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Videopapers as a Tool for Reflection on Practice in Initial Teacher Education


<ul><li><p>This article was downloaded by: [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile]On: 14 October 2014, At: 09:21Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registeredoffice: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK</p><p>Technology, Pedagogy and EducationPublication details, including instructions for authors andsubscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/rtpe20</p><p>Videopapers as a tool for reflection onpractice in initial teacher educationElisabeth Lazarus a &amp; Federica Olivero aa Graduate School of Education , University of Bristol , Bristol, UKPublished online: 28 Oct 2009.</p><p>To cite this article: Elisabeth Lazarus &amp; Federica Olivero (2009) Videopapers as a tool for reflectionon practice in initial teacher education, Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 18:3, 255-267, DOI:10.1080/14759390903255528</p><p>To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14759390903255528</p><p>PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE</p><p>Taylor &amp; Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (theContent) contained in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor &amp; Francis,our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as tothe accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinionsand views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors,and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor &amp; Francis. The accuracy of the Contentshould not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sourcesof information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims,proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoeveror howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to orarising out of the use of the Content.</p><p>This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Anysubstantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing,systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms &amp;Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions</p></li><li><p>Technology, Pedagogy and EducationVol. 18, No. 3, October 2009, 255267</p><p>ISSN 1475-939X print/ISSN 1747-5139 online 2009 Association for Information Technology in Teacher EducationDOI: 10.1080/14759390903255528http://www.informaworld.com</p><p>Videopapers as a tool for reflection on practice in initial teacher education</p><p>Elisabeth Lazarus* and Federica Olivero</p><p>Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol, Bristol, UKTaylor and FrancisRTPE_A_425726.sgm10.1080/14759390903255528Technology, Pedagogy and Education1475-939X (print)/1747-5139 (online)Original Article2009Taylor &amp; Francis183000000October 2009ElisabethLazaruselisabeth.lazarus@bristol.ac.uk</p><p>This article will discuss issues concerning the potential of videopapers, drawingon a research project investigating the use of videopapers as a tool for reflectingon practice and as an assignment in initial teacher education. Student teachersengaged in initial teacher education programmes often find it difficult to seewhat is going on in their classrooms. They can further experience difficulties inlinking theory and research with observations of experienced teachers and theirown practice. Although the authors already provide opportunities to reflect onpractice underpinned by theory in current classroom-based tasks and assignments,and encourage optional videoing of lessons and seminar presentations, theybelieve that introducing student teachers to videopapers as a learning tool canprovide novice teachers and their tutors with unique, new learning opportunitiesand insights. However, writing a videopaper does throw up new challenges.</p><p>Keywords: videopapers; teacher education; technology; reflection on practice</p><p>Introduction video and videopapers</p><p>The use of video in teacher education is well established for purposes such as stimu-lated recall, clinical objectification (Tochon, 2001, 2007) and shared reflection by selfor in collaboration with others (Beardsley, Cogan-Drew, &amp; Olivero, 2007) and ingroupings including video clubs (Sherin, 2003, 2007). Video use for mentoring andcoaching purposes, allowing less experienced student teachers or teachers the oppor-tunity of analysing pedagogical approaches in a given context, is also widely prac-tised. In some contexts where the access to classrooms, and hence the observation ofexperienced teachers, is problematic, multi-layered video case studies are performinga very important function in supporting the student teachers reflective processes(Newhouse, Lane, &amp; Brown, 2007). Rapid development of digital technologies foranalysis or editing of individual or collaborative practices (Pea &amp; Hoffert, 2007) hasallowed easy access to video as a relatively cheap analytical tool. In Britain theestablishment of Teachers TV (http://teachers.tv) with thousands of commissionedvideo clips of teachers working in a wide range of schools and age phases has helpedspread the use of short videos as a professional development tool for student teachersand teachers alike.</p><p>Amongst various ways of using video in teacher education, a new tool, calledvideopaper, looked particularly interesting to us and worth investigating in terms ofits potential in initial teacher education. The idea of videopapers was developed as partof the Bridging Research and Practice project at TERC (Boston, MA) to create an</p><p>*Corresponding author. Email: elisabeth.lazarus@bristol.ac.uk</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [P</p><p>ontif</p><p>icia U</p><p>nivers</p><p>idad C</p><p>atolic</p><p>a de C</p><p>hile] </p><p>at 09</p><p>:21 14</p><p> Octo</p><p>ber 2</p><p>014 </p></li><li><p>256 E. Lazarus and F. Olivero</p><p>alternative genre for the production, use and dissemination of educational research.Videopapers are multimedia documents that integrate and synchronise video, imagesand text in one non-linear, cohesive document (Nemirovsky, DiMatta, Ribeiro, &amp;Lara-Meloy, 2005). They can easily be created via the free software VideoPaperBuilder (http://vpb.concord.org).</p><p>Videopapers have been used as a means of bridging theory and practice and thedifferent discourse communities of researchers and practitioners (Barnes &amp; Suther-land, 2007; Olivero, John, &amp; Sutherland, 2004), helping to disseminate researchevidence to a wider audience. It has been noted that the different discourse communi-ties of academic research and clinical practice can be divided by different values andperspectives (Gee, 1996). Beardsley et al. (2007) contend that for some practitionersacademic discourse lacks the vitality and engagement of the classroom whilst forsome researchers classroom based research provides little opportunity to explorebroad themes that inspire intellectual growth (p. 479). Beyond offering opportunitiesfor research dissemination in a multimodal way, videopapers have been shown tocombine the excitement and complexity of classroom practice (Olivero &amp; Lazarus,2007, 2009; Smith &amp; Krumsvik, 2007) with reflections on educational theory(academic research), thereby helping to transform teacher education and professionaldevelopment.</p><p>The Bridging Research and Practice project conjectured that teachers, research-ers and other communities interested in education could use videopapers to make theirconversations more grounded in actual events, more insightful, and more resistant tooversimplifications (Cogan-Drew, 2007) and that videopapers tend to be accessibleto viewers with diverse purposes and goals (Carraher, Schliemann, &amp; Brizuela, 2000,p. 5). What drew us to videopapers as a tool in initial teacher education were the possi-bilities of creating means of representation that capture the language of the practice,that is, the sights, sounds and interactive features of the classroom together withvisual, oral and physical clues (Olivero &amp; Lazarus, 2009). We hoped that videopaperswould add a different dimension where student teachers could watch themselves,write about themselves and show their work to others, and this could contribute towhat Pea and Hoffert (2007, p. 454) call guided noticing. Although prompts and helpcan be provided by others, the noticing in our case was initially a private activity, anopportunity to reflect on ones own development and progress.</p><p>Developing reflective practice</p><p>The ability to reflect on and analyse practice is a fundamental concept we encouragein our initial teacher education programme for modern foreign languages at theUniversity of Bristol and this view is shared by colleagues across different teacherpreparation programmes and research communities (cf. Furlong, 2000; Shulman &amp;Shulman, 2004; Tomlinson, 1995; Ward &amp; McCotter, 2004). We consider that: </p><p>three main thinking processes underpin teaching: the intuitive thinking that underliesaction and rapid decision making, the analytical and objective thinking that allowsteachers to plan for learning and the reflective thinking that is crucial to monitoring andlearning from experience. (Atkinson &amp; Claxton, 2000, p. 6)</p><p>Our conception of reflective practice is heavily influenced by Dewey (1933) andSchn (1987) and we see school-based mentors and university tutors as significantpartners in encouraging students teachers in these endeavours. Our views of mentoring</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [P</p><p>ontif</p><p>icia U</p><p>nivers</p><p>idad C</p><p>atolic</p><p>a de C</p><p>hile] </p><p>at 09</p><p>:21 14</p><p> Octo</p><p>ber 2</p><p>014 </p></li><li><p>Technology, Pedagogy and Education 257</p><p>have evolved over time. Furlong and Maynards (1995) model of stages of studentteachers development, linked to different forms of mentoring, and how these canencourage levels of reflection, analysis and personal practice, is at their core. We alsobelieve that successful teachers need to be aware of the role intuition plays in theirdeveloping practice (John, 2000; Lazarus, 2000) and that (one) of the most importantpreliminary tasks for educators, in their roles both as learners and teachers is to engagein a process of critical reflection upon their outmoded implicit theories of learning(Claxton, 1996, p. 55). One way of doing this is for the individual to take a criticallook at their own practice by working with video recordings.</p><p>Within the modern foreign languages course at the University of Bristol, studentteachers over the years have been encouraged to develop their ability to reflect criti-cally on practice by initially watching experienced teachers and noting their commentson given observation formats of a quantitative, qualitative and ethnographic nature.These observations are real (taking place in different classrooms) or virtual (on video).The notes are then discussed with relevant others such as experienced teachers,school-based mentors, tutors and fellow students both at school and at the university.The notes have been used in assignments to encourage an engagement with multipleperspectives. Student teachers have been encouraged and expected to draw on practi-tioner-orientated and research-based literature to underpin personal experience andpractice. A well-established mentoring process ensures that student teachers obtaindetailed oral and written feedback from their school-based mentors and theiruniversity tutors.</p><p>The project</p><p>In our experience, student teachers engaged in initial teacher education programmesoften find it difficult to see what is happening in their classrooms. Experiencedteachers can make their work look so effortless and student teachers go through hugehighs and lows after lessons which can make providing feedback and analysis difficultfor the observer. They can further experience difficulties in linking practice, theoryand research. Although our teacher education programme already provides opportuni-ties to reflect on personal practice, alone or with others, and an explicit requirementto engage with educational research and theory, the advent of videopapers appears tous to provide a new and different dimension in teacher education and in theprofessional development of the student teacher.</p><p>Videopapers enable the developing teacher to select sequences and moments inthe classroom (video clips), link these to childrens work (slides), a personal analysis(text), underpinned by research (text) all in one place and in one environment,thereby creating a potentially very powerful digital product which could be anelement of their professional development portfolio. As with all work involvingvideo and learners, ethical considerations are at the forefront, as permission for film-ing and sharing findings needs to be granted by student teachers, pupils, parents andschools.</p><p>The aims of the project</p><p>More specifically, the aims of the project were to pilot the use of videopapers as areflective learning tool for student teachers and to investigate advantages and disad-vantages over more conventional use of videos, observation tasks and assignments (in</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [P</p><p>ontif</p><p>icia U</p><p>nivers</p><p>idad C</p><p>atolic</p><p>a de C</p><p>hile] </p><p>at 09</p><p>:21 14</p><p> Octo</p><p>ber 2</p><p>014 </p></li><li><p>258 E. Lazarus and F. Olivero</p><p>the context of modern foreign languages [MFL] teacher education). We wanted toinvestigate how well videopapers could work as one of three MFL assignments. ThePGCE1 year is very busy with 24 weeks spent in schools and 12 at the university.Time is very precious and it was decided to make one of the assignments an optionalvideopaper. As we also work with newly qualified teachers and those in the earlyyears of their career, we also wanted to start an exploration of whether videopaperscould feature as a significant element of an emerging new professional developmentportfolio.</p><p>The project also investigated how student teachers approached the reading andwriting of a videopaper in comparison to traditional academic texts and how videopa-pers communicated and represented practice; these findings have been publishedelsewhere (Olivero &amp; Lazarus, 2009).</p><p>Project design</p><p>The project involved a qualitative study of three groups of MFL student teachers whovolunteered to take part in the project from 20052007, a total of 18 student teachers.One researcher (Olivero), one teacher educator (Lazarus) and one MSc student(Daniil) who was writing her dissertation on videopapers (Daniil, 2007) were engagedin running the workshops, collecting and analysing the data and ultimately assessingthe finished videopaper. The student teachers were all graduates enrolled on a one-year initial teacher education programme who had varied backgrounds in terms ofqualifications (BA, MA and PhD or equivalent degrees from their home countries).Their experience and confidence in teaching and in the use of technology variedconsiderably. The groups consisted of native and non-native speakers of language(s)covering French, German and Spanish.</p><p>The student teachers were asked to create a videopaper instead of a written essayfor one of the units that required them to select and reflect on a key issue or issuesrelated to their practice. They attended a number of workshops focusing on: principlesand potentiality of the software, film editing and building a videop...</p></li></ul>


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