Makalah Mukerda II 2010 / Majelis Buddhayana Indonesia / Medan Ville, 6-7 Maret 2010 / Oleh budiman
2. The World Buddhism2.1 Brief Timeline 2.2 Buddhayana in the west 2.3 The new wave of buddhism 2.4 Agama Buddha Indonesia
Theravada timelinesMajor Events in Theravada Buddhism The Second Council convenes in Vesali to discuss controversial points of Vinaya. The first schism of the Sangha occurs, in which the Mahasanghika school parts ways with the traditionalist 383 B.C.E. Sthaviravadins. At issue is the Mahasanghika's reluctance to accept the Suttas and the Vinaya as the final authority on the Buddha's teachings. This schism marks the first beginnings of what would later evolve into Mahayana Buddhism. Third Council is convened by King Asoka at Pataliputra (India). Disputes on points of doctrine lead to further schisms, spawning the Sarvastivadin and Vibhajjavadin sects. The Abhidhamma Pitaka is 250 B.C.E. recited at the Council, along with additional sections of the Khuddaka Nikaya. The modern Pali Tipitaka is now essentially completed. King Asoka sends his son, Ven. Mahinda, on a mission to bring Buddhism to Sri Lanka. King 247 B.C.E. Devanampiya Tissa of Sri Lanka is converted. Ven. Mahinda establishes the Mahavihara (Great Monastery) of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. The Vibhajjavadin community living there becomes known as the Theravadins. Mahinda's sister, Ven. 240 B.C.E. Sanghamitta, arrives in Sri Lanka with a cutting from the original Bodhi tree, and establishes the bhikkhuni-sangha (nuns) in Sri Lanka. Famine and schisms in Sri Lanka point out the need for a written record of the Tipitaka to preserve the Buddhist religion. King Vattagamani convenes a Fourth Council, in which 500 reciters and 100 C.E. scribes from the Mahavihara write down the Pali Tipitaka for the first time, on palm leaves. Theravada Buddhism first appears in Burma and Central Thailand. Buddhist monastic university at Nalanda, India flourishes; remains a world centre of Buddhist 200 C.E. study for over 1,000 years. Year
Ven. Buddhaghosa collates the various Sinhalese commentaries on the Canon - drawing primarily on the Maha Atthakatha (Great Commentary) preserved at the Mahavihara, and translates his work into Pali. This makes Sinhalese Buddhist scholarship available to the entire Theravadin world. As a cornerstone to his work, Buddhaghosa composes the Visuddhimagga (The Path of Purity) which 425 C.E. eventually becomes the classic Sri Lankan textbook on the Buddha's teachings. Dhammapala composes commentaries on parts of the Canon missed by Buddhaghosa (such as the Udana, Itivuttaka, Theragatha, and Therigatha), along with extensive sub-commentaries on Buddhaghosa's work. The bhikkhu and bhikkhuni communities at Anuradhapura die out following invasions from South 1050 India. Bhikkhus from Pagan arrive in Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka to reinstate the Theravada ordination line in 1070 Sri Lanka. Polonnaruwa destroyed by foreign invasion. With the guidance of two monks from a forest branch 1164 of the Mahavihara sect - Ven. Mahakassapa and Ven. Sariputta. King Parakramabahu reunites all bhikkhus in Sri Lanka into the Mahavihara sect. 1236 Bhikkhus from Kacipuram, India, arrive in Sri Lanka to revive the Theravada ordination line. 1279 Last inscriptional evidence of a Theravada Bhikkhuni nunnery (in Burma). 1287 Pagan (Burma) looted by Mongol invaders; its decline begins. A forest-based Sri Lankan ordination line arrives in Burma and Thailand. Theravada spreads to Laos. 13th cen. Thai Theravada monasteries first appear in Cambodia shortly before the Thais win their independence from the Khmers. King Kirti Sri Rajasinha obtains bhikkhus from the Thai court to reinstate the bhikkhu ordination 1753 line, which had died out in Sri Lanka. This is the origin of the Siam Nikaya. King Rama I, founder of the current dynasty in Thailand, obtains copies of the Tipitaka from Sri 1777 Lanka and sponsors a Council to standardize the Thai version of the Tipitaka, copies of which are then donated to temples throughout the country.
1803 1828 1862 1868 1873 1879
Sri Lankans ordained in the Burmese city of Amarapura found the Amarapura Nikaya in Sri Lanka to supplement the Siam Nikaya, which admitted only brahmins from the Up Country highlands around Kandy. Thailand's Prince Mongkut (later King Rama IV) founds the Dhammayut Sect. Forest monks headed by Ven. Paananda go to Burma for reordination, returning to Sri Lanka the following year to found the Ramaa Nikaya. First translation of the Dhammapada into a Western language (German). Fifth Council is held at Mandalay, Burma; Pali Canon is inscribed on 729 marble slabs. Ven. Mohottivatte Gunananda defeats Christian missionaries in a public debate, sparking a nationwide revival of Sri Lankan pride in its Buddhist traditions. Sir Edwin Arnold publishes his epic narrative poem Light of Asia, stimulating popular Western interest in Buddhism. Helena Blavatsky and Henry Steel Olcott, founders of the Theosophical Society, arrive in Sri Lanka from the USA, embrace Buddhism, and begin a campaign to restore Buddhism on the island by encouraging the establishment of Buddhist schools. Pali Text Society is founded in England by T.W. Rhys Davids; most of the Tipitaka is published in roman script and, over the next 100 years, in English translation. Maha Bodhi Society founded in India by the Sri Lankan lay follower Anagarika Dharmapala, in an effort to reintroduce Buddhism to India. First Western Theravada monk (Gordon Douglas) ordains, in Burma. Ven. Ajahn Mun and Ven. Ajahn Sao revive the forest meditation tradition in Thailand.
18911899 1900 1902
King Rama V of Thailand institutes a Sangha Act that formally marks the beginnings of the Mahanikaya and Dhammayut sects. Sangha government, which up to that time had been in the hands of a lay official appointed by the king, is handed over to the bhikkhus themselves.
1949 1954 1956
Mahasi Sayadaw becomes head teacher at a government sponsored Vipassana meditation centre in Rangoon, Burma. Burmese government sponsors a Sixth Council in Rangoon. Buddha Jayanti Year, commemorating 2,500 years of Buddhism. Ven. Nyanaponika Thera establishes the Buddhist Publication Society in Sri Lanka to publish English-language books on Theravada Buddhism. Sarvodaya Shramadana Movement is founded in Sri Lanka to bring Buddhist ideals to bear in solving pressing social problems. Two Germans ordain at the Royal Thai Embassy in London, becoming the first to take full Theravada ordination in the West. Refugees from war in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos settle in North America, Australia and Europe, establishing many Buddhist communities in the West. Ven. Taungpulu Sayadaw and Dr. Rina Sircar, from Burma, establish the Taungpulu Kaba-Aye Monastery in Northern California, USA. Ven. Ajahn Chah establishes Wat Pah Nanachat, a forest monastery in Thailand for training Western monks. Insight Meditation Society, a lay meditation center, is founded in Massachusetts, USA. Ven. Ajahn Chah travels to England to establish a small community of monks at the Hamsptead Vihara, which later moves to Sussex, England, now known as Chithurst Forest Monastery. Lay meditation centers grow in popularity in North America, Australia and Europe. First Theravada forest monastery in the USA (Bhavana Society) is established in West Virginia. Amaravati Buddhist Monastery established in England by Ven. Ajahn Sumedho. Continued western expansion of the Theravada Sangha: monasteries from the Thai forest traditions established in California, USA (Metta Forest Monastery, founded by Ven. Ajaan Suwat; Abhayagiri Monastery, founded by Ven. Ajahns Amaro and Pasanno). Buddhism meets cyberspace: Buddhist computer networks (BuddhaNet) emerge. Several editions of the Pali Tipitaka become available online.
Tibetan BuddhismYearc200 C.E.
Major Events in Tibetan Buddhism Buddhism begins to percolate into Tibetan region and teachings affect Bon religion in kingdom of Shang-Shung (South Tibet). Buddhist scriptures begin to reach early Tibetan Kingdoms (North Tibet) during reign of King Lhatotori Nyentsen. King Songtsen Gampo unifies Tibet and marries Chinese princess Wen Cheng and Nepalese Princess Bhrkuti who bring Buddha images. Construction of Potala Palace, and Jokang and Ramoche temples to house Buddha images. King Trisong Detsen (r.755-797) invites Shantarakshita to Tibet. King Trisong Detsen invites Padmasambhava, yogin of Swat, to Tibet, and construction of Samye begins (775). Samye, Tibet's first monastery, built by Trisong Detsen and Padmasambhava. Great Convocation, 3000 monks ordained. Translating begins. Padmasambhava founds Nyingma order. Exponents of Indian Buddhism prevail in debate with Chinese at Samye. Persecution of Tibetan Buddhism under King Lang Darma, period of conflict and civil strife begins. Destruction of Tibetan Dynasties. Buddhism almost completely wiped out in Tibet. Commencement of second Buddhist period in Tibet. Atisha (982-1054).
641 641-650 773? 774
C785792 840 877 978
Atisha comes to Tibet and founds the Kadampa school (which later becomes the Gelugpa order). Marpa the translator (1012-1099) founder of the Kargyu school, travels to India, studies under Naropa. Gampopa (1079-1153) is responsible for the actual founding of the Kagyu school on the basis of Kadampa, later to be known as Gelugpa. Monastic practice and education system, with the Tantric practices of Naropa, Marpa and Milarepa. Birth of Milarepa, 2nd hierarch of Kagyu order and a renowned poet. Birth of Marchik Labdron (1055-1153) founder of the Chod lineage, the main lineage founded by a woman. Founding of the Sakya Lineage by Brogmi (992-1072). Gonchok Guelpo (1034-1102) establishes the first monastery of the Sakya monastic order. Sakya Pandita submits to Godan Khan; beginning of the first priest/patron relationship between a Tibetan Lama and a Mongol Khan. Tibet is reunited with Sakya Pandita, Grand Lama of Sakya, as king. King Changchub Gyaltsen defeats Sakya and founds a secular dynasty. Ganden, first Gelug monastery, built by monastic reformer Tsongkhapa (1357-1419). In prolonged warfare, Karmapa supporters gain control of royal court. Gelug-pa leader gets the title of Dalai ("Ocean") from Altan Khan. Gushri Khan enthrones the 5th Dalai Lama as temporal ruler of Tibet. "Great Fifth" Dalai Lama meets Qing Emperor Shunzhi near Beijing. Fifth Dalai Lama dies; regent conceals death for the next 14 years. Italian Jesuit priest, Ippolito Desideri studies and teaches in Lhasa. Dzungar Mongols invade Tibet and sack Lhasa. Fifth DL's tomb looted. Dzungars driven out, Qing (Chinese) forces install Kesang Gyatso as the 7th Dalai Lama.
1040 1055 1060 1247 1261 1350 1409 1435-81 1578 1642 1653 1682 1716-21 1717 1720 1721
The position of Amban is created by a 13-point Qing decree on Tibet. 29-point Qing decree prescribes "golden urn" lottery for picking DL and PL, bans visits by non-Chinese, and increases Amban's powers.
1904 1910-12 1911 1913 1924-25 1933 1934 1940
British troops under Colonel Younghusband enter Tibet and occupy Lhasa. Chinese troops occupy Tibet, shoot at unarmed crowds on entering Lhasa. Bogh Haan, the Urga "Living Buddha," proclaims Mongolia independent. 13th Dalai Lama proclaims Tibet a "religious and independent nation". Pressure from monks causes Dalai Lama to dismiss his British-trained officers. Truce ends. China and Tibet fighting; the 13th Dalai Lama dies at age 58. Reting Rimpoche named regent. China permitted to open Lhasa mission. The five-year-old Tenzin Gyatso is enthroned as the 14th Dalai Lama.
19411945 1950 1951 1956 1959
Unable to keep celibacy vow, Reting is replaced as regent by Taktra. Newly opened English-language school is closed after monks protest. Red China invades Tibet; Tibetan army destroyed in battle at Chamdo. 17-point agreement between China and Tibet; Chinese occupy Lhasa. Tibetans in Kham and Amdo (Qinghai) begin revolt against Chinese ruler. Dalai Lama visits India for 2,500th anniversary of the Buddha's birth. Dalai Lama flees to India. 87,000 Tibetans die in anti-Chinese revolt. International Commission of Jurists: "acts of genocide *have+ been committed... to destroy the Tibetans as a religious group." Dalai Lama approves a democratic constitution for the Tibetan exile community. The Panchen Lama is arrested after calling for Tibetan independence. Visitors find only 8 temples left in TAR, down from 2,700 in 1959. China allows a series of three delegations from Dalai Lama to visit Tibet. Dalai Lama receives the Nobel Peace Prize. Dalai Lama recognizes six-year-old Gedhun Choekyi Nyima as 11th Panchen Lama. China denounces the Dalai Lama's choice. The Karmapa (Urgyen Trinley Dorje) flees Tibet to join the Dalai Lama in exile.
19601963 1964 1978 1979-80 1989 1995 1999
Chinese buddhismYear Major Events in Chinese Buddhism Historical record has it that two Buddhist monks, Kasyapa and Dharmaraksha, from India in 68 AD, arrived at the court of Emperor Ming (58-75) of the Han Dynasty (25-220 AD). They enjoyed imperial favour and stayed on to translate various Buddhist Texts, one of which, The 'Sutra of Forty-two Sections' continues to be popular even today. 1st century CE
First translations of Indian Buddhist texts into Chinese by An Shih-Kao in 148. A Mahayana monk, Lokaksema translates Small Perfections of Wisdom Sutra and A Land of Bliss Sutra (168). First Buddhist monastery constructed. 2nd century CE This early work of translating texts continues into 3rd century. Dhamaraksa (born 230) translates a large number of sutras, including the Lotus Sutra and Large Perfection of Wisdom Sutra, and founded monasteries, ordained Sangha, and expounded the Dharma Fo-T'u-Teng founds Buddhist order of nuns (317). Translation of Buddhist texts into Chinese by Kumarajiva (344-413) and Huiyan (344-416).
4th century CE
Chinese pilgrim scholar Fa-hsien visits India (399-414). Amitabha (Amida) the Pure Land School (Ching t'u) emerges in China (402). First Patriarch of Pure Land was T'an-Luan (476-542) 5th century CE Persecution of Buddhism under Emperor Wu or Shih-tusu (424-451). Restoration under the new Emperor, Wen-ch'eng-ti (454). T'ien Tai school founded by Hui-Wen (470-?) in South China. Bodhidharma, first Patriarch of the Ch'an School arrives in China from India in 520 (variant 526). 6th century CE The T'ang dynasty (618-907) was the Golden Age of Chinese Buddhism. The T'ien-tai School was established by Chih-i (538-597) Hua-yen School establish by Fashun (557-640) Dhyana School (Ch'an; Jap.Zen) Schools of Chinese Buddhism.
The Southern School of Ch'an or new Ch'an begins in earnest with Hui-neng (638-713) the Sixth Patriarch. The Persecution in 845, during the reign of Emperor Wu-tsung (841-7) an order came to the 7th century CE effect that all Buddhist establishments should be destroyed, initiating a decline in Chinese Buddhism. The invention of block printing by Chinese Buddhists. The oldest extant book printed is the Tun-hung book of 868 it contained excerpts from the Diamond Sutra . In 972, the first emperor of the Sung Dynasty ordered the complete printing of the Chinese Tripitaka. This was achieved in 983, known as the Shu-pen (Szechuan edition). Two classic 10th century CE collections appeared, the 'Blue Cliff Record', (Pi-yen-lu; Jap. Hekiganroku) compiled by Hsueh Tou Ch'ung Hsien (980-1152) and the 'Gateless Gate' (Wu-men-kuan; Jap. Mumonkan) compiled by Wu-men Hui kai (1184-1260).
12th to 15th century CE
China during the Yuan Dynasty was under Mongolian rule and the influences of Tibetan Lamaism. It was during the Mogol Dynasty that the Buddhist-Taoist controversy was brought before Mangu Khan in 1255. The acrimonious debate, which had started over a 1000 years before was finally concluded in the Buddhist's favour by an edict of Kublai Khan in 1281. Movement toward unity among the schools developed under the Ming Dynasty (1368-1643) Master Chu-hung, (born 1535) united in his person the two leading trends in Ming Buddhism: harmonization of the different schools (specifically Cha'n and Pureland) and the inauguration of a lay Buddhist movement.
The revolution of 1911 that toppled the Manchu Dynasty and established the Republic of China brought problems for the Buddhist Sangha. To combat these trends arose a remarkable monk, T'ai-hsu (1898-1947) who was able to rally his fellow religionists and to initiate a program of reform. On the national scale he organised a Chinese Buddhist Society in 1929. A revival of the Idealistic School was initiated by the publication in 1901of the Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun (Notes on the Completion of the Idealistic Doctrine) of K'uei-chi, long lost in China but brought back from Japan. The leader of this revival was the layman Ou-yang Chien, and the Institute of Inner Learning, which he organised in Naking (Nanjing) in 1922. Hsu Yun, Ch'an Master (1840-1959) 'Universally regarded as the most outstanding Buddhist of the Chinese Sangha in the modern era' (Richard Hunn). Dharma successor of all five Ch'an schools; main reformer in Chinese Buddhism revival (1900-50). The Modern Era Wong Mou-Lam translated the The Platform Sutra into English and founded the journal Chinese Buddhism (1930). (1898-1978) Upasaka Lu K'uan Yu (Charles Luk) Translator and Writer on Ch'an. Born in Canton. Lived in exile in Hong Kong. The official formation of the Chinese Buddhist Association by the government of the People's Republic of China on May 30th, 1953. The Cultural Revolution (1965-75) Buddhist temples and monasteries were sacked and the already weakened Sangha was further depleted. The excesses of this time have since been regretted, however, and a more liberal policy introduced. Ven. Cheng Yen founds Tzu Chi Compassion Relief Association (1966) and Tzu Chi Compassion Foundation (1980)
JAPANESE BUDDHISMYear 594 C.E. 607 752 770 805 806 822 972 985 Major Events in Japanese Buddhism Imperial Decree Encouraging Buddhism promulgated. Horyu-ji Temple built, completed in 615 C.E. The Huge Statue of the Vairocana Buddha of the Todai-ji Temple of Nara completed. One Million Miniature Stupas (Pagodas) built in 794 C.E. Capital moved from Nara to Kyoto. Saicho (767-822) established Tendai Buddhism. Kukai (774-835) established Shingon Buddhism. The Establishment of the Mahayana Disiplines. Kuya (903-972), an advocator of the Pure Land Faith, died. Genshin (944-1017) wrote the 0-jo-yo-shu (Collection of Essential Documents to Attain the Birth in the Pure Land) 538 or 552 Buddhism introduced into Japan.
621 or 622 "Commentaries on the Three Scriptures", by Prince Shotoku.
11241175 1191 1224 1227
Ryonin (1072-1132) founded the Yuzu- gatari) written Nembutsu Sect. Honen (1133-1212) founded the Jodo Sect. Eisai (1141-1215) founded the Rinzai Sect of Zen Buddhism. Shinran (1173-1262) founded the Jodo-Shin Sect. Dogen (1200-1253) founded the Soto Zen Sect.
1252 1253 1275
The Huge Image of Amida Buddha at Kamakura cast. Nichiren (1222-1282) founded the Nichiren Sect of Buddhism. Ippen (1239-1289) founded the Ji Sect.
13391397 1499 1602 1613 1654 1681 1868 1872 1873 1934 1951
The Moss-garden of the Saiho-ji Temple in Kyoto built. The Kinkaku-ji Temple or the Golden Pavilion in Kyoto built. The Rock-garden of the Ryoan-ji Temple in Kyoto built. Rennyo (1415-1499), restorer of the Jodo-Shin Sect, died. The Jodo-Shin Sect Split into the Higashi (East) and the Nishi (West) Hongan-ji Schools. The Danka System or the Family-temple system formed. Ingen or Yin-yuan (1592-1673) introduced the Obaku Sect of Zen Buddhism. Buddhist Scriptures in Chinese Version published by Tetsugen. Buddhism suppressed by the Shintoists. The Meiji Restoration. Celibacy and vegetarianism allowed by governmental permission. Ban on Christianity cancelled. Women admitted to Buddhist temple. Religions in Japan put under government control. Taisho Edition of the Buddhist Scriptures in Chinese Version completed in 100 volumes. The Religious Juridical Persons Law. Japan's Peace Treaty enforced signed.
The Second World Buddhists Conference held in Tokyo. Buddha Jayanti, commemorating 2,500 years of Buddhism is held in Japan. International Buddhist Exchange Centre incorporated.
Menurut Edwar Conze, sejarah agama Buddha dibagi 4 periode: Periode I agama Buddha Kuno
Periode II Periode III
munculnya Mahayanamunculnya Tantra dan Chan
bertahan (1000 tahun terakhir)
Konsili Buddhis PertamaDiskusi manapun yg berkenaan dgn sejarah dan ajaran berbagai aliran dlm agama Buddha harus dimulai dgn Konsili Buddhis Pertama
- 543 SM, Rajagaha, masa Raja Ajatasattu.- 500 Arahat menyusun kembali doktrin ajaran Buddha. - Dipimpin oleh YA Mahakassapa. - YA Ananda menuturkan Dharma. - YA Upali menuturkan Winaya.
Ada 1 biku yang berbeda pendapat dgn hasil Konsili ini: Biku Purana
Konsili Buddhis Kedua- 443 SM, Vesali, masa Raja Kalasoka. - Sebagian merasa perlu mengubah beberapa aturan kecil, sebagian tidak. - Buddhahood vs Arahantship. - Timbul tradisi yang berbeda setelah konsili ini. - Hanya Vinaya yang dibahas.
Asal Usul Mahayana-1 Mahayana muncul di India Selatan, abad I Masehi. Referensi dlm Sutra Mahayana sendiri (misalnya: Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita 225) Guru terkemuka: Asvaghosa, Nagarjuna, Aryadeva. Mahayana tidak berasal dari Therawada. Mahayana merupakan kelanjutan dari Mahasangika: faksi yg memisahkan diri dari tubuh utama agama Buddha setelah Konsili di Vesali dan yg selanjutnya terus mengkritik umat Buddha ortodoks atas kemelekatan mereka pada literatur.
Asal Usul Mahayana-2Mengapa sebagian ajaran Mahayana tidak dikenal dalam tradisi Pali? 1. Mahayana muncul dari Mahasanghika yg memisahkan diri dari otoritas Konsili Kedua.
Mahayana diturunkan oleh para biku independen (seperti Biku Purana yang menolak otoritas Konsili I).Mahayana mewarisi ajaran-ajaran yg tidak beredar di dunia manusia di abad-abad itu (dilestarikan di dunia naga dan non-manusia). Mahayana memasukkan berbagai ajaran tradisional yg lain seperti Lokottaravada dan Satyasiddhi yg sejak itu lenyap.
Asal Usul Mahayana-3Mahayana berkembang tatkala agama Buddha tradisional menjadi: Konservatif dan berpikiran literal, terpaku pada katakata dan bukannya pada semangat ajaran, dan secara keseluruhan menolak perubahan. Skolastik, terlalu terikat dgn analisis dan klasifikasi keadaan-keadaan mental. Negatif satu sisi dalam konsepsinya mengenai Jalan dan Nirwana. Terlalu melekat pada melulu aspek formal membiara. Individualis secara spritual.
Konsili Buddhis Ketiga- 308 SM, Pataliputta, masa Raja Asoka. - Membahas perbedaan pendapat yang dianut oleh Sangha. - Ketua Konsili, YA Moggaliputta Tissa menyusun buku Kathavatthu yang menolak pandangan keliru yang dianut sebagian murid. - Ajaran itu disepakati dan diterima oleh konsili ini dan dikenal sebagai Therawada atau "Jalan Para Sesepuh". - Abhidhamma Pitaka dimasukkan dalam konsili ini. -Misionari diutus ke 9 negeri. Sedikitnya pada zaman ini ada 3 Kitab Suci: Theravada, Sarvastivada, dan Mahasanghika.
Konsili Buddhis Keempat
- 80 SM, Matale Sri Lanka, masa Raja Vattagamani
Abhaya.- Tipitaka dan Kitab Komentar (Atthakatha) dituliskan pada daun palem.
Konsili Buddhis Kelima- 1871, Mandalay, masa Raja Mindon.
- Diikuti 2.400 biku yang dipimpin olehYA Jagarabhivamsa. - Tipitaka dipahatkan pada 728 potongan batu pualam di Kuthodaw Pagoda. - Pahatan Tipitaka yang memakan waktu 7 tahun, 6 bulan
dan 14 hari, ini dicatat dalam Guiness Book of World Recordsebagai Buku Terbesar di Dunia.
Konsili Buddhis Keenam- 1956, Yangon. - Mingun Sayadaw menguncarkan 16.000 halaman Tipitaka di luar kepala (gelar: Tipitakadhara). - Guiness Book of World Record 1985 mencatat Mingun Sayadaw sebagai: Manusia Dengan Ingatan Terdahsyat di Dunia.
TIPITAKA VINAYA PITAKA SUTTA PITAKA ABHIDHAMMA PITAKA
KITAB SUCI AGAMA BUDDHA
1.Suttavibhanga 1.Parajika Pali 2.Pacittiya Pali 2.Khandhaka 1.Mahavagga Pali 2.Cullavagga Pali 3.Parivara Pali
Tipitaka = "tiga (ti) keranjang (pitaka): 1. Disiplin (Vinaya Pitaka) 2. Ceramah (Sutta Pitaka) 3. Doktrin Mutlak (Abhidhamma Pitaka).
Kitab rujukan lain:- Komentar (Atthakatha) - Sub-komentar (Tika)
- Sub-sub-komentar (Anu-Tika, Madhu-Tika).
1.Digha Nikaya 1.Silakkhandhavagga 2.Maha-vagga 3.Patika-vagga 2.Majjhima Nikaya 1.Mulapariyayavagga 2.Sihanada-vagga 3.Tatiya-vagga 4.Mahayamakavagga 5.Culayamakavagga 6.Gahapati-vagga 7.Bhikkhu-vagga 8.Paribbajakavagga 9.Raja-vagga 10.Brahma-vagga 11.Devadahavagga 12.Anupadavagga 13.Sunnatavagga 14.Vibhangavagga 15.Salayatanavagga 3.Samyutta Nikaya 1.Sagatha-vagga 2.Nidana-vagga 3.Khandha-vagga 4.Salayatanavagga 5.Maha-vagga 4.Anguttara Nikaya 1.Ekaka-nipata 2.Duka-nipata 3.Tika-nipata 4.Catukka-nipata 5.Panncakanipata 6.Chakka-nipata 7.Sattaka-nipata 8.Atthaka-nipata 9.Navaka-nipata 10.Dasaka-nipata 11.Ekadasakanipata 5.Khuddaka Nikaya 1.Khuddaka Patha 2.Dhammapada 3.Udana 4.Itivuttaka 5.Sutta-nipata 6.Vimanavatthu 7.Petavatthu 8.Theragatha 9.Therigatha 10.Jataka 11.Niddesa 12.Patisambhida 13.Apadana 14.Buddhavamsa 15.Cariyapitaka
1.Dhammasangani 2.Vibhanga 3.Dhatukatha 4.Puggala Pannatti 5.Kathavatthu 6.Yamaka 7.Patthana
Sebuat riset mendalam mengungkapkan bahwa baik Kitab Suci Pali maupun Sanskerta dapat ditelusuri ke asal yang sama yang diyakini berasal dari dialek Timur yang dipakai sebagai idiom di wilayah kerajaan Buddha.
18 TRADISI BUDDHISA. STHAVIRAVADA B. MAHASANGHIKA 12. Ekavyavaharika 13. Kaukulika 14. Bahusrutiya 15. Prajnaptivada 16. Purvasaila 17. Aparasaila 18. Caityika
1. Haimavatika 2. Vajjiputtaka 3. Mahisasaka 4. Sarvastivadin 5. Dharmagupta 6. Kasyapiya 7. Samkantika 8. Sammitiya 9. Dharmottariya 10. Bhadryayaniya 11. Sannagarika
RUTE PENYEBARAN AGAMA BUDDHAJalur Selatan - Tradisi Therawada - Dari India ke Sri Lanka, lalu ke Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Kamboja Jalur Utara - Tradisi Mahayana (berbagai aliran) - Dari India ke Asia Tengah, Cina, Korea, Jepang, Vietnam, Tibet, Mongolia - Ke Indonesia
RUTE PENYEBARAN AGAMA BUDDHA
- Jalan Sesepuh - Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Kamboja, Laos - Memakai bahasa Pali, Kanon Pali
- Lebih tradisional- Beraspirasi menjadi Araha (Savaka Buddha)
Sak Yant Thai Temple Tattoos Sak Yant Buddhist temple tattoos made by Buddhist monks, Brahmin Masters and Ruesi Sages, Kata Khom, Magic Amulets
MAHAYANA- Kendaraan Besar- China, Tibet, Jepang, Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam - Memakai bahasa Sanskerta, Cina, Tibet
- Lebih moderat- Beraspirasi menjadi Sammasambuddha melalui jalan Bodhisattwa
- Aliran besar Mahayana:Paramitayana: jalur Bodhisattwa berdasarkan Sutra: Madhyamika, Yogacara, Avatamsaka, Tien-tai, Chan/Zen, Pure Land/Amitabha Buddha Vajrayana: jalur Bodhisattwa berdasarkan Sutra & Tantra
- "Kendaraan Intan" - Bhutan, Mongolia, Tibet, Nepal - Phadmasambhava & Shantarakshita menyebarkan Dharma dari India ke Tibet pada abad ke8, atas permintaan Raja Tibet: Songsten Gampo. - Agama lokal di Tibet: Bon.
VAJRAYANABeberapa aliran Vajrayana: - Nyingma didirikan Padmasambhava, tertua, Sogyal Rinpoche
didirikan Tsongkapa, menekankan ajaran & vinaya, Dalai Lama, Lama Zopa
- Kagyu didirikan Naropa di India, menekankan meditasi, Karmapa, Kalu Rinpoche - Sakya didirikan Biwarpa di India, menekankan ajaran & meditasi, Sakya Trizin - Kadam - Ri-me didirikan Atisha, Gelug+Kagyu+Sakya mewarisi ajarannya kombinasi berbagai sekte Vajrayana, Jamyang Khyentze
Theravada1. Dhammayutika 2. Maha-Nikaya 3. Dhamma-nikaya
Dhammayuttika The Dhammayuttika Nikaya or Thammayut Nikaya (Thai: () ; Khmer: ) is an order of Theravada Buddhist monks in Thailand and Cambodia. Its name is derived from the Pali dhamma ("teachings of the Buddha") + yutti (in accordance with) + ka (group).
Dhammayuttika The Dhammayuttika Nikaya, or simply Thammayut, began in 1833 as a reform movement by Prince Mongkut, son of King Rama II. Thammayut remained a reform movement until passage of the Sangha Act of 1902 formally recognized it as the lesser of Thailand's two Theravada denominations. Prince Mongkut was a bhikkhu (ordination name: Vajirao) for 27 years (1824-1851) before becoming the King of Siam (1851-1860); in 1836 he became the first abbot of Wat Bowonniwet. After the then 20-year-old prince entered monastic life in 1824, he noticed what he saw as serious discrepancies between the rules given in the Pali Canon and the actual practices of Thai monks; and aimed to upgrade monastic discipline to make it more orthodox. Mongkut also made an effort to remove all non-Buddhist, folk religious, and superstitious elements that had become part of previous practices. Thammayut monks were expected to eat only one meal a day and the meal was to be gathered during a traditional alms round. The Thammayut Nikaya has produced two particularly highly revered forest monks: Phra Ajahn Sao Kantasilo Mahathera (1861-1941) and Phra Ajahn Mun Bhuridatta (18701949). Their bone fragments were distributed to various people and Thai provinces after the cremation and have since, according to their followers, transformed into crystal-like relics (Pali: arra-dhtu) in various hues of translucency and opacity. The current Supreme Patriarch of Thailand, Somdet Phra Nyanasamvara Suvaddhana, is a member of the Thammayut Nikaya.
Dhammayuttika Nikaya in Cambodia In 1855, the Khmer King Norodom invited Preah Saukonn Pan, also referred to as Maha Pan, a Khmer monk educated in the lineage of Thailand's King Mongkut, to establish a branch of the Dhammayuttika order in Cambodia. Maha Pan became the first Supreme Patriarch of the Cambodian Dhammayuttika lineage, residing at Wat Botum Vaddey, a new temple erected by the king specifically for the purpose of housing Dhammayuttika monks. The Dhammayuttika Nikaya in Cambodia benefited from royal patronage, but was also sometimes regarded with suspicion due to its ties to the Thai monarchy. The Dhammayuttika order in Cambodia suffered greatly under the Khmer Rouge, being particularly targeted due to their perceived ties to the monarchy and a foreign power, in addition to the Khmer Rouge's general repression of the Buddhist hierarchy in Cambodia. Between 1981 and 1991, the Dhammayuttika Nikaya was combined with the Cambodian Mohanikay under a unified sangha system established under Vietnamese auspices. In 1991 King Sihanouk returned from exile and appointed the first new Dhammayuttika sangharaja in ten years, effectively ending the policy of official unification. The Dhammayuttika continues to exist in Cambodia, though its monks constitute a very small minority of the sangha in Cambodia. On issues such as the role of monks in HIV/AIDS treatment and education, its current sangharaja Bour Kry has adopted a more liberal position than that of Mohanikay head Tep Vong, but less radical than that of certain Engaged Buddhist elements of the Mohanikay order.
Maha Nikaya The Maha Nikaya (literal translation: Great Collection) is the largest order of Theravada Buddhist monks in Thailand. The identification of the Maha Nikaya as a single, discrete, entity may be seen as questionable: after the founding of the Dhammayuttika Nikaya in 1833, all recognized monks not ordained in the Dhammayuttika order were considered to be part of the 'maha nikaya', the 'great collection' of those outside the new Dhammayuttika fraternity. As such, most monks in Thailand belong to the Maha Nikaya more or less by default; the order itself did not originally establish any particular practices or views that characterized those adhering to its lineage. In Cambodia, a similar situation exists; the Dhammayuttika Nikaya was imported from Thailand in 1855, and those monks remaining outside the Dhammayuttika order were recognized as being members of the 'Maha Nikaya' (Khmer: Mohanikay). A separate supreme patriarch for the Dhammayuttika Nikaya was appointed by King Norodom; the previous national supreme patriarch then became the titular head of the Cambodian Maha Nikaya. In Thailand, a single supreme patriarch is recognized as having authority over both the Maha Nikaya and the Dhammayuttika Nikaya. In recent years, some Maha Nikaya monks have campaigned for the creation of a separate Maha Nikaya patriarch, as recent Thai supreme patriarchs have invariably been drawn from the royalty-supported Dhammayuttika Nikaya.
Mahapanya Vidayalai Mahapanya Vidayalai (Thai: ), translated roughly as college of wisdom, is an international Buddhist school located in Hat Yai, Thailand. The college is affiliated with Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University. Founded by Oou Joo Heng, Supreme Patriarch of Anamikaya (the Vietnamese Mahayana Buddhist sect of Thailand) and with supports of the Theravada Sangha, the school was launched in 2002. Currently, it is offering high school education as well as an international bachelor degree program in Buddhist studies with a concentration in Mahayana Buddhism.
Mahayana The Mahayana is more of an umbrella body for a great variety of schools, from the Tantra school (the secret teaching of Yoga) well represented in Tibet and Nepal to the Pure Land sect, whose essential teaching is that salvation can be attained only through absolute trust in the saving power of Amitabha, longing to be reborn in his paradise through his grace, which are found in China, Korea and Japan. Ch'an and Zen Buddhism, of China and Japan, are meditation schools. It is generally accepted, that what we know today as the Mahayana arose from the Mahasanghikas sect who were the earliest seceders, and the forerunners of the Mahayana. They took up the cause of their new sect with zeal and enthusiasm and in a few decades grew remarkably in power and popularity. They adapted the existing monastic rules and thus revolutionised the Buddhist Order of Monks. Moreover, they made alterations in the arrangements and interpretation of the Sutra (Discourses) and the Vinaya (Rules) texts. And they rejected certain portions of the canon, which had been accepted in the First Council. According to it, the Buddhas are lokottara (supramundane) and are connected only externally with the worldly life. This conception of the Buddha contributed much to the growth of the Mahayana philosophy. The ideal of the Mahayana school is that of the Bodhisattva, a person who delays his or her own enlightenment in order to compassionately assist all other beings and ultimately attains to the highest Bodhi.
Mahayana Lineages Imported from IndiaChinese Buddhism 1. Madhyamika (San Lun, Ch.) Based on the Chinese translation of Nagarjuna's (second century) Madhyamika Karika and two other works of uncertain authorship, this lineage emphasized the notion of shunyata (emptiness) and wu (nonbeing). So rigorous was the teaching of this lineage, that it declared that the elements constituting perceived objects, when examined, are really no more than mental phenonena and have no true existence. 2. Yogacara Founded in the third century by Maitreyanatha and made famous by Asanga and Vasubandhu in the fourth or fifth century, this school held that the source of all ideas is vijana ("consciousness"), which is seen as the fundamental basis of existence. Ultimate Reality is therefore only perceived but has not real existence. Indigenous Mahayana Lineages 1. T'ien T'ai Named after the mountains on which the founder Zhi Yi (d. 597 C.E.) resided, this lineage is based on a scheme of classification intended to integrate and harmonize the vast array of Buddhist scriptures and doctrines. This scheme of classification is based on the Buddhist doctrine of upaya ("skilful means"). The most important form of Buddhism for this lineage is the Mahayana devotionalism found in the Lotus Sutra. 2. Avatamsaka (Hua Yen, Ch.) This lineage takes its name from the Avatamsaka Sutra, its central sacred text, and like the T'ien T'ai school is oriented towards a classification of sutras. Basic to this lineage is the assertion that all particulars are merely manifestations of the absolute mind and are therefore fundamentally the same. 3. Pure Land (Amitabha) Based on the Sukhavati Vyuha ("Pure Land Sutra"), this lineage was founded in 402 C.E. by Hui Yuan. The Pure Land lineage held that the spiritual quality of the world has been in decline since its height during the lifetime of the Buddha and taught followers to cultivate through prayer and devotion a sincere intent to be reborn in the heavenly paradise of the Buddha Amitabha. 4. Ch'an Its name is derived from the Sanskrit term dhyana (meditation), this lineage emphasises meditation as the only means to a spiritual awakening beyond words or thought, dispensing almost entirely with the teachings and practices of traditional Buddhism. Ch'an is thought to have been brought to China by the enigmatic South Indian monk Bodhidharma in about the year 500 C.E.
Vajrayana BuddhismThis is the kind of Buddhism predominant in the Himalayan nations of Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, and also Mongolia. It is known as Vajrayana because of the ritual use of the vajra, a symbol of imperishable diamond, of thunder and lightning. At the center of Tibetan Buddhism is the religious figure called the lama, Tibetan for "guru"," source of another of its names, Lamaism. Several major lineages of lamas developed, beginning in the ninth century with the Nyingma-pa. Two centuries later, Sarma-pa divided into the Sakya-pa and the Kagyu-pa. Three hundred years later, one of Tibet's revered lamas, Tsong-kha-pa, founded the reforming Gelugpa.
Tibetan Buddhist Lineages Nyingma-pa Tracing its origin to the Indian adept, Guru Padma-sambhava, who came to Tibet in 817 C.E. at the invitation of King Trisong Detsen (742797) in order to subdue the evil forces then impeding the spread of Buddhism. This lineage of Buddhism is uniquely Tibetan in that many aspects of the traditional Bon religion are mixed together with more properly Buddhist beliefs and practices to form a unique expression of Buddhist piety. This lineage emphasizes the move towards more advance stages of enlightenment through "preliminary practice" that comprises the beliefs and practices of Buddhism before the advent of Tantra, and through the "higher practices," which involve the attainment of enlightenment through the chanting of magical spells, special hand gestures and mystical diagrams.
Sakya-pa The lineage has descended intact up to the present time from Khon Knchok Gyelpo(1034-1102), founder of the Sakya tradition. From the doctrinal point of view the tradition traces its origins to the Indian Yogin Virupa through Gayadhara. His disciple Drogmi Shakya Yeshe (992-1074) travelled to India where he received teachings on the Kalachakra, the Path and its Fruit, and others from many Indian masters and returned to Tibet. Later, Khon Knchok Gyelpo, one of his main disciples, built a monastery in the Tsang province of central Tibet and named it Sakya, or Grey Earth monastery. So the school took its name, Sakya, from the location of the monastery. Succession to the position of head of the Sakya tradition has been hereditary since the time of Khon Knchok Gyelpo. The present incumbent is the 4lst occupant of the Sakya Throne. The central teaching and practice of the Sakya-pa, called Lam-dre (Lam-bras), the Path and Its Fruit, ultimately leads a practitioner to the state of Hevajra. The Path and Its Fruit is a synthesis of the entire paths and fruits of both the exoteric and esoteric classes of teachings. Kagyu-pa The lineages of the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism derive primarily from two sources: Marpa Chkyi Lodro (1012-1099) and Khyungpo Nyaljor (978-1079). Marpa received the lineage of tantric teachings called the Four Commissioned Lineages - concerning the Illusory Body and Consciousness Transference, Dreams, Clear Light, and Inner Heat directly from Naropa (1016-1100), who had been given them by his teacher Tilopa (988-1069). Mahamudra, the unique feature of Kagyu tradition, can be explained according to interpretations of sutra and tantra. Both aspects of the teachings are aimed at direct understanding of the real nature of the mind. The approach to Mahamudra, which differs slightly within each Kagyu school, generally follows through the stages of foundation, path and fruit. Tantric practices unique to Kagyu tradition are the Six Yogas of Naropa, Chakrasambhava and Mahakala. In the context of tantric practice, the application of Mahamudra becomes much more profound and sophisticated. Gelug-pa Founded by Tsong-kha-pa (1357-1419) as a reform movement within Tibetan Buddhism, followers acclaimed the third teacher as an incarnation of the bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara, thus inaugurating the line of the Dalai Lama, the fourteenth and most recent of whom was born in 1935. Emphasis in this lineage is on a strict monastic discipline and on the conviction that the bodhisattva, a Buddha who has foregone final nirvana out of compassion for all sentient beings, is continually present. This tradition remains dynamic even after coming into exile. The major Gelug monasteries, Sera, Drepung, Ganden, and Tashi Lhunpo monasteries and Gyumey Tantric College have been re-established in various Tibetan settlements in Karnataka, and Gyut Tantric College has been re-established in Bomdila, Arunachal Pradesh, all in India.
Persamaan semua aliran1. Sakayamuni Buddha is the original and historical founder of Buddhism. 2. The Three Universal Seals, Four Noble Truths, Eight Fold Paths and Twelve Links of Dependent Origination are the basic foundation to all schools of Buddhism including the Tibetan schools of Vajrayana. 3. Threefold training of Precepts, Meditation and Wisdom is universal to all schools. 4. Organization of the Buddhist teachings / Dharma into three classifications (Sutra, Vinaya and Sastra) is practised among the Buddhist Canons of various countries. 5. Mind over matter concept. Mind as the principal area of taming and control is fundamental to all schools.
Differences between Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism# TOPIC 1 The Buddha 2 Bodhisattvas 3 Objective of training Organisation of Buddhist scriptures THERAVADA BUDDHISM Only the historical Gautama (Sakyamuni) Buddha and past Buddhas are accepted. MAHAYANA BUDDHISM Besides Sakyamuni Buddha, other contemporary Buddhas like Amitabha and Medicine Buddha are also very popular. Avalokitesvara, Mansjuri, Ksitigarbha and Samanthabadra are four Only Maitreya Bodhisattva is accepted. very well known Bodhisattvas besides Maitreya. Arahant or Pacceka Buddha. Buddhahood (via the Bodhisattva path). The Pali Canon is divided into three baskets The Mahayana Buddhist Canon also consists of Tripitaka of (Tipitaka): Vinaya Pitaka of 5 books, Sutta disciplines, discourses (sutras) and Dharma analysis. It is usually Pitaka of 5 collections (many suttas) and organised in 12 divisions of topics like Cause and Conditions and Abhidhamma Pitaka of 7 books. Verses. It contains virtually all the Theravada Tipikata and many sutras that the latter does not have. Main emphasis is self liberation. Besides self liberation, it is important for Mahayana followers to There is total reliance on oneself to eradicate help other sentient beings. all defilements. Very limited emphasis on the 3 bodies of a Very well mentioned in Mahayana Buddhism. Samboga-kaya or Buddha. References are mainly on Nirmanareward/enjoyment body completes the Trikaya concept. kaya and Dharma-kaya. Southern transmission: Sri Lanka, Thailand, Northern transmission: Tibet, China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Mongolia Burma, Laos, Cambodia and parts of and parts of Southeast Asia. Southeast Asia. Buddhist canon is translated into the local language (except for the 5 Tipitaka is strictly in Pali. Dharma teaching in untranslatables), e.g. Tibetan, Chinese and Japanese. Original Pali supplemented by local language. language of transmission is Sanskrit. No distinction is made between nirvana Also known as 'liberation from Samsara,' there are subtle attained by a Buddha and that of an arahat distinctions in the level of attainment for the three situations. or Pacceka Buddha. Basically historical disciples, whether Arahats A lot of Bodhisattvas are introduced by Sakyamuni Buddha. Most of or commoners. these are not historical figures. Owing to local cultural influences, there is much more emphasis on There are some rituals but not heavily the use of rituals; e.g. Rituals for the deceased, feeding of Petas, emphasized as in Mahayana schools. tantric formalities (in Vajrayana). Heavily practised in the Vajrayana school of Mahayana Buddhism. Some equivalent in the use of Parittas. Other schools also have included some mantras in their daily liturgy.
5 Concept of Bodhicitta
6 Trikaya concept
7 Transmission route Language of Dharma 8 teaching 9 10 11 12 Nirvana (Nibbana in Pali)
Sakyamuni Buddha's disciplesRituals and liturgy Use of Mantras and Mudras
Dying and death aspects
Very little research and knowledge on the process of dying and death. Usually, the dying persons are advised to meditate on impermanence, suffering and emptiness.
The Vajrayana school is particularly meticulous in these areas. There are many inner and external signs manifested by people before they die. There is heavy stress in doing transference of merit practices in the immediate few weeks following death to assist in the deceased's next rebirth.
Bardo One meal a day practice
This in-between stage after death and before All Mahayana schools teach this after death aspect. rebirth is ignored in Theravada school. This the norm among the Theravada Sangha. This is a highly respected practice but it is left to the disposition of each individual in the various Sangha.
This aspect is not necessary. In places like Very well observed in all Mahayana schools (except the Tibetans due Thailand where daily morning rounds are still to the geographical circumstances). However, this aspect is not practised, it is very difficult to insist on the compulsory. type of food to be donated Can be quite elaborate; with a chamber/hall for Sakyamuni Buddha Simple layout with the image of Sakyamuni and two disciples, one hall for the 3 Buddhas (including Amitabha Buddha the focus of worship. and Medicine Buddha) and one hall for the 3 key Bodhisattvas; besides the protectors, etc. 8 major (Chinese) schools based on the partial doctrines (sutras, sastras or vinaya) of the teachings. The four schools inclined towards practices like Pure Land/Amitabha, Ch'an, Vajrayana and Vinaya (not for lay people) are more popular than the philosophy based schools like Tien Tai, Avamtasaka, Yogacara and Madhyamika. In the course of integration and adoption by the people in other civilizations, there were heavy mutual influences. In China, both Confucianism and Taoism exerted some influence on Buddhism which in turn had an impact on the indigenous beliefs. This scenario was repeated in Japan and Tibet.
Focus of worship in the temple
Schools/Sects of the tradition
One surviving major school following years of attrition reducing the number from as high as 18.
Non Buddhist influences
Mainly pre-Buddhism Indian/Brahmin influences. Many terms like Karma, Sangha, etc were prevailing terms during Sakyamuni Buddha's life time. References were made from the Vedas and Upanishads.
Absent from the teachings of the Theravada Heavily stressed, particularly by schools inclined practices. tradition.
From BLOSSOMS OF THE DHARMA: LIVING AS A BUDDHIST NUN, by Thubten Chodron, Copyright 1999. Korean Buddhist Nuns
As a Western Buddhist nun, I feel very fortunate to have lived in Korea and trained in this tradition for many years. Having hundreds of years' experience, the Korean Bhikshunis have established a systematic, effective way of training new nuns. They begin with a novice period, progress to sutra study schools, and go on to meditation halls or other vocations of their choosing. The monastic life here is inspiring, although, as in other Asian countries, it is undergoing change due to the country's modernization and developments in the predominant Jogye Order. To understand Korean Buddhism and monastic life, it is helpful to remember that many influences, spanning over a thousand years, have brought Buddhism to where it is today. These include five hundred years of Confucian law, as well as Taoism, shamanism, and animism, which are still practiced in many temples. In recent years, Christianity also has influenced some city temples, which now have choirs, Sunday schools, and Christian-style religious services. Over time, Korean Buddhism and Korean nuns have absorbed these influences and evolved with their own unique flavor. The nuns' communities are independent from the monks', although sometimes they reside on the same mountain. However, the monks and nuns may attend formal ceremonies, communal events, Dharma talks, ordination ceremonies, and funerals together at a large temple. From time to time abbots and abbesses come together for annual training periods and discussion of the events at their temples. Apart from these instances of sharing, the nuns live separate, selfsufficient lives, with their own supporters, training schools and meditation halls, in thousands of temples varying in size from small hermitages to very large temples. They even have their own Bhikshuni masters and "family" lineages. In the latter, disciples of the same master are "sisters," nuns who are colleagues of their teacher are "aunts," and so on.
Religion : Tibetan Buddhism School : Gelug Born : 1950 United States Title : Venerable
Thubten Chodron The monks and nuns have similar life styles, temple organizations, robes, sutra schools, and meditation halls, although the nuns' four-year sutra schools are more developed than those of the monks. Because of this, the monks generally show respect for the nuns, especially those who are elder or positions senior to their own. The nuns also have a very strong meditation order, where in over thirty-five Bhikshuni meditation halls, twelve hundred or more nuns practice meditation almost continuously throughout the year. The lineage of Korean Bhikshunis is not completely clear. Recently while staying in Chon Yong Sa temple in Seoul, I discovered its old history log listing the unbroken lineage of abbesses. Queen Seondeok founded the temple 1,350 years ago, when she, her family, and servants became Bhikshunis and resided here. Also, in Chong Yarng Sa Temple in Seoul, an unbroken lineage of Bhikshunis continues to this day. Records in Buddhist libraries reveal descriptions of early ordinations even prior to this period and tell of the transmission of the Korean Bhikshuni ordination to Japanese nuns. Many stories, too, have been passed down about various queens, many of whom became Bhikshunis, and their great works to support the Dharma. It is suspected that although the Bhikshuni order did not die out during the Confucian rule or the Japanese occupation, the ordination procedures for both monks and nuns were simplified. Older nuns speak of their teachers and their teachers' lineage, and some nuns in the last fifty years have been considered great masters, although little is written about their teachings or lives. One great Bhikshuni told me, "If ever you become enlightened, don't let anyone know, because you will have to spend the rest of your life having to prove it." We are often told not to discuss our practice too much, but to let it blossom in our clear and compassionate actions. We should confide only in a trustworthy teacher who can guide our practice and actions, so that we are not caught in thoughts and experiences even of enlightenment. However, this makes me wonder if nuns throughout history have not been written about due to their silence and humility! Nowadays, the most senior Bhikshunis are generally well known. They preside over the main rituals and ordinations and are the masters of their lineages or heads of major temples, sutra schools, or meditation halls. Sometimes they are simply known for being a devout, dedicated Bhikshuni and may or may not have exceptional abilities. Not all of the senior Bhikshunis have many disciples, but they usually are part of a large "family" lineage, with many younger nuns following in their footsteps. The products of their work are found in the temples, sutra schools, and meditation halls they have constructed, as well as in their Dharma teaching, translation work, and the role model of monastic life they set.
Who is Ven Chodron? Ven. Chodron is known for her work in re-establishing the Bhikshuni lingeage, cultivating interfaith dialogue, creating Dharma outreach in prisons, and teaching the Dharma worldwide. Her teaching emphasizes practical application of Buddhist practices in daily life and she is respected for making them easily understood and practiced by Westerners. Ven. Chodron is a co-organizer of Life as a Western Buddhist Nun, an international conference of Western Buddhist nuns. She was also a crucial participant in the 1993 and 1994 Western Buddhist teachers conferences with H. H. XIVth Dalai Lama and was instrumental in the creation of the 2007 International Congress on Buddhist Women's Role in the Sangha. She is a member of the Committee of Western Bhikshunis  and attends the annual gatherings of Western Buddhist Monastics in the USA. She is founder and Abbess of Sravasti Abbey, a Buddhist monastery near Newport, Washington.
Western Buddhist monks and nuns and visiting tourists form a large part of His Holiness the Dalai Lamas teaching audience (Dharmsala,Nov, 2007).
Western Buddhism The western counties saw the emergence of Buddhism somewhere around the 19th and the 20th century. The scholars as well as the colonists of that time are credited with the origin of Buddhism in the West. One of the major incidents in the journey of Buddhism in the West was the establishment of the Pali Text Society. This nineteenth century society was the result of the efforts of T.W. Rhys Davies. Another name worth mentioning in this context is that of Edward Arnold. His poem, The Light of Asia, brought the teachings of the Buddha to a wider audience. Not to be forgotten is Christmas Humphreys, an English barrister. He was responsible for the creation of 'Buddhist Lodge' in the year 1924. After the Second World War came to its conclusion, Alan Watts played a significant role in the propagation of Zen Buddhist teachings throughout the western countries. In 1976, a British monk named Sangharakshita (Dennis Lockwood) established the 'Friends of Western Buddhism Order' (FWBO).
Till the mid of 20th century, Buddhism in America was mainly practiced by the small Chinese communities, comprising of manual workers. It was only around 1950's that Buddhism started surfacing in the native population of America. In the 1960s, cultural changes started taking place in the country. This served as an excellent help to the spread of Buddhism in America, especially Zen and Tibetan Buddhism. Presently, Buddhism is one of the fasted growing religions in America. Buddhism is also becoming more popular day by day in Australia.
Western buddhism The Buddhist Churches of America was recognized as an endorsing agency to endorse military chaplains American Buddhism is adapting to its American setting, as is seen in the Buddhist Churches of America. The monastic lifestyle is not a major focus in the U.S. Asian Buddhism has traditionally discounted the value of women in the faith, but American Buddhism has shown a willingness to abandon Asian tradition. For example, a 40-ish Poolesville, Md., housewife, Catherine Burroughs, has been recognized as a reincarnated lama in Tibetan Buddhism.in 1987. While second-generation Asians often drop their Buddhist faith, a growing number of Anglo-Americans are adopting Buddhism as their chosen faith. Buddhism has been widely promoted in recent Hollywood movies and by public figures such as Richard Gere.
Branch Mahayana Theravada Vajrayana (Tibetan)
Percentage 56% 38% 6%
Number of Adherents 185,000,000 124,000,000 20,000,000
(Statistics sourced from www.adherents.com)
- 12th Western Buddhist Monastic Conference - April 2007 - City of the Dharma Realm - Sacramento, California
HARMONI AKTIF, MASA DEPAN BUDDHADHARMA DI BARAT
MONK IN THE WEST. WHAT A BEAUTIFUL ADAPTATIONS
The (2005) 11th Western Buddhist Monastic Conference - gathered at Shasta Abbey in California - Monastic Practice.
In May of 1977 Heng Sure and Heng Ch'au started their unique journey from downtown L.A. to the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas in Talamage, California. A journey of more than 800 miles that took two years and nine months to complete. They bowed in peace, and for peace. Touching their foreheads to the ground, opening their hearts with one wish for the world. Peace. For everyone, everyday, everywhere.
Ven. Sangharakshita Western Buddhist Order growth www.fwbo-news.org
Kusala Bhikshu Web Master of Urban Dharma with Ven. Pannyavaro Web Master of BuddhaNet - Photo taken in Los Angeles, California on 3/10/2006
SPREADING BUDDHISM THROUGH WEB
Albert Einstein Buddhism has the characteristics of what would be expected in a cosmic religion for the future: It transcends a personal God, avoids dogmas and theology; it covers both the natural and spiritual; and it is based on a religious sense aspiring from the experience of all things, natural and spiritual, as a meaningful unity. If there is any religion that would cope with modern scientific needs it would be Buddhism.
3. Agama Buddha IndonesiaBudiman
Link ke Perkembangan AGAMA Buddha di Indonesia
Athisa the great teacher of Tibetan BuddhismAll in all, Atisha studied with 157 great teachers, but he had such exceptional reverence for this magnificent teacher from the Golden Isle (the most famous master holding the complete teachings on how to develop bodhichitta was Dharmamati, the Sublime Teacher from Suvarnadvipa, the Golden Isle) and the measures he imparted that tears would well in his eyes whenever he mentioned or heard his name. When later asked by his Tibetan disciples if this display of emotion meant that he favored one of his teachers above all others, Atisha replied, "I make no distinctions among all my spiritual mentors. But because of the kindness of my sublime master from the Golden Isle, I have gained peace of mind and the dedicated heart of a bodhichitta aim."
THE FOUNDING FATHERThe late Venerable Ashin Jinarakkhita.The founder of Indonesian Buddhism - BUDDHAYANA.
AGAMA BUDDHA DALAM KONTEKS KEINDONESIAAN
AGAMA BUDDHA MULTIKULTURAL Agama pertama yang keluar dari batas etnisitas tanpa membuat berbagai ras menjadi India Agama Buddha hidup berdampingan secara harmoni, bahkan beradaptasi, berasimilasi, tidak mengganggu kesinambungan budaya lokal sebelumnya Umat Buddha tidak mengidentifikasikan diri, tidak juga diakui sebagai bagian dari satu peradaban tunggal Buddhis Pengaruh agama Buddha telah ikut membentuk beberapa peradaban besar: India, Tionghoa dan Jepang
VARIASI BUDAYA LOKAL Seperti arca Buddha menunjukkan ciri kekhususan etnis, agama Buddha tidak membuat bangsa lain menjadi orang India Orang Tionghoa membaca Sutra dan Mantra dalam bahasa sendiri (keng), yang dipandang bahkan lebih ampuh dibanding bahasa aslinya; begitu pula orang Tibet, Jepang, dll Tradisi Therawada walau mempertahankan pemakaian bahasa Pali secara lisan, penulisannya memakai aksara masing-masing Penggunaan bahasa Kawi (Jawa Kuno) pada kitabkitab agama di Jawa al: Sanghyang Kamahayanikan, Sanghyang Kamahayanan Mantrayana, Kunjara Karnna, Sutasoma
AMANAT BUDDHA MENGENAI PEMAKAIAN BAHASA Buddha mengizinkan para siswa-Nya untuk mempelajari ajaran Buddha sesuai dengan dialek atau bahasa masingmasing (Vin. II, 139) Ia menasihati para biku untuk menyesuaikan diri dengan bahasa lokal tempat mereka membabarkan ajaran (M. III, 234-235) Umat Buddha Indonesia sepantasnya bisa membedakan agama dari bahasa, dan memakai bahasa Indonesia yg baik & benar
KONDISI UMAT BUDDHA DI INDONESIA DEWASA INI Agama Buddha di Indonesia datang dari berbagai sumber heterogenitas Primordialisme juga keterikatan afinitas pada kultural asing cenderung menimbulkan konflik Benturan nilai bisa mengakibatkan krisis penganutan agama Dibutuhkan penganutan yang toleran, inklusif, nonsektarian, kontekstual, menghargai pluralisme & universalisme harmoni
AGAMA BUDDHA INDONESIA Buddhayana di Indonesia, mencari harmoni & kerukunan tanpa melenyapkan sekte atau identitas yg berlainan Bukan label yg mengategorikan agama Buddha sebagai salah satu dari tradisi sekte (seperti agama Buddha China, Jepang, Tibet, Thai) Memelihara benang merah penganutan agama Buddha dari zaman Sriwijaya, Mataram Kuno, Majapahit, hingga sekarang, karena agama Buddha bukan agama baru di Indonesia Agama yg universal (pd tingkat tekstual), ketika dipraktikkan sesuai dg perkembangan zaman, dapat bercorak lokal sesuai dg budaya setempat
WAWASAN KEBANGSAAN Nilai universal dari agama mengatasi perbedaan bangsa, tetapi agama Buddha tidak meniadakan kebangsaan Buddha menghargai eksistensi suatu negara/ bangsa, lewat petunjuk mengenai: 7 Syarat Kesejahteraan Negara (D. II, 74-75) agar dapat mempertahankan kedaulatan & hidup berdampingan dg negara lain secara damai Umat Buddha berkepribadian nasional menunjukkan watak/sifat/sikap keindonesiaan yg luhur, yg membedakannya dari bangsa lain
Mangka Jinatwa lawan Siwatatwa tunggal
BHINNEKA TUNGGAL IKATANHANA DHARMMA MANGRWA(Kitab Sutasoma)
Karena hakikat Jina dan Siwa adalah satu BERBEDA-BEDA NAMUN SATU TIADA KEBENARAN BERMUKA DUA
PANCASILA DASAR NEGARA Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa Kemanusiaan yang Adil dan Beradab Persatuan Indonesia Kerakyatan yang Dipimpin oleh Hikmat Kebijaksanaan dalam Permusyawaratan/Perwakilan Keadilan Sosial bagi Seluruh Rakyat Indonesia
Berdasarkan Pancasila, negara mengakui agama-agama yg berkeyakinan thd Tuhan Yang Maha Esa dan menolak ateisme Sebutan Tuhan dlm agama Buddha dipergunakan oleh UU RI No 43 Th 1999 (Perubahan atas UU No 8 Th 1974 tt PokokPokok Kepegawaian), sebagaimana Peraturan Pemerintah RI No 21 Th 1975 (tt Sumpah/Janji PNS): Demi Allah diganti dg demi Sang Hyang Adi-Buddha Lokakarya Pemantapan Ajaran Agama Buddha dg Kepribadian Nasional Indonesia 20 Pebr 79, Ketetapan Kongres Umat Buddha Indonesia 8 Mei 79 mengakui sebutan Tuhan Yang Maha Esa berbeda-beda, Nabi Buddha Gotama, Kitab Suci Tipitaka/Tripitaka, semua sekte mempunyai umat yg berbedabeda, melaksanakan Pedoman Penghayatan & Pengamalan Pancasila
PELESTARIAN WARISAN LELUHUR Umat Buddha Indonesia menerima warisan Candi sekaligus berikut semangat & hakikat spiritualitasnya Candi mengingatkan kita pada kejayaan di masa silam Pemusatan perayaan keagamaan secara nasional di Candi Borobudur (dll) bukan sekadar berkumpul, simbol persatuan & wawasan nusantara, tetapi menunjukkan bahwa hanya ada satu agama Buddha, yg memiliki akar budaya Indonesia
TOKOH-TOKOH NILAI BUDDHAYANAAshin Jinarakkhita Theravada, Indonesia Bhikkhu Buddhadasa Theravada, Thailand
B. Thich Nhat Hanh Mahayana, Vietnam
Dalai Lama Vajrayana, Tibet
B. Sri Dhammananda Theravada, Sri Lanka
Sammasambuddha Gotama Buddha-yana, Kapilavatthu
Ajahn Sulak Theravada, Thailand
Sangharakshita Mahayana, Inggris
BUDDHAYANA, HARUS MULAI DARI MANA?Kronologi Hidup Buddha Empat Kebenaran Mulia & Jalan Mulia Berfaktor Delapan Doktrin Dasar atau Sepuluh Prinsip Universal Seandainya karena terpaksa oleh keadaan atau tempat lahir kita harus berakar pada aliran tertentu, kita juga semestinya menjaga agar pikiran tetap terbuka dengan cara studi banding terhadap aliran Buddhis lain Jika kita serius terhadap perkembangan spiritual dan tidak terlalu memperhatikan aspek kultural dan historis, maka kita tidak perlu berafiliasi pada salah satu aliran/sekte/tradisi, karena bukankah semua aliran itu hanyalah suatu ekspresi kultural yg merupakan bentuk luar belaka?
10 PRINSIP UNIVERSAL DALAM AGAMA BUDDHA1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. BUDDHA Guru historis, prinsip spiritual Pencerahan, inspirasi, cara, tujuan CITA-CITA BODHISATTVA HIDUP INI SATU dan TAK BERBAGI KETIDAKKEKALAN atau LINGKARAN KEBERADAAN TANPA INTI atau KESUNYAAN KARMA dan KELAHIRAN BERULANG EMPAT KEBENARAN MULIA
MiddleWayHard But Not Too Hard
JALAN TENGAH tidak ekstremPENYELAMATAN DIRI SENDIRI
10. MEDITASI pengembangan pikiran tertinggi
BUDDHAYANA DI INDONESIABerpedoman pada Kitab Suci Tipitaka/Tripitaka Sumber utama semua aliran agama Buddha adalah kitab suci Tipitaka/Tripitaka Berkepribadian Nasional Untuk dapat mengakar dengan kuat, suatu agama harus menyesuaikan dengan budaya atau kepribadian bangsa setempat Agama Buddha, ketika masuk ke Tibet menjadi agama Buddha Tibet, ketika masuk ke Cina menjadi agama Buddha Cina. Ketika masuk ke Indonesia seharusnya menjadi agama Buddha Indonesia.
BUDDHAYANA DI INDONESIA Satu wihara untuk puja bakti semua aliran (dengan jadwal masing-masing) Bacaan paritta/mantra atau sutta/sutra tidak terbatas untuk penganut satu sekte
Hari-hari suci dirayakan tanpa membedakan tradisi Dharmadesana tidak eksklusif ajaran satu sekte Mempelajari ajaran intersekte pascasekte
Penggunaan kosakata Buddhis dlm bahasa Indonesia Individu dapat memilih tradisi yg paling cocok baginya
BUDDHA SENDIRI TRADISI APA? Tidak pernah terdapat Therawada, Mahayana, atau Vajrayana semasa Buddha Gotama membabarkan Dharma Label-label tersebut baru diperkenalkan di era sesudahnya oleh umat Buddha sebagai suatu alasan untuk memudahkan mereka memahami dari mana seseorang memandang kedalaman dan totalitas Buddha dan AjaranNya. Kita tidak seharusnya bermimpi untuk menyebut Buddha sebagai seorang Therawada, Mahayana, atau Vajrayana, bahkan Buddha tidak pernah menyebut diri-Nya sendiri sebagai seorang 'Buddhis!
ADI BUDDHA from the glossary of BuddhismSee also: Esoteric School; Vairocana Buddha. Term used in Mahayana Buddhism, especially in Nepal and Tibet, for the primordial Buddha, the Buddha without beginning. The primordial Buddha. Although the concept itself can be traced to early Buddhism, it is widely acknowledged that the notion of the Adi-Buddha was fully developed in esoteric Buddhism. In early Tibetan Vajrayana Buddhism, the Adi-Buddha is often associated with Samantabhadra, who represents the Dharma-kaya. In later Tibetan Vajrayana, it is Vajradhara who represents the Dharmakaya. In [traditional Mahayana] Buddhism, the Adi-Buddha is represented by Mahavairocana.
KASI dan WALUBI! Walubi bukanlah walubi KASI lahir dari perpecahan di WALUBI Perkembangan terkini
BUDDHAYANA Buddhayana yang baru saja kita sama sama pelajari adalah Buddhayana secara filosofis. Selanjutnya kita akan belajar Buddhayana secara Organisatoris