A Case Study on Fly Ash Based Geo-Polymer Case Study on Fly Ash Based Geo-Polymer Concrete ... strong and solid development material. ... Chemical Industries is released into the ground which

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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 34 Number 2- April 2016 ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 58 A Case Study on Fly Ash Based Geo-Polymer Concrete K. Sandeep Dutt 1, K. Vinay Kumar 1, I. Siva Kishore 2, Ch. Mallika Chowdary2 1 Final year B.Tech Student, Department of Civil engineering, K L University, Vaddeswaram, Guntur. 2 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil engineering, K L University, Vaddeswaram, Guntur. Abstract: - Cement is the world's most adaptable, strong and solid development material. By water, cement is the most utilized material, which required expansive amounts of Portland cement. Conventional Portland cement generation is the second just to the vehicles as the significant generator of carbon di oxide, which dirtied the air. Notwithstanding that huge sum vitality was likewise devoured for the bond creation. Subsequently, it is unavoidable to locate an option material to the current most costly, most asset expending Portland cement. Geopolymer cement is a creative development material which might be delivered by the compound activity of inorganic particles. Fly Ash, a by-result of coal got from the warm power plant is bounty accessible around the world. Fly ash is rich in silica and alumina responded with soluble arrangement delivered aluminosilicate gel that gone about as the coupling material for the solid. It is a brilliant option development material to the current plain bond concrete. Geopolymer cement should be delivered without utilizing any measure of conventional Portland bond. This paper quickly surveys the constituents of geopolymer solid, its quality and potential applications. Keywords: - Fly fiery, Alkali Activators, GPC, Curing, strength. 1. INTRODUCTION Utilization of cement and environmental impact use of concrete as a noteworthy development material is an overall marvel and the solid industry is the biggest client of common assets on the planet (1). This utilization of cement is driving the monstrous worldwide creation of bond, assessed at more Than 2.8 billion tons as per late industry information (2). Connected with this is the inescapable carbon dioxide outflows assessed tobe in charge of 5 to 7% of the aggregate worldwide creation of carbon dioxide (3). Critical increments in bond creation have been watched and were foreseen to increment because of the huge increment in foundation and industrialization in India, China and South America. MATERIALS USED a) Fine aggregate: Sand is a normally happening granular material made out of finely isolated rock and mineral particles. It is characterized by size, being better than rock and coarser than residue. Sand can likewise allude to a textural class of soil or soil sort; i.e. a dirt containing more than 85% sand-sized particles. Set up of sand we can likewise utilize base fiery remains which can be a substitution of sand up to a level of 20% substitution of sand gives a decent compressive quality. b)Corse aggregate:- Fundamentally course total assumes an essential part in blend configuration of solid .Size of the course total is 40mm, 20mm, 16mm, 12.5mm, and 10mm. In this blend outline methods size obviously total takes 20mm and 10mm. Coarse totals utilized as a part of instance of bond cement can be utilized as a part of instance of Geo-polymer concrete (GPC) additionally where the coarse total ought to adjust to IS-383-1970. C) Alkaline activator:- Basic initiation is a compound procedure in which a fine aluminosilicate, for example, a fly powder is blended with a soluble activator to deliver a glue fit for setting and solidifying inside of a sensibly brief timeframe . The utilization of this activator is which ties the total. In this blend configuration of Fly fiery debris based Geopolymer http://www.ijettjournal.org/International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 34 Number 2- April 2016 ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 59 Concrete, sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide (Na2SiO3+NaOH) is utilized as alkaline activator. 2. GEOPOLYMER Geopolymer is a term used to characterize a classification of manufactured alumino-silicate materials with potential use, basically as substitution of standard Portland concrete in concrete, for cutting edge hello tech composites, earthenware application or as a type of cast stone. Geopolymer as a name was initially connected to these materials by Joseph Davidovits in the year 1970s, albeit comparable materials have been created in the previous Soviet Union since the year 1950s, yet was called soil cements. This name however was utilized to portray soils which are solidified with a little measure of Portland concrete to improve its quality and dependability. 3. GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE DEVELOPMENT Geopolymer cement is concrete which does not use any Portland bond in its generation. Maybe, the fastener is delivered by the response of a basic fluid with a source material that is rich in silica and alumina. Geopolymers were produced as a consequence of exploration into warmth safe materials after a progression of disastrous flames. The exploration yielded non-combustible and non-ignitable geo polymer saps and folios. The utilization of fly ash remains has extra environment favourable circumstances. The yearly creation of fly ash remains in Australia in 2007 was around 14.5 million tons of which just million tons were used in helpful courses; essentially for the incomplete substitution of Portland bond (8). Improvement of geopolymer innovation and applications would see a further increment in the helpful utilization of fly fiery debris, like what has been seen in the most recent 14 years with the utilization of fly fiery remains in concrete and other building materials. It has been found that geopolymer cement has great designing properties. 4. NECESSITY OF GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE Development is one of the quickly developing fields around the world. According to the present world measurements, each year around 260,00,00,000 Tons of Cement is required. This amount will be expanded by 25% inside a compass of an additional 10 years. Since the Lime stone is the fundamental source material for the common Portland bond an intense lack of limestone may come following 25 to 50 years. More over while delivering one ton of bond, around one ton of carbon di oxide will be transmitted to the climate, which is a real risk for nature. Notwithstanding the above immense amount of vitality is additionally required for the creation of concrete. Henceforth it is most key to locate an option fastener. The waste water from the Chemical Industries is released into the ground which pollutes ground water. By creating Geopolymer Concrete all the aforementioned issues should be unravelled by reworking them. 5. CONSTITUENTS OF GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE The Following are the constituents of the geopolymer concrete: - Source material and Alkali liquid a) Source material These source materials could be regular minerals, for example, kaolinite, dirts, and so forth. By-items materials, for example, fly fiery remains, silica smoke, slag, rice-husk fiery debris; red mud thus on could likewise be utilized for the source material relying upon its accessibility, expense, kind of utilization and interest by the end client. As per (Hardjito and Rangan 2005), any material that contains for the most part silicon (Si) and aluminum (Al) in nebulous structure is a conceivable source material for the generation of geopolymer. Different materials that can be utilized as source material incorporate Metakaolinite or calcined kaolin (Davidovits, 19999; Barbosa, et al., 2000; Teixeira-Pinto, et al., 2002), low calcium fly fiery debris (Palomo, et al., 1999a; Swanepoel and Strydom, 2002), regular Al-Si materials (Xu and Deventer, 2000) , a blend of calcined minerals and noncalcined minerals (Xu and Deventer, 2002), a blend of fly fiery debris and metakaolinite (Swanepoel and Strydom, 2002; Jaarsveld, et al., 2002; Zuhua, et al., 2009) furthermore a blend of granulated impact heater slag and metakaolinite (Cheng and Chiu, 2003). Among these materials, metakaolinite is favored by the geopolymer item engineers because of its high disintegration rate, simplicity of control of Si/Al proportion and its white shading (Gourley, 2003). Davidovits, (1999) calcined kaolinite dirt for six hours at 750oC and termed it as KANDOXI what's more, utilized it to make geopolymer. He included that the molar proportion of Si-Al of the material ought to be around 2.0. The high measure of calcium in ASTM class C fly fiery debris meddles with the polymerization process and modifies the microstructure (Gourley, 2003). This make ASTM Class F fly fiery debris which is otherwise called low calcium fly fiery remains much ideal than the High http://www.ijettjournal.org/International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 34 Number 2- April 2016 ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 60 calcium (ASTM Class C) fly cinder. The significant test is that the quantitative forecast of the suitability of a particular mineral as a source is still yet to be discovered in light of the perplexing way of the response included (Xu and Deventer, 2000). Be that as it may, normal Al-Si minerals have demonstrated the possibilities to be the source materials for geo-polymerization. Fly slag is considered to be more worthwhile because of its high reactivity that comes in appreciation of its better molecule size than slag. As indicated by (Fernandes-Jimenez and Palomo, 2003) , low calcium fly fiery remains should have LOI under 5%, Fe203 substance ought not surpass 10% and 80-90% of the particles ought to be littler than 45micro meter to deliver ideal tying properties. b) Alkali Activator Liquid: Soluble Activator Liquid The geo-polymerization is made conceivable by the utilization of soluble fluids. Be that as it may, the most normally utilized soluble fluids are either the mix of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or Potassium hydroxide (KOH) and Sodium Silicate or potassium silicate (Davidovits, 1999; (Palomo, et al., 1999b; Barbosa, et al., 2000; Other specialists (Xu and Deventer, 2002) additionally affirmed that the expansion of sodium silicate answer for the sodium hydroxide as the antacid fluid improved the response between the source material and the arrangement. Moreover, it was seen after the investigation of geo-polymerization of sixteen normal Al-Si minerals that for the most part the sodium hydroxide created a higher degree of disintegration of minerals than potassium hydroxide. 6. PROPERTIES OF GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE Geopolymer are inorganic fasteners, which are distinguished by the taking after fundamental properties, Compressive strength relies on upon curing time and curing temperature. As the curing time and temperature builds, the compressive quality increments. Imperviousness to consumption, since no limestone is utilized as a material, Geopolymer bond has astounding properties inside both corrosive and salt situations. It is particularly suitable for extreme ecological conditions. Geopolymer examples are having better sturdiness and warm steadiness attributes. Geopolymer cement lessened CO2 discharges of geopolymer concretes make them a decent distinct option for normal Portland bond. The mechanical conduct of Geo-polymer concrete is higher than ostensible solid blend. Toughness property of Geo-polymer cement is higher than the ostensible solid blend. Geo-polymer Concrete is Eco-Friendly. Water retention property is lesser than the ostensible cement. Sets at room temperature non-lethal, drain free long working life before hardening impermeable higher imperviousness to warmth and oppose every inorganic dissolvable higher compressive quality Compressive quality of Geopolymer cement is high contrasted with the standard Portland concrete. Geopolymer concrete additionally indicated high early quality. The compressive quality of Geopolymer cement is around 1.5 times more than that of the compressive quality with the conventional Portland bond concrete, for the same blend. Also the Geopolymer Concrete demonstrated great workability as of the normal Portland cement. 7. APPLICATIONS In the short term, there is vast potential for geopolymer solid applications for scaffolds, for example, precast auxiliary components and decks and also basic retrofits utilizing geopolymer-fiber composites. Geopolymer innovation is most progressive in precast applications because of the relative simplicity in taking care of touchy materials (e.g., high-soluble base initiating arrangements) and the requirement for a controlled high-temperature curing environment required for some current geopolymer. Other potential nearterm applications are precast pavers and pieces for clearing, blocks and precast funnels. 8. LIMITATIONS The followings are the restrictions Bringing the base material fly fiery debris to the required area. High cost for the soluble arrangement. Safety danger connected with the high alkalinity of the enacting arrangement. Practical challenges in applying Steam curing/high temperature curing procedure Impressive examination is continuous to create geopolymer frameworks that address. 9. LITERATURES ON GEOPOLYMER J.Liyana, A.M.Mustafa al bakri, H.Kamarudin, C.M.Ruzaidi and A.R.Azura investigated about the effect of ratio of fly ash to activator (1.0-3.0) and the ratio of Na2SiO3/NaOH (1.0-3.0) on geopolymer coating strength. Both ratios plays a major role of determining the Flexural strength of geopolymer coating material. Geopolymer coating material was prepared by mixing alkaline activator and fly ash powder. The ratio of fly ash to activator were http://www.ijettjournal.org/International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 34 Number 2- April 2016 ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 61 synthesized by 4 different ratios are 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 with the ratio of Na2SiO3/Noah which is 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5. Concentration of NaOH is kept constant at 10M. Sodium silicate was added to enhance the process of geopolymerization which can be obtain by the Geopolymer concrete paste. Resultant mixtures are carried out by flexural strength test and were placed at room temperature for 24H before sintering in the furnace at 1200c for 3H with heating and cooling rates at 5c to evaluate the thermal properties.From the experimental investigations after testing which results highest strength of Geopolymer concrete is 42MPa is to be obtained when the ratios of fly ash to activator at 2.0 & Na2SiO3/NaOH at 2.5. They finally concluded that those ratios of alkaline activator/fly ash have a great influence on the flexural strength of geopolymer coating material. Wan Ibrahim, Mohd.Mustafa al bakri, Andrei victor sandu, Kamarudin Husain, Gabreil sandu, Khairul nizar ismail, Aeslina Abdul kadir, Mohd Binhussain described briefly about Characterization and processing of fly ash based geopolymer bricks. Ratios of alkaline activator/fly ash and Na2SiO3/Noah were kept at 2.0 and 2.5 from previous studies. Resultant samples are carried out by Compressive strength -for 1 ,3 , 7 ,28 , 60 days at 70c for 24H, Water absorption test-for 1, 3 , 7 , 28 , 60days at room temperature for 24H, Density test - for 1 ,3 , 7 ,28, 60 days at oven curing for 24H. J.Temuujin, A.Minjigmaa, U.Bayarzul, Ts.Zolzaya,B.Davaabal, J.Amgalan discussed about the fundamentals of geopolymer chemistry and differences from conventional alkali activated materials chemistry. For every one tonne of cement emits 0.8-1 tonnes of co2 into the atmosphere globally. Alternatively fly ash is used to form geopolymer paste. Resultant samples were carried out by compressive strength test. He finally concluded that pond ash increases its strength by 7times for 7 days reaching higher strength. M.Talha Junaid, Obada Kayali, Amar Khennane, Jarvis Blackinvestigated on low calcium alkali activated fly ash.The authors presented that proposed mix design is developed for low calcium class-f fly ash is activated using sodium silicates and sodium hydroxide solutions M.A.Bhosle, N.N.Shinde carried out studies on Geopolymer concrete by using fly ash in construction. They described about the alkali activation of waste materials and the chemical process that allows the use of transforming the glassy structures into cementious materials. The Development of low calcium fly ash based geopolymer concrete have been presented by Kolli ramujee, potharaju, IACSIT (6) .They discussed about the developing the mix design for medium grade and comparison has been done for both heat curing and ambient curing temperatures. S.Jayadeep, B.J.Chakravarathy (7) presented a detailed explanation on study on Fly ash based Geopolymer concrete using admixtures. The authors explains about the combination of NaOH and Na2SiO3 together to form a gel that binds the aggregate .The resultant gel is mixed with fly ash to form a geopolymer concrete.D.V.Reddy, M.ASCE, Edouard, Khaled Sobhan, Ph.d.AMSCE investigated on Durability of fly ash based geopolymer structural concrete in Marine environment. Concentration of NaOH is kept at 8M, 14M were centrally reinforced with 13mm bars were tested with artificial sea water and induced current. S.Zullu, D.Allopi(9) documented on Influence of high content fly ash on concrete durability. For preparing Geopolymer concrete the common solution alkaline activator is used which binds the aggregate resultant samples were tested for Compressive strength test, water absorption test, chloride conductivity test. Alkali activated fly ash based geopolymer concretehas been invested by A.Motorwala, Vineet shah, K.Ravishankara,N.Praveena,Prof.D.B.Raijiwala They involves the structural behaviour of GPC and mix proportions of GPC. Alkaline liquid (sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate) is used. D.B.Raijiwala, H.S.Patil presented on Geopolymer concrete: A concrete of next decade. They explained about the geopolymer concrete using fly ash by replacing cement. Alkaline solution is used to bind the aggregate and added to fly ash to form the GPC. Andi Arham Adam, Horianto(investigated the effect of temperature and duration of curing on the strength of fly ash based geopolymer concrete in 2014. They mainly discussed about the mix design for every mix design of GPC there is an effect of temperature and duration of curing which results the higher strength. Lohani T.K, S.Jena, K.P.Dash, M.Padhy(investigated an experimental approach on geopolymeric recycled concrete using partial replacement of industrial by product. They described about the GPC and advance technology by replacement of cement which can reduce the greenhouse gases alternatively fly ash is used. 10. CONCLUSION From the above literature review the workability and compressive quality of low calcium fly cinder geopolymer cement is a component of the extent and the properties of the constituent materials. It was too watched that the curing state of a low calcium fly powder geopolymer concrete additionally impacts the compressive quality. Be that as it may, research ought to be done with a specific end goal to http://www.ijettjournal.org/International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 34 Number 2- April 2016 ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 62 institutionalize these blend configuration to give satisfactory blend plan strategy to every material to decide the trademark quality of every blend extent. In spite of the fact that a few scientists suggested distinctive curing temperature, this was because of the differing blend extent utilized by these scientists. At long last, research ought to additionally be done on to affirm the auxiliary sufficiencys of the trademark quality Utilizing auxiliary individuals, for example, shafts, pieces and section. Fly fiery remains based geopolymer is superior to anything ordinary concrete in numerous angles, for example, compressive strength, exposure to forceful environment, and workability and presentation to high temperature. 11. REFERENCES (1)J.Liyana, A.M.Mustafa al bakri, H.Kamarudin, C.M.Ruzaidi and A.R.Azura. (2014). Effect of ratio of fly ash to activator and the ratio of Na2SiO3/NaOH on Flyash Geopolymer coatingstrength: Key Engineering materials vols=594-595, pp=146-150 (2) Wan Ibrahim, Mohd.Mustafa al bakri, Andrei victor sandu, Kamarudin Husain, Gabrei sandu, Khairul nizar ismail, Aeslina Abdul kadir, Mohd Binhussain. (2014). Processing and Characterization of Fly ash based Geopolymer concrete: Bucharest-65, no.11, pp=1340-1345 (3) J.Temuujin, A.Minjigmaa, U.Bayarzul, Ts.Zolzaya, B.Davaabal, J.Amgalan. (2015). Fundamentals of Geopolymers and related Alkali activated materials: Materials science forum vol=803 pp=144-147 (4) M.Talha Junaid, Obada Kayali, Amar Khennane, Jarvis Black. (2015). A mix design procedure for low calcium alkali activated fly ash based concretes: Journal in Construction and building materials 79, pp=301-310 (5) M.A.Bhosle, N.N.Shinde. (2012). Geopolymer concrete by using Fly ash in construction: IOSR journal of mechanical and civil engineering, volume=1, issue=3, pp=25-30 (6) Kolli ramujee, potharaju, IACSIT. (2014). Development oflow calcium fly ash based Geopolymer concrete: International journal of engineering & technology, vol=6, no.1 (7) S.Jayadeep, B.J.Chakravarathy. (2013). Study on flyash based Geopolymer concrete using Admixtures: International journal of engineering trends and technology, vol=4, issue=10 (8) D.V.Reddy, M.ASCE,Edouard, Khaled Sobhan, Ph.d.AMSCE . (2013). Durability of Flyash based Geopolymer structural concrete in the Marine environment: Journal of materials in civil engineering MT.1943-5533 (9) S.Zullu, D.Allopi. (2014). Influence of high content fly ash on concrete durability: IJEIT, vol=3, issue=7 (10) A.Motorwala, Vineet shah, K.Ravishankara, N.Praveena, rof.D.B.Raijiwala. (2013). Alkali activated fly ash based Geopolymer concrete. IJETAE, vol=3, issue=1 (11) D.B.Raijiwala, H.S.Patil. (2011). 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