8/27/20151 Teaching Literacy across the John Munro Teaching literacy across the curriculum: What does literacy knowledge look like ?

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  • **Teaching Literacy across the

    John MunroTeaching literacy across the curriculum:

    What does literacy knowledge look like ?

  • **What is literacy ?

    Literacy is the knowledge students use to convert written information to knowledge

  • **I know that now that the Nile helped the ancient Egyptian culture to grow

  • **How do you read? Read the text. Your goal is re-tell it. As you read, reflect on what you do.

    There are two types of being; the eternal and the transient. The eternal need to return is not exemplified within the collective drama of history, nor can it be nurture through organization. Produce as it will, the eternal is not oriented towards produce. The transient, by its very nature, will end; they want to die, not live eternally.The struggles and education of man in social history had meaning for Marx such that the goal of a body politic free from class conflict so that man might develop as man.

  • **Things you do

    You look for sentence meanings You look at word meanings You look for the topic meaning You look for discourse meaning text threadYou look for the topic meaning You look for sentence meanings You look for sentence meanings You look for sentence meanings You look for discourse meaning text threadComprehending strategies : readers use employ a range of actions to comprehend text and to learn from it. What is the difference between comprehending and comprehension ?

    Re-read parts of the text more than onceLink the text with what they knowWork out its topicSay parts of it in their own wordsUse what they know about grammar to take the sentences apartUse punctuationLink what two or more sentences saywork out what words mean in the context.Try to summarize or review every so often

  • **Learning text knowledge

    Literacy knowledgeUse literacy knowledgeMoreliteracy knowledgeHow can I make sure students link new text knowledge with what they know and remember it ?How can I make sure students stay focused and build new text knowledge ?How can I make sure students use all that they know when they begin to read a text ?

  • **Things you do

    Why do you need to do a range of actions like this ? What readers do as they read a text is to try to build a representation or a model of it in their heads ?

    Re-read parts of the text more than onceLink the text with what they knowWork out its topicSay parts of it in their own wordsUse what they know about grammar to take the sentences apartUse punctuationLink what two or more sentences saywork out what words mean in the context.Try to summarize or review every so oftenRe-read parts of the text more than onceTry to link the text with what they know

  • *Reader Manage and direct the reading activityWhat knowledge does the reader need to comprehend the text ? Integrate the outcomes What does it tell me ?What do the words and phrases in the text tell me ?

    What is it about ? What is its topic ?

    What does each paragraph tell me ? What is the story threat ?

    What is the text about altogether ? What do I know now that I didnt know earlier

    What does each sentence tell me ?

    What is the purpose or disposition of the text? What is its genre ?

  • **Importance of vocabulary for literacy and learning We are going to read about the rules of indoor soccer / living in ancient Egypt. What do you think of /see in your mind when you hear this?4 ideas40 ideas

  • Link between vocabulary and text comprehension**

  • **Extract 2: Read aloud these ba words.

    Comment on the knowledge and strategies you use to read these words:

    bardocucullusbacciferousbaragouinbatrachophobia

    barbigerousbatrachianbaftbaryphonic

  • **Developing the letter cluster generatorTeachers often need to help students

    become aware they have a letter cluster generator that allows then to learn new letter cluster patterns.

    link these with matching sound patterns.

    see themselves as self teachers.

  • **What do these ba words mean ? Read aloud the following text and work out what they might mean. What do you do to work out their possible meanings.The trees in the orchard were bacciferous. The berry pickers worked without pause. The basket of baft into which they deposited their conquests were placed abraded their bare arms. If only the farmer had invested in containers made of more expensive and softer fabric.

    Conversation with the other pickers was difficult. Their baragouin was largely incomprehensible. However, there was no mistaking the batrachophobia shown by the barbigerous giant nearest to them. The first sight of the tree frogs froze him to paralysis. Even his well endowed beard failed to mask the intense fear the batrachian creatures induced in him.

    The bardocucullus he wore was reminiscent of the outer garmet of sixteenth century monks. The hood exacerbated his baryecoia and he did not hear much of the speech of those around him. This did not mean, however, he was baryphonic; he had no difficulty speaking with the other pickers.

  • **The meaning making motor tells you tonote the meaning features that might go with the new wordtry to combine them into an imageguess at what the word might meancheck your understanding by reading the text againmodify your definition if necessarycheck your impression with what the dictionary says.

  • **Teaching students about their meaning making motorTeachers often need to help students

    become aware they have a meaning making motor

    develop and use their meaning making motor

    see they can teach themselves new meanings.

  • **Our self teaching capacity. The trees in the orchard were bacciferous. The berry pickers worked without pause. The basket of baft into which they deposited their conquests were placed abraded their bare arms. If only the farmer had invested in containers made of more expensive and softer fabric.

    Conversation with the other pickers was difficult. Their baragouin was largely incomprehensible. However, there was no mistaking the batrachophobia shown by the barbigerous giant nearest to them. The first sight of the tree frogs froze him to paralysis. Even his well endowed beard failed to mask the intense fear the batrachian creatures induced in him.

    The bardocucullus he wore was reminiscent of the outer garmet of sixteenth century monks. The hood exacerbated his baryecoia and he did not hear much of the speech of those around him. This did not mean, however, he was baryphonic; he had no difficulty speaking with the other pickers. What do your students know about this ? Do they know that they can do this ? how to do this ? when and why to do it ?

    Note our self teaching capacity. How often each week do theyWork out collaboratively the meanings of new words ? Talk about the actions they use to do this ? Learn to make increasingly more complex links between ideas in the text ?

  • **Our integrated knowledge of words.

    bacciferousUse existing letter cluster knowledge to analyse it and work out how to say it Assemble how to say it; its phonological name Link with its meaningSynonymsImages actions

    The word bank or lexiconhow words is said; its phonological properties What word means its semantic properties How word is spelt; its orthographic properties

    Link new word in the word bank or lexiconhow words is said; its phonological properties What word means its semantic properties How word is spelt; its orthographic properties

  • **Apply to practice

    What do teachers need to know about word comprehension while reading ? What do you think they know about it already ? How could this knowledge contribute to their effectiveness as a teacher of literacy ?What do your students know about comprehending familiar and unfamiliar words in a text ? What do you think they should know about how to deal with unfamiliar words ? How could you teach them various comprehending actions ?

  • **Actions for dealing with unfamiliar textThelloun ena spitty konda stee tharlassa. Ecky then preppy na peases krussy sto spitty sas.

    Importance of reading aloud

  • **Can you understand nonsense ?Ujn was too xpssjed about the dblf to fokpz his cbui. He esftted himself without even lopxing what he qvu on. Just as he gjojtied qvuing on the hsffo jdjoh, the cfmm on the tupwf sboh to tbz the ujnf was up. Hesbo to the pwfo and qffsed through the xjoepx.

    1.Who was xpssjed?2.What was Ujn xpssjed about?3.Did Ujn esftt himself?4.Where did he sbo to?5.Why did he esftt himself without even lopxing?

  • **Can you understand nonsense ?Ujn was too xpssjed about the dblf to fokpz his cbui. He esftted himself without even lopxing what he qvu on. Just as he gjojtied qvuing on the hsffo jdjoh, the cfmm on the tupwf sboh to tbz the ujnf was up. Hesbo to the pwfo and qffsed through the xjoepx.

    1.Who was xpssjed?2.What was Ujn xpssjed about?3.Did Ujn esftt himself?4.Where did he sbo to?5.Why did he esftt himself without even lopxing?

  • **What we do to comprehend sentences ?

    There are two types of being; the eternal and the transient. The eternal need to return is not exemplified within the collective drama of history, nor can it be nurture through organization. Produce as it will, the eternal is not oriented towards produce. The transient, by its very nature, will end; they want to die, not live eternally.The struggles and education of man in social history had meaning for Marx such that the goal of a body politic free from class conflict so that man might develop as man.

    Each sentence has a meaning. Sentence meanings differ in how complex they are to comprehend

    Which sentence is easiest / most difficult ?What makes some sentences difficult ? refer to more events more complex relationship more complex grammar

  • **What makes sentences easy /hard to understand ? Read the text. Your goal is re-tell it. As you read, reflect on what you do.

    There are two types of being; the eternal and the transient. The eternal need to return is not exemplified within the collective drama of history, nor can it be nurture through organization. Produce as it will, the eternal is not oriented towards produce. The transient, by its very nature, will end; they want to die, not live eternally.The struggles and education of man in social history had meaning for Marx such that the goal of a body politic free from class conflict so that man might develop as man.

    There are two types of being; the eternal and the transient. The eternal need to return is not exemplified within the collective drama of history, nor can it be nurture through organization.Which is easier to comprehend and why ? What makes some sentences more difficult than others ?They refer to more events.They refer to a more complex relationship. They have more complex grammatical structures

  • **Types of sentence meanings ?

    Videotapes (SCIENCE ALIVE 1 pages 126-7)

    Although magnetic videotape has the advantages of being cheap and easy to record and re-record on, it is easily damaged when stored near magnets. Magnets can change the pattern that has been stored on the tape.The films that you see at the cinema are different from videotapes. Chemicals create the picture on the cinema film. The film used in cinemas, like that used in normal cameras, cannot be re-recorded on and is more expensive to make. Cinema films last much longer and produce higher quality pictures..

    Types of sentence meanings in a factual textComplex sentence meaning, exclusive (although) + temporal (when) What is the type of sentence meaning ?Complex sentence meaning, possible relationship (can)Complex sentence, generalization Compound sentence, analogous (like) +Compound sentence, temporal

  • Sentence meanings?**Some students are investigating how pollution affects the environment. They have researched the effects of plastic bags. This is what they have written.Should we pay for plastic bags?People should pay for the plastic bags they use for their shopping. According to experts from Clean Up Australia, Australians use over six billion plastic bags a year and many of these are used for carrying shopping home from supermarkets. Making people pay for these plastic bags would encourage them to use reusable bags.Some plastic bags can last in the environment for up to 1000 years before they disintegrate (break down). Plastic bags are harmful to wildlife as they can kill animals, especially in the ocean.

    2 event complex sentence 1 event simple sentence 2 event complex sentence 3 event complex sentence experts from Clean Up Australia sayAustralians use over six billion plastic bags a year Many carry shopping home+

  • Sentence meanings?**Also, when plastic bags are made, dangerous gases are released that pollute the atmosphere. If we use fewer plastic bags there would be less air pollution, as well as less land and water pollution.We need to reduce the number of plastic bags in the environment. Making people pay will help to stop them using plastic bags and force them to use reusable bags for their shopping!+ 2 event complex sentence 3 event complex + compound sentence 2 event complex sentence Help stop people using plastic bags Make people payMany carry shopping home+Cause-effectconditionalconsequence

  • **Types of sentence meanings ?

    Videotapes (SCIENCE ALIVE 1 pages 126-7)

    The inside of a video recorder has two electromagnets, called heads. The recording head creates the magnetic pattern on the tape. The playback head reads the pattern and turns it into pictures and sound.The plastic ribbon inside a videotape is coated with substances that contain mini-magnets or domains.When the ribbon passes through a magnetic field, the domains are forced into a pattern. ..

    Types of sentence meanings in a factual textSimple sentence meaning, definingWhat is the type of sentence meaning ?Simple sentence meaning, cause-effect relationshipCompound sentence, generalization Complex sentence, descriptive + defining

    Complex sentence, temporal + cause-effect

  • **What actions do we need to use to comprehend a written sentence ?

    Videotapes (SCIENCE ALIVE 1 pages 126-7)

    Research has shown that children have a significant impact on what ends up in the shopping trolley. They also choose a lot of their own clothes, especially sports items, such as shoes, t-shirts and caps. When it comes to take-away food, it is often the children who decide. Many companies pitch their advertising directly to children. Some people think this is wrong.

    People in favour of advertising to children say that ads give them ideas for how to spend money. They say that children can be taught to be wise buyers and that advertising tells children about new products. These advocates also believe that companies act responsibly when they advertise to children and that the parents have the final say...

    We need to segment complex sentences, identify events and how they are linked 3-event complex sentence, 2 levels of embedding events 1-event complex sentence with 2 levels of adjectival elaborations Evidence tells us that children affect what parents buy As well they pick most of what they wear, especially their sports clothes.

  • **What actions do we need to use to comprehend a written sentence ?

    Videotapes (SCIENCE ALIVE 1 pages 126-7)

    Research has shown that children have a significant impact on what ends up in the shopping trolley. They also choose a lot of their own clothes, especially sports items, such as shoes, t-shirts and caps. When it comes to take-away food, it is often the children who decide. Many companies pitch their advertising directly to children. Some people think this is wrong.

    People in favour of advertising to children say that ads give them ideas for how to spend money. They say that children can be taught to be wise buyers and that advertising tells children about new products. These advocates also believe that companies act responsibly when they advertise to children and that the parents have the final say...

    We need to segment complex sentences, identify events and how they are linked 2-event complex sentence, 1 event embedded , said first 1-event sentence, 1 level of elaboration They usually select the take away food. A lot of manufacturers direct their publicity to children .

  • **What actions do we need to use to comprehend a written sentence ?

    Videotapes (SCIENCE ALIVE 1 pages 126-7)

    People in favour of advertising to children say that ads give them ideas for how to spend money. They say that children can be taught to be wise buyers and that advertising tells children about new products. These advocates also believe that companies act responsibly when they advertise to children and that the parents have the final say...

    We need to segment complex sentences, identify events and how they are linked 2-event complex sentence, 1 embedding, nouns with complex adjectival elaboration 3 event sentence, the 2 embedded clauses linked by and (compound) Those who think it is OK to advertise to children say that ads help them see how they can spend their money They say advertising teaches children to be clever shoppers and informs them about new goods.

  • Sentence meanings ?**

  • Sentence meanings?**

  • Sentence meanings?**

  • **Tapping into the grammar of sentences in written textRead the text. Your goal is re-tell it. As you read, reflect on what you do.

    There are two types of being; the eternal and the transient. The eternal need to return is not exemplified within the collective drama of history, nor can it be nurture through organization. Produce as it will, the eternal is not oriented towards produce. The transient, by its very nature, will end; they want to die, not live eternally.The struggles and education of man in social history had meaning for Marx such that the goal of a body politic free from class conflict so that man might develop as man.

    It is difficult to parse into grammatical functions ThThe struggles and education of man in social history had meaning for Marx such that the goal of a body politic free from class conflict so that man might develop as man.

    What makes this sentence difficult to comprehend grammatically ? It has complex personal and relative pronouns It has embedded clauses in embedded clauses

  • Multiple grammatical forms for a sentence meaning **Bill saw Fred throw a book and then sit down and then told his teachers what happened.

    2 simple active sentences"Bill threw a book. Bill sat down".a sentence constructed by adjoining the two active sentences"Bill threw a book and then sat down".a passive voice sentence"The book was thrown by Billa sentence with a main clause and a subordinate adverbial clauseBefore Bill sat down, he threw a book".a sentence containing a relative clause"The boy who sat down threw the book first".as a cleft sentence"It was Bill who threw the book and then sat down

  • Order in which students learn to use relative clauses**The girl who hit the boy went home "The girl spoke to the man whom she knew" "The girl whom the boy hit went home". "The girl spoke to the man who was here Teachers need to be aware of the variation in the demand of grammatical complexity and teach students how to deal with more complex grammatical forms as they read.

  • **How we think ahead when we read

    Tom was a tired weight lifter. He had worked hard on the weights for quite a while. It was tiring work. Finally, his coach pointed to a set in the corner: "That's the last for you today". As Tom walked towards it he thought "This barbell looks light", but as he moved closer, he was that it wasdark. "I'll need to paint this one too", he said.

  • Toms day in the gymweight lifter Work with weightsBench pressGoal to strengthen musclesShoulder pull downsDo exercises with weights Light weightHeavy weightExercises change how their body looksGym singletWear particular gear

  • **How well did you think ahead ?Tom was a tired weight lifter. He had worked hard on the weights for quite a while. It was tiring work. Finally, his coach pointed to a set in the corner: "That's the last for you today". As Tom walked towards it he thought "This barbell looks light", but as he moved closer, he was that it was dark. "I'll need to paint this one too", he said.

    The flow-on to linked ideas predict, infer, anticipate

  • Toms day in the gymweight lifter Work with weightsBench pressGoal to strengthen musclesShoulder pull downsDo exercises with weights Light weightHeavy weightExercises change how their body looksGym singletWear particular gearWeights need to be painted Weights can be dark colour

  • How does each sentence contribute to paragraph meanings**An extract from 'Rain' by Libby Gleeson from Kids'Night In.I'm up my tree now. There's warm rain falling but the broad, flat leaves keep me dry enough. I can't actually see the river but I know it's there. First, there's the road and then it drops down to the market gardens all flat and brown with splashes of shiny green lettuces and other vegetables that I don't recognize. Then there's a line of trees. They straggle around like a line of kids and I know the river is there. We saw it in the first week. Dad took us for a drive, down across the river flats and over the old White Bridge, and we looked down on the slow-moving brown water. All the rivers are like that out here.Says where it takes placeSays more about the context new idea - the river more detail about where the river is. more detail about riverEmerging discourse meaning

  • How does each sentence contribute to paragraph meanings**If there was another flood, when there's another flood, 1 can watch it from up here. 1'll watch it and then Ill have something to tell.

    At breakfast Dad told me to shush, he wanted to listen to the weather report. I told him he wasn't a farmer so why did he bother? He said everyone should bother and why didn't I listen?Over the crunching of my cereal, I heard them say it was also raining up north and the rivers were sending huge amounts of water down into New South Wales.new idea that extends the topic of the river and could be the problem in the storyWhy writer is thinking about the river flooding and why it could be a concern. evidence of reasons for the concern about the issue

  • How does each sentence contribute to paragraph meanings**'In a few days,' said Dad, 'some of that water will reach us, and when it does, when it joins up with that river out there,' he pointed across the road, we could be in for something.''A flood?' He shrugged.

  • **Conceptual level knowledge Readers have ideas linked together in different ways:

    Readers use these networks of ideas to comprehend text when they read.

    Some ideas are linked by the time and place where they occurred in experiences; experiential knowledge stored as images Some ideas are linked in more abstract, decontextualised ways.

  • **Conceptual knowledge = learning style

    Tom uses experiential meaning network

    Ideas linked in space and time in particular experiences

    Visual imagery learning styleBill uses abstract meaning network

    Ideas linked in abstract ways

    Verbal abstract learning style

    Like many animals the giant Panda needs a special environment to survive. Its natural habitat is bamboo forest found in China. While there are many varieties of bamboo, the Panda will only eat four types. Their basic diet is arrow bamboo

  • How knowing the topic helps us **Working out the topic of the text helps us to

    link the text with what we know and to use of our relevant existing knowledge. know what ideas and vocabulary to expect. streamlines our comprehension activity.organise and link the ideas in the text, sort the main ideas from the details and organise the main ideas in order.decide the questions the text might answer.When we are reading a text we may change out mind about its topic. Young readers need to learn how to do this.

  • **The model of reading we useThe model of reading we use extends this approach.

    When we read texts we tell ourselves the words and phrases; work out what the sentences mean ; link the concepts in the text into a network of ideas; the ideas into a topic we know; guess at what the writer wants us to believe;

    We form an impression of the text by collecting knowledge from each of these information sources.

    work at the word levelwork at the sentence levelwork at the conceptual levelwork at the topic levelwork at the dispositional level

  • **In addition to knowing about written text, we

    know how to use this knowledge to achieve our purposes ; how we direct and manage our reading activity

    use our general knoweldge; this includes our

    *oral language; what words mean and how they are said, grammar

    *bank of earlier experiences.

  • **We manage and control how we use our literacy knowledgeWe manage our literacy activity : we

    frame up reasons or goals for reading a text, plan how we will read.monitor our reading, decide when to re-read, take corrective action, self-correct, monitor our progress, review and self-question to see how we achieve our goals, review or consolidate what they have read.organise the information gained to fit our purpose for reading.

  • **We use various types of knowledge when we read

    Our model of reading

    Literacy or textWord levelknowledgeSentence levelConceptual levelTopic levelDispositional levelMetacognitive Knowledge General knowledgeOral languageExperiential

  • **An integrated model of reading knowledge

    Theymatch text word directly with stored letter cluster knowledgesegment words into functional units, say letter clusters and blend make analogy with words they knowuse the meanings of words that occur with it and the context in which it is used.They visualise or paraphrase the sentence segment it into parts and work on each part re-read it put themselves in the context of the topic ask questions about the ideas in the sentence, listen to thesselves as they read it

    Theypredict, anticipate, infer ideas, feeling backtrack / read ahead /work across sentences to link conceptsform an image of a sequence of sentencesconsolidate what a sequence of sentences say.They use title, scan or skim text, select key words to guess its general theme use topic sentences What does the writer want me to believe or feel about the topic ? What things does the writer do to convince ro persuade us ? Are there other points of view about this topic ? Why did the writer write the text ? Know some letter patternsRecall some word meaningsKnow some sentence meaningsKnow some grammatical formsKnow written sentence conventions such as punctuationKnow ideas linked in networksKnow ideas linked in experiencesdifferent texts are written for different purposes to convey attitudes, values and feelings.attitudes, valued and feelings conveyed in texts in different ways.know ideas are linked into topics:the topic helps us anticipate the ideas that might be in it.sometimes ideas we dont expect occur for a topic.

    Levels of textknowledge of text features; the 'what', conventions of writingreading strategies, how to' . What reader knows about how to value each level; How reader values wordWord bankwork out new wordsworking out wordssentenceSentence formsmake sense of sentencesunderstanding sentencesconceptuallinks between concepts link the concepts in textreading between the linestopichow concepts are links into topicswork out and use topic of a text to link conceptsusing the topic of the textdispositionthe purposes for writing and readingrecognise, use intended purposes of textknowing why the text was writtenself-management What readers know about how to manage and direct their readingexisting knowledgeOral languageExperiential

  • **Review : The types of literacy knowledgeWe can show each type of reading knowledge

    text units we can recognise automaticallycomprehending actions or reading strategies we can useatttidues, values or beliefs we have about each level

    Level of text informationThe whats; knowledge units in the textThe hows; actions to use on the textThe whys; beliefs about what workswordsentenceconceptualtopicdisposition

  • **Existing knowledge scaffolds readingTwo main forms of our general knowledge scaffold our reading activity: our

    what words mean, how they are said, sounds in wordshow ideas are linked into sentences, grammar.how ideas are linked into networks.how a topic or theme operatesthe attitudes and values of the writer towards the ideas in the text.experiences, visual imagery knowledgeaction, motor knowledgeknowledge of symbols

    oral language knowledge

    experiential knowledge

  • **Review : The types of literacy knowledgeWe can show each type of reading knowledge

    text units we can recognise automaticallycomprehending actions or reading strategies we can useatttidues, values or beliefs we have about each level

    Level of text informationThe whats; knowledge units in the textThe hows; actions to use on the textThe whys; beliefs about what workswordsentenceconceptualtopicdispositionHow we manage and direct our reading activityYour existing knowledgeOral languageExperiential

  • What do you do to understand the text ?**What is its topic ? How will I use this to link what I read ?What does each sentence mean ? What does multiphase method or ingredient mean ?What does this picture tell me ?What is the main idea of this paragraph ? What do the three paragraphs tell me ?Review and consolidate the ideas in the text We use a range of comprehending actions We learn more about the text we read

  • What do you do to understand the text ?**What is the main idea of this paragraph ? What is its topic ? How will I use this to link what I read ?What does each sentence mean ? What do the paragraphs tell me ?What type of text is this ?What does learn to track or annoyance mean ?Review and consolidate the ideas in the text

  • What do you do to understand the text ?**Early in reading activityWhat is its likely topic ? What type of text is this ?How will I use this to link what I read ?While readingWhat does each sentence mean ? Read it aloud to self, parapahrase, use grammar visualise, question, link with topic, predict.Work out word meanings.What is the main idea of this paragraph ? Link sentence meanings, summarise, predict, question answered by paragraph. What is discourse meaning. Link the set of paragraph meanings.

    Review and consolidate the ideas in the textWhat are the main and supporting ideas in the text ? Store in memory How will I use them ? Reflect on ideas, answer questionsWe change our reading activity as we read

  • What do you do to understand the text ? **What is the main idea of this paragraph ? What is its topic ? How will I use this to link what I read ?What does each sentence mean ? What do the paragraphs tell me ?What type of text is this ?Review and consolidate the ideas in the text

  • **New InformationOUR MODEL OF LITERACYWords ?Sentence meanings ?Paragraph meaningsTopic ?Disposition ?Literacy knowledge : converting information to knowledge

  • **New InformationWe use these ways of thinking simultaneouslywords sentence meanings paragraph meaningstopic disposition We use these types of knowledge simultaneouslyWhen we read we use several types of knowledge at once may give priority to one or more at any timeuse most types automatically.

  • **What are the High Reliability Literacy Teaching Procedures?A set of explicit procedures that teach readers to

    get their knowledge ready for reading and learningread text aloud use and learn new vocabularyparaphrase and visualise the textlink the text with questions it answerssummarize the textreview, consolidate and automatize what was read.Why high reliability ? Each teaching procedure has substantial research support for its use

  • **Thinking spaceNew Information

    Egyptian King is buried in a Pyramid.How to use meaning making actions most effectively Get knowledge ready for learning the new ideasUse comprehending actions most efficiently while learning the new ideasStore new ideas in long term memory and automatize

  • **How do you build these into your teaching ?

    Beginning a lesson:

    Get knowledge ready GKR

    While reading +learning

    Teach new ideas

    new vocabulary new sentence ideasnew main ideasnew topicnew attitudes and dispositionsReview + consolidate

    Review new meanings, ideas, link with synonyms and imagesStore in memoryAutomatise recall , use of meanings

  • Getting ready or orienting actions **

    Focus on possible topic of text. The teacher guides the students to link text with what the readers knows by using the title, the cover, pictures in the text or blurb. What do I think the text is about? What pictures do I make in my mind when I hear the title/look at the cover.. What might happen ? Link ideas in text with what the reader already knows, use mapping, networking. What ideas could it mention ? If it is about .. what else might it say ? Focus on how the ideas (such as pictures, key words they have identified) might be said : How can I say these ideas in sentences ?Focus on questions it might answer: What are some who / what/ how/ why/ when/ where questions I could ask about it ? Focus on possible words that might be in the text. What words might be in the text ? How would they be spelt ? What other words might be used (synonyms for them) ? Focus on possible reasons or purposes for writing it. What are different ways of thinking about this topic ? Why might the author have written this text ? How might its purpose affect how it is written ?Readers say how they will read, the actions (strategies) they will use. "What will I do as I read/ if I come to a part that I dont understand ? Focus on readers self efficacy as a reader Am I ready to read? What more do I need to know before I begin to read ?

  • While reading actions **

    Sentence level reading strategies for literal comprehension of each sentencebreak text into digestible bits, decide where to pause. Where will I pause and ask : What has it told me ? listen to themselves as they read and paraphrase the text. What are other ways of saying this sentence ? How can I tell myself what it says ?act on ideas, put themselves in the context. What would I see /hear/do /feel If I were in the story ? visualize what was read. What picture can I make of the sentence ?monitor meaning at the sentence level. Does it make sense/fit in? Re-read if necessary.

    Conceptual level reading strategies for summarizing what has been read, monitoring and for inferential, evaluative and dispositional comprehension of text:review and consolidate, What do I know now? How does this fit with the topic ?What has happened so far?, underline, note down useful informationinfer, Why did that happen? Relate then to what they expectedthink ahead, predict, anticipate. What might happen next ? evaluate dispositional techniques. How has the text so far attempted to influence my view ? Word level reading strategies to work out unfamiliar wordsuse context of word + initial few sounds, word analysis and re-read. How can I say the word ? How will I work out how to say it ? How can I break it up ?work out the meanings of unfamiliar words. What does the word do in the sentence ? What does it tell me about ? What picture have I made of the sentence ? What is another word I could say for it?

  • Getting ready or orienting actions **

    Link positive emotion response with the text How I liked the text? Were ideas useful /interesting? Did I feel happy / sad ? How could it have grabbed me better ? Review understanding of the text at the various levels. What did the text tell me? The text didnt say this but if . ? Why was the text written ? Did it say what I expected it to say ? How well did it achieve its purpose ?How can the text be interpreted from different points of view or perspectives ? What was the writers purpose in writing this text ? What techniques used to influence the reader to take a particular interpretation ? Review and evaluate the reading strategies used, particularly the strategies being learnt at the time. What reading actions did I use to help me understand the text ?Store in memory what has been learnt. What key new ideas have I learnt; how has my knowledge changed? How do they fit with what I know already ?Identify the new language and literacy knowledge that has been learnt What new ways of saying things have I learnt ? What new words were in the text ?Automatise and practise reading aloud and silently similar text to achieve increased fluency.

    ********This is how the process might look as students try to convert the new vocabulary to personal knowledge. *What are the three phases of GKR?Visualize and organize what is known about the topicExpress this knowledge in words and sentences. (Why in sentences? To connect their knowledge with the text in a coherent way. More of an explanation, would be better no?) Bridge knowledge to the text.

    and then use this as a foundation for further learning.************************************This is how it looks like when students do get their knowledge ready. Eg we study Egypt, GKR brings up the idea of a pyramid.

    This model of literacy development is based on a couple of important beliefs. The first is that the information we hold in our head is often in a pictorial form that includes a memory of actions related to concepts. The second important belief that when existing knowledge is activated, new information is more meaningfully engaged. Well use this picture to lead you through how this works.

    What do you think of when I say forest, beach, or principal. Most people get an immediate image, which they then translate into words. *

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