Academic Integrity, Plagiarism, & Citation Style

  • Published on
    01-Jan-2017

  • View
    215

  • Download
    1

Transcript

  • Academic Citation Style

    Academic Integrity, Plagiarism, and Citation Style

    This class addresses, Student understands the ethical use of information in an academic environment, by helping students to understand what constitutes academic integrity and plagiarism.

  • Learning ObjectivesYou will be able to:

    Determine what information needs to be citedDemonstrate ability of cite a source in one of the citations formats

    Objectives:

    Explain what is meant by academic integrityDescribe potential consequences for plagiarizing at CSU, ChicoDetermine what information needs to be citedDemonstrate ability to cite a source in one of the citation formats

    This class addresses, Student understands the ethical use of information in an academic environment, by helping students to understand what constitutes academic integrity and plagiarism.

  • Using APA Format to Document Sources

    Show style manual. Ask how many student have ever seen the full style manual, as opposed to a Hacker manual.

    This rest of this presentation was created in part using information from a PowerPoint from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL)http://owl.english.purdue.edu/workshops/pp/APA.PPT

    There is also a PowerPoint available for MLA Style: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/workshops/pp/MLA.ppt

  • Why Cite Information?Three Important Reasons

    So the reader can locate and read the exact same sources

    To give credit to the original author

    To give you credibility as a writer and protect you from being accused of plagiarism

    Doesnt matter if its a school paper, or a book or journal articles. Students should cite properly and so should professional writers and academicians.

    Give credit where credit is due. It is unethical to claim ownership for something that is not yoursincluding words.Protecting yourself from being accused of plagiarism is criticaland as students, you cant be expected to know everything. Citing credible sources gives your work more credibility.

    APA documentation style is commonly utilized for research in science-related fields, as opposed to MLA style, which is used for research in the liberal arts. APA format provides writers with a format for cross-referencing their sources--from their parenthetical references to their reference page. This cross-referencing system allows readers to locate the publication information of source material. This is of great value for researchers who may want to locate your sources for their own research projects. The proper use of APA style also shows the credibility of writers; such writers show accountability to their source material. Most importantly, use of APA style can protect writers from plagiarism--the purposeful or accidental use of source material by other writers without giving appropriate credit. The next slide provides additional information on plagiarism.

  • Where Do I Find APA Format?Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th ed.

    Library Call Number: REF BF76.7 P83 2001

    Websites

    http://www.apastyle.org/faqs.html

    http://www.csuchico.edu/lref/newciting.html

    AS Bookstore

    There are many rules for following APA format and it is nearly impossible to memorize them all. Students best course of action is to utilize the official APA handbook as a guide for properly using the documentation format. Since the American Psychological Association, a professional group of behavioral and social science professors and instructors, periodically updates the guide, students should be certain that they are using the most current information possible.

    There are other resources for finding current information on APA documentation style. The APA web site offers some limited information about recent format changes, especially regarding the documentation of World Wide Web and electronic sources.

  • APA Style: Two Parts

    Parenthetical Citations

    in the body of the paper

    Reference Page

    at the end of the paper

  • When Should You Use Parenthetical Citations?When quoting any words that are not your ownQuoting means to repeat another source word for word, using quotation marks

    Key Concepts: The next two slides explain the occasions in which APA citations will be necessary, as well as explains the differences between quoting, summarizing, and paraphrasing. Students will be most familiar with the need to site for quotations, but the facilitator should stress that if the idea comes from someone else, the source material should be cited.

  • When Should You Not Use Parenthetical Citations?When summarizing facts and ideas from a sourceSummarizing means to take ideas from a large passage of another source and condense them, using your own wordsWhen paraphrasing a sourceParaphrasing means to use the ideas from another source but change the phrasing into your own words

    Key Concepts: This slide explains explains the differences between summarizing and paraphrasing. The facilitator may stress that if the idea comes from someone else, the source material should be cited.

  • When Do You Cite?Dont fall into the trap of plagiarism!

    If the idea or information you are using did not originate in your own mind . . .CITE IT!

    Rationale: This slide provides a visual warning about the dangers of plagiarism, as well as stresses the need to cite information from other sources.

  • Paraphrasing activity

    Conduct hands on activity in which student use worksheet handed out to try to identify properly cited or paraphrased passages. Our worksheet was modeled after the following:

    Interactive Learning: An Exercise to Teach Bioscience Students about Plagiarism by Chris J R Willmott and Tim m Harrison. Journal of Biological Education (2003) 37 (3) pp. 139-140.

  • Example #1During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionized medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced.

    Original: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionized medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced.

    YES. Exact quote. No recognition given. Cant get any more plagiarized than this.

  • Example #2During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionized medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced. (Rang et al, 1999)

    Original: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionized medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced.

    Yes. Plagiarism. Marginally better than the one before because it does acknowledge a source for the idea or information but what is left out?Need quotes to indicate that you have taken the exact text.

  • Example #3During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionized medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced. (Rang et al, 1999)

    Original: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionized medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced.

    No, not plagiarized. The author clearly acknowledges that both the ideas and the word order have come from the book.

    Stringing together a series of quoted chunks of text is a poor way to write an essay but at least it is done correctly.A word for word copy of something someone else has said or written needs to be indicated by putting quotation marks at the beginning and the end of the quote or by setting it apart from the main text in an indented block. The source of the quote must also be cited.

  • Example #4In the 4th edition of their textbook Pharmacology (1999), Rang, Dale and Ritter state that: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionized medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced. Such a bold assertion understates the ongoing threat posed by microbial infection. It is estimated, for example, that worldwide there were over 8 million cases of tuberculosis in 1998 (WHO, 2000).

    Original: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionized medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced.

    Not Plagiarized. Quotation is indicated and used in an appropriate way. In is being critiqued by the author and contrasted with a view supported by a second reference.

  • Example #5

    The development of safe and effective drugs to deal with bacterial infection has dramatically reduced the death rate arising from microbial diseases.

    Original: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionized medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced.

    Yes. Plagiarized. Example of paraphrasing.Here is where things get tricky and this is how most plagiarism occurs. Cosmetic alterations to the original statement. The wording and sentence construction bears a very close relationship with the source. Restating in your own words something somebody else has said or written. A paraphrase must be cited. Putting something in your own words does not make it yours.

  • Example #6During the post-war years, the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infection has transformed medical treatment, and death and illness resulting from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced.

    Original: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionized medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced.

    Yes. Plagiarized. Thesaurus-ed or word swapping version of the same text. A few words have been replaced with synonyms but this is not sufficient to be considered new work.A summary is like a paraphrase but it does not follow the original as closely and is a shorter version of the original. You must cite the source for a summary.

  • Example #7The availability of antimicrobial compounds has transformed healthcare in the period since the second world war. People are far less likely to die or even be seriously ill than they had been prior to the introduction of these drugs.

    Original: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionized medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced.

    Not plagiarized. A serious attempt has been made to produce a novel account of the subject and put it into their own worlds. It is not perfect. There are echoes of the thought processes with the work.

  • ParaphrasingTo paraphrase is to put ideas expressed by someone else into your own words.

    Should not simply replace words with synonymsShould not follow the same sentence structure of the originalMust be cited or accompanied by an in text reference to the original source even if the source is in your bibliography

    Paraphrasing is a necessary and legitimate component of most research papers and is better in many ways than quoting because you are thinking about and working with the ideas in an attempt to express them in a clearer fashion.

    Even though it is your own words it is not your own idea.

  • Keys to Parenthetical CitationsReadability!

    Keep references briefGive only information needed to identify the source on your reference page--cross-referencing!Do not repeat unnecessary information

    Key Concepts: This slide emphasizes the need to keep parenthetical citations within a paper brief. The information provided in the body of the paper should be just enough so that a reader could easily cross-reference the citation with its matching entry on the reference page. The following slides give examples of how to use parenthetical references.

  • Handling Quotes in Your TextAuthors last name, publication year, and page number(s) of quote must appear in the text

    Caruth (1996) states that a traumatic response frequently entails a delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena (p.11).

    A traumatic response frequently entails a delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena (Caruth, 1996, p.11).

    Examples: The two examples in this slide illustrate methods for including parenthetical citations in the text. If the authors name is listed in the preceding sentence, only the publication year and page number of the quotation should appear in the parenthetical citation following the sentence. If the authors name does not appear within the sentence, the parenthetical citation should include the authors last name, the publication year, and the page number. In either case, a reader should be able to cross-reference back to the reference page and locate all of the publication information needed to find Cathy Caruths book:

    Caruth, Cathy (1996). Unclaimed experience: trauma, narrative, and history. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP.

    Key Concepts: When referring generally to an article or book (rather than to a specific passage) the author should include the last name of the author and the publication year in the parenthetical reference. The facilitator may also note that the parenthetical reference is located before the period.

  • Handling Parenthetical Citations Sometimes more information is necessaryExample: more than one author with the same last name

    (H. James, 1878); (W. James, 1880)Example: Two or more works in the same parentheses

    (Fussell, 1975; Caruth, 1996; Showalter, 1997)Example: Work with six or more authors

    (Smith et al, 1998)Example: Specific part of a source

    (Jones, 1995, chap. 2)

    Examples: This slide demonstrates variations on the parenthetical reference. The first example distinguishes a book by Henry James from a work by William James by including the first initial. The second example distinguishes multiple works within a single citation by dividing them with semi-colons. If a work has six or more authors, as in the third example, the citation should include the words et al, meaning and others. Finally, if the writer wants to cite a particular section of a work, chap. can be added to indicate chapter, and p. or pp. can be used to indicate page number.

  • Handling Parenthetical Citations A reference to a personal communication:

    Source: email message from C. Everett KoopCitation: (C. E. Koop, personal communication, May 16, 1998)

    A general reference to a web site

    Source: Purdue University web siteCitation:(http://www.purdue.edu)

    Examples: The first exam...