moleculesChemically speaking:
Step 4:Electron Transport Chain (ETC)What: energy from Step 3 is used to pass electrons down a cascade; the final electron acceptor is OXYGENWhere: in the inner-membrane folds of the mitochondrion (cristae)Chemically speaking:
Figure 97Electron Transport ChainElectron TransportHydrogen Ion MovementATP ProductionATP synthaseChannelInner MembraneMatrixIntermembrane SpaceMitochondrion
Cell Respirationincludesoftake place intakes place inusesto produceto produceusesSection 8-3Concept MapCell Respiration Concept MapCytoplasmMitochondrionMembranes (cristae)glucoseglycolysisKrebs, Electron Transport Chain2 ATP36 ATP! (total)Carbon dioxide, waterpyruvic acid, electronsoxygenNOTICE THISWrite the complete chemical reaction here reactants and products6O2 + C6H12O6 6H2O + 6CO2
Chemical Pathways for Cell RespirationGlucoseGlycolysis Krebs cycle Electron transportFermentationAlcoholic or lactic acidGo to Section:Without oxygenWith oxygenWhich pathway makes more ATPwith oxygen or without?Why would a cell have the other option, then?
Notice the contrast...Photosynthesisloc:needs:
makes:chloroplastsmitochondriaenergy (light), CO2 and waterenergy (ATP), CO2 and wateroxygen and glucoseoxygen and glucose