3.2 Annotated bibliography of reports relevant to UNCAT bibliograph2018-02-26Annotated bibliography of reports ... Annotated bibliography of reports relevant to UNCAT ratification ... rationalism, constructivism, and liberalism.

  • Published on
    04-May-2018

  • View
    213

  • Download
    1

Transcript

<ul><li><p>AnnotatedbibliographyofreportsrelevanttoUNCATratification</p><p>ThefollowingannotatedbibliographyisaselectedlistreportsrelevanttoStatesseekingtoratifytheUNCAT.Eachcitation,organisedalphabetically, isfollowedbyabriefdescription, intendedtoofferuncriticalanalysisofeachsource.Allcitationsandlinkscorrectat22February2015.</p><p> CosetteCreamerandBethASimmons,Ratification,Reporting,andRights:QualityofParticipationintheConventionAgainstTorture,HumanRightsQuarterly(August2015),Forthcoming.AvailableatSSRN:http://ssrn.com/abstract=2500337orhttp://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2500337</p><p>Theauthorsexamine thequalityand frequencyof reporting to theCommitteeagainstTortureovera25yearperiodtoanalysehowseriouslyStatespartiesconsidertheirobligationsundertheConvention.TheyfindthatlateandnonreportingtotheCommitteeisfairlycommon.Thearticleconsiders that quality reporting from States parties is more likely where regional partnersdemonstratetheirowncommitmenttoreport,andwheredomesticconsiderations,includingthecapacity of national human rights institutions and other domestic pressures, encourage thegovernmenttoachieveitshumanrightscommitments.</p><p> ChristopherJFariss,HumanRightsTreatyComplianceandtheChangingStandardofAccountability(16November2014).AvailableatSSRN:http://ssrn.com/abstract=2517457</p><p>TheauthorexaminesargumentsthatassertthatStatespartiesviolatehumanrightsmorethannonStates parties.He proposes that a changing standard of accountability risksmasking realimprovementsovertime.Onceprocessesofdatacollectionappreciatethechangingstandardofaccountability,thentherelationshipbetweenratificationoftheUNCATandrespect forhumanrights becomes positive. This finding therefore contests reportswhich show that there is nocorrelationbetween treaty ratificationandan improvement inhuman rights. Fariss concludesthattheratificationofhumanrightstreatiesisassociatedwithhigherlevelsofrespectforhumanrightsovertimeandacrosscountries.</p><p> MichaelGilliganandNathanielNesbitt,DoNormsReduceTorture?,JournalofLegalStudies,(2009),38(2):445470.</p><p>The authors challenge the assumption that norms affect State behaviours, and in particular,whethertheabsoluteprohibitionagainsttorturehasaneffectontheuseoftorturebyStates.GilliganandNesbitt consider thatdespite the spreading forceof thenorm against torture,asshownbytheratificationoftheUNCATbyagreaternumberofStates,thereisnoevidencethatithasledtoareductionintheuseoftorture.</p><p> RyanGoodmanandDerekJinks,MeasuringtheEffectsofHumanRightsTreaties,EurJIntLaw(2003)14(1):171183.</p><p>InresponsetoHathawaysarticle,DoHumanRightsTreatiesMakeaDifference(Seebelow),inwhich it is asserted that ratification of human rights treaties fails to improve human rightsconditions on the ground, the authors examine whether Hathaways empirical analysis wasaccurate. They find serious deficiencies with Hathaways conclusions, and consider thatHathaways analysis fails to take account of the ways that human rights obligations aretransposed into national practice. Goodman and Jinks consider that the implementation ofhumanrightsisaprocess.Theprocessstartswiththeadoptionoftherelevanttreaty,butitdoesnotendthere.Absentmoreconcreteknowledgeaboutthefulleffectsofhumanrightstreaties,</p></li><li><p>UNCATRatificationTool</p><p>AnnotatedbibliographyofreportsrelevanttoUNCATratification</p><p>2</p><p>the traditional assumption that human rights treaties advance their core objectives remainssound.</p><p> OonaA.Hathaway,WhydoCountriesCommittoHumanRightsTreaties?,JournalofConflictResolutionAugust2007vol.51,no.4,588621,availableathttp://jcr.sagepub.com/content/51/4/588.abstract</p><p>HathawayattemptstoanswerwhyStatescommittohumanrightstreaties.Theauthorexaminesthepositiveandnegativeeffectsofratification,andarguesthatthedomesticeffectofatreatyonaStateisdeterminedbytheexistenceofnationalinstitutionsreadytoensureenforcementofthe instrument and its collateral consequences. Hathaway reports that recent studiesdemonstratethatdemocraticStateswhichhaveratifiedtheUNCATdemonstrate lowerratesoftorture than those that have not. Equally States without democratic institutions do notdemonstrate lower levels of torture, notwithstanding that they had also ratified the UNCAT.Consequently, the author considers that Stateswith strong democratic institutionsmay findtreatyratificationandimplementationmorechallengingthanothers,preciselybecausenationalinstitutions will enforce them. Treaties may be implemented effectively through nationalinstitutions,butsuchmeaningcomeswithsignificantadditionalcost.</p><p> OonaA.Hathaway,TheCostofCommitment(2003).JohnM.OlinCentreforStudiesinLaw,Economics,andPublicPolicyWorkingPapers.Paper273.Availableathttp://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1003&amp;context=lepp_papers</p><p>In thiswork,Hathaway again looks at the reasonswhy States joinhuman rights treaties.Theauthorrecognisesthat,unlikeother interStateagreements,humanrightstreatiesdonotofferimmediate reciprocal benefits. Ratification of human rights treaties also invites unwelcomeinternationalscrutiny.ShehypothesisesasaresultthatthecostofratificationishighforStateswith strong enforcementmechanisms. Hathaway tests her hypothesis and finds evidence tosupportit.SherecommendsthatStatesconsiderwaysinwhichthecostsofhumanrightstreatiesmaybeoffset,thusencouragingfurtherStatestoratify.</p><p> Oona A. Hathaway, 2002. Do Human Rights TreatiesMake a Difference? Yale Law Journal111:19352042</p><p>Inthiswidelycitedanddetailedarticle,Hathawaychallengestheassumptionthat internationallawmatters,andmoreprecisely,thathumanrightstreatiessucceedinchangingbehaviour.Theauthorundertakesa largescalequantitativeanalysisoftherelationshipbetweenhumanrightstreaties and countries' human rights practices, in areas including torture and fair trials. Theauthor recognises deficiencies in her statisticalmodel and compensates by drawing statisticsfrommultiple sources.Hathaway considers that human rights in countries that ratify humanrights treatiesaregenerallybetterobserved than incountries thathavenot ratified the sameinstruments.However,theauthoralsorecognisesthatnoncompliancewithtreatiesiscommon,andthat inmanycases,ratificationalsocoincideswithaworseninghumanrightssituation.Thearticleoffersanumberofreasonsforthesecounterintuitiveresults.Theauthordoesnotdismissthepossibilitythattreatyratificationcouldhavelongtermpositiveimpact.</p><p> UtaOberdrster, WhyRatify? Lessons from TreatyRatification Campaigns,Vanderbilt LawReview,Vol.61,No.2,March2008</p><p>Oberdrster examines thedifferences in the rate that States ratifyhuman rights instruments,comparesNGOcampaignsorganised topromote treaty ratification,andproposesexplanationsfor why States ratify treaties when they do, based on traditional theories explaining Statebehaviour: rationalism, constructivism, and liberalism. The author offers suggestions for thedevelopmentofastrongNGOledcampaigntowardstreatyratification.</p></li><li><p>UNCATRatificationTool</p><p>AnnotatedbibliographyofreportsrelevanttoUNCATratification</p><p>3</p><p> BethASimmonsandRichardNielsen,RewardsforRatification:PayoffsforParticipatingintheInternationalHumanRightsRegime?,October2012,InternationalStudiesQuarterly.Forthcoming.Availableathttp://scholar.harvard.edu/files/bsimmons/files/nielsen_and_simmons_isq_1.pdf</p><p>Theauthorscritiquetraditionallycitedreasonsfortreatyratification,suchasbetterrelationshipswith international partners, increased investment, and legitimacy, as lacking empirical proof.Simmons andNielsen find little evidence that States can expect suchbenefitson ratification.Instead,thebenefitsoftreatyratificationmaybebetterexplainedintermsofdomesticpolitics.The ratification of human rights treaties may enable States to sustain momentum towardsimportantlawreformsorentrenchimportantrightsinnationalpractice.</p><p>AlsoseeregionspecificreportsonthePacific:</p><p> NatalieBaird,ToRatifyofnottoRatify?AnAssessmentoftheCaseforRatificationofInternationalHumanRightsTreatiesinthePacific,November2011,MelbourneJ.ofInt'lLaw,vol.12(2),at241,availableathttp://www.law.unimelb.edu.au/files/dmfile/download442c1.pdf</p><p>TheauthorexamineswhetherratificationofhumanrightstreatieswillhaveapositiveimpactinPacific island States. The paper reviews the consequences of ratification and examines thebenefitsandchallengesofratification.Bairdobservesthatabenefitoftreatyratificationisbetterrespectforhumanrights,butwarnsthatStatesshouldbecognisantofthechallengesandcostsofeffective implementation.Sheoffers fouralternativestrategies for the region, ranging fromwholesaletreatyratification,throughtoamoratoriumontheratificationoffurtherinstruments.Theauthorconcludes that selective ratificationofhuman rights treatieswhich respond to theparticularneedsofPacificStatesisthebestapproachtoadvancehumanrightsintheregion.</p><p> P Imrana Jalal, PacificCultureandHumanRights:WhyPacific IslandCountriesShouldRatifyInternationalHumanRightsTreaties(RRRT/UNDP,Suva,April2006)</p><p>JalalexploresthereasonsforlowratesoftreatyratificationinthePacificregion,andarguesthatStatesshouldtakeadvantageofsuch instrumentsasawayofpromotingregionaldevelopmentgoals.TheauthorarguesthatthenonratificationofatreatydoesnotpreventaStatefrombeingassessed according to the standards it contains. Ratification of human rights treaties is aneffectivewaytoprogressdevelopmentobjectivesanditshouldbegivenahigherpriorityintheregion. The countries in the Pacific do not generally demonstrate gross violations of humanrights,and their constitutions typicallyalreadyprotect thehuman rightsdescribed in treaties.Consequently,JalalarguesthatPacificStateshavelittletofearfromtreatyratification.</p><p> OHCHR,TorturePreventioninthePacific:Sharinggoodexperiencesandlessonslearnt(OHCHR,December2011),availableathttp://pacific.ohchr.org/docs/Torture_prevention_in_the_Pacific_Dec_2011.pdf</p><p>OHCHR report that the Pacific region already has a low level of legislative compliance withinternationaltorturepreventionstandards,butthatlawsinthemselvesarenotenoughtoensureeffectivepreventioninpractice.OHCHRrecommendsratificationoftheUNCATanditsOptionalProtocolas twopowerful tools toenable States to take forwardnecessarymeasures towardseffective torture prevention. The report examinesUNCAT ratification in Vanuatu, andOPCATratificationinNewZealand,toexplainsomeofthebenefitsandchallengesoftreatyratificationin the region.OHCHR furtherdescribe theworkof theombudsman institution inPapuaNewGuinea as a common model in the Pacific which can further advance torture preventionobjectives.</p></li><li><p>UNCATRatificationTool</p><p>AnnotatedbibliographyofreportsrelevanttoUNCATratification</p><p>4</p><p> OHCHR/PIFS,Ratificationof InternationalHumanRightsTreaties:Addedvalue forthePacificregion(OHCHRandPIFS,2009),availableathttp://pacific.ohchr.org/docs/RatificationBook.pdf</p><p>Notingthe lownumberofcore internationalhumanrightstreatiesratified inthePacificregion,theOHCHR/PIFSexploreswhat ratificationmeans forPacificStates.Severalsmall islandStatesarguetheyareillequippedtoassumelegalobligations,citingthelackoffinancialresourcesandcustomarypractices as reasonswhy theydonot ratify. The authors reject these reasons andoffer advice and arguments to show that any obstaclesmay be overcome. The report alsoexaminestherelationshipbetweenhumanrightsanddevelopmenttoexplainthebenefitsthatratificationcouldbringtotheregion.</p><p> UNDP,PacificHandbookonHumanRightsTreatyImplementation(UNDPPacificCentre,2012),availableathttp://www.asiapacific.undp.org/content/dam/rbap/docs/Research%20&amp;%20Publications/Democratic%20Governance/PC_DG_Human_Rights_Treaty_Implementation_Handbook.pdf</p><p>TheUNDPhandbookaddresseschallengesexperiencedbyPacificStates in the ratificationandimplementationofhuman rights treaties. It isaimedatgovernmentofficials,parliamentarians,civilsociety,community leaders,andothergroups.Thehandbookdocuments insomedetailalloftheUNbodiesandmechanismswhichaddressthemselvestohumanrights,andexplainstheprocessof treaty ratification. TheUNDPhandbook also exploresways inwhich to implementhuman rightsnormswithinbudgetary constraints,and ina complementaryway to customarypractices.Finally,thehandbookofferspracticaladvicetoactorsattemptingtoimplementhumanrightsandtreatyobligations.</p></li></ul>

Recommended

View more >