1 Process Documentation Dr.Zubeeda Quraishy Dept of Informatics University of Oslo, Norway.

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  • 1 Process Documentation Dr.Zubeeda Quraishy Dept of Informatics University of Oslo, Norway
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  • 2 Process Documentation This session provides a practical approach to managing and preparing the documentation necessary for implementing any systemThis session provides a practical approach to managing and preparing the documentation necessary for implementing any system
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  • 3 What is Process Documentation? The term was first used in 1978 to refer to a pilot project in Phillippines.The term was first used in 1978 to refer to a pilot project in Phillippines. In this project full time social scientists stayed in project villages and made detailed observations and documented the process of user group (farmers) formation and functioningIn this project full time social scientists stayed in project villages and made detailed observations and documented the process of user group (farmers) formation and functioning
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  • 4 Basic Objective of Process Documentation To learn from implementation experience and in the light of this modify the strategy and ultimately, policy(Mosse,1998)To learn from implementation experience and in the light of this modify the strategy and ultimately, policy(Mosse,1998) (Ref:Mosse, David,1998,Process documentation research and process monitoring, in David Mosse, John Fennigton and Alan Rew (Eds) Development as Process: Concepts and Methods for working with Complexity, London: Routledge, pp 31-53). (Ref:Mosse, David,1998,Process documentation research and process monitoring, in David Mosse, John Fennigton and Alan Rew (Eds) Development as Process: Concepts and Methods for working with Complexity, London: Routledge, pp 31-53).
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  • 5 Process Documentation Research Process Documentation Research done in several countries and different context shows that it is used more in developing greater capacities for managing local resources.Process Documentation Research done in several countries and different context shows that it is used more in developing greater capacities for managing local resources. In fact PDR is not considered a monitoring device alone, but rather as a means to develop local communitys capability to plan and build institutions to solve the local problems in areas/sectors where programme expansions are planned. In fact PDR is not considered a monitoring device alone, but rather as a means to develop local communitys capability to plan and build institutions to solve the local problems in areas/sectors where programme expansions are planned. Among the different mechanisms used PD is the most intensive among them.Among the different mechanisms used PD is the most intensive among them.
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  • 6 Process Definition and Implementation Process Definition and Implementation Organization Processes should aim to deliver the objectives of the organization.Organization Processes should aim to deliver the objectives of the organization. Process Definition initiation starts with understanding the objectives of the organization, mapping the existing processes and then working towards closing the gaps that may exist.Process Definition initiation starts with understanding the objectives of the organization, mapping the existing processes and then working towards closing the gaps that may exist. For ex, need for a situation analysis before implementing any systems development or doing action research (FHIMS in Andhra Pradesh)For ex, need for a situation analysis before implementing any systems development or doing action research (FHIMS in Andhra Pradesh)
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  • 7 Process Implementation A jointly approved Action Plan is defined with Priorities, Considerations and Constraints pertaining to the organization.A jointly approved Action Plan is defined with Priorities, Considerations and Constraints pertaining to the organization. Processes are designed to meet the organization's Objectives. Automation tools are incorporated into the processes wherever appropriate.Processes are designed to meet the organization's Objectives. Automation tools are incorporated into the processes wherever appropriate. Process Training and facilitation form a part of the mandate.Process Training and facilitation form a part of the mandate.
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  • 8 Process Implementation The Process Implementation follows with detailed process design, pilot implementation, refinement and stabilization.The Process Implementation follows with detailed process design, pilot implementation, refinement and stabilization. Typically, association with the collaborators would continue for a period such that all teams have institutionalized their processes.Typically, association with the collaborators would continue for a period such that all teams have institutionalized their processes. The Internal Quality Assessment and evaluation by external agencies can continue subsequently.The Internal Quality Assessment and evaluation by external agencies can continue subsequently.
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  • 9 Why Process Documentation? Most of the process-oriented methodologies are meant to record programmes as they occur and feed the information back to managers, other researchers, policy makers to help them in understanding the working of the project better.Most of the process-oriented methodologies are meant to record programmes as they occur and feed the information back to managers, other researchers, policy makers to help them in understanding the working of the project better. However there are several other purposes, equally important, for which processes are sought and they areHowever there are several other purposes, equally important, for which processes are sought and they are
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  • 10 Need for Process Information Used by agencies undertaking new and complex forms as part of expansion of programmes, which need understanding about stakeholder participation.Used by agencies undertaking new and complex forms as part of expansion of programmes, which need understanding about stakeholder participation. Such information is often needed to validate and approach the programe and consequent policy formation.Such information is often needed to validate and approach the programe and consequent policy formation.
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  • 11 Use of Process Information Such information in the context of inter agency collaboration(ex. Govt, NGO and Community) can help determine the conditions necessary for effective collaboration and performance.Such information in the context of inter agency collaboration(ex. Govt, NGO and Community) can help determine the conditions necessary for effective collaboration and performance. Process monitoring is used to construct institutional ethnography.Process monitoring is used to construct institutional ethnography. Process monitoring helps provide a framework for negotiating meanings, agreements, and validating approaches and resolving differences between all the component units of the programme.
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  • 12 Use of Process Information Anyone developing or working towards creating any software is responsible for managing and maintaining software process and quality system related documentation (e.g., process/quality policies, procedures, forms, etc.)Anyone developing or working towards creating any software is responsible for managing and maintaining software process and quality system related documentation (e.g., process/quality policies, procedures, forms, etc.)
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  • 13 Process Documentation IT Sector Among many unappealing tasks(attending late night calls, last minute changes to schedule, unreasonable customer requests) of IT professionals one of them is Process Documentation.Among many unappealing tasks(attending late night calls, last minute changes to schedule, unreasonable customer requests) of IT professionals one of them is Process Documentation.
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  • 14 Importance of Process Documentation An important aspect of any process is the documentation that accompanies it,(such as logging trouble calls, requesting system changes, or executing disaster recovery plans).An important aspect of any process is the documentation that accompanies it,(such as logging trouble calls, requesting system changes, or executing disaster recovery plans).
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  • 15 Importance of Process Documentation Many organisations or IT companies develop excellent processes but fail to document them adequately. After an initially successful implementation of the process, many of these procedures go unused due to lack of documentation, particularly as new staff members who are unfamiliar with the process attempt to use it.Many organisations or IT companies develop excellent processes but fail to document them adequately. After an initially successful implementation of the process, many of these procedures go unused due to lack of documentation, particularly as new staff members who are unfamiliar with the process attempt to use it.
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  • 16 Why Actively Manage the Processes? Methodical Process Management can identify bottlenecks and inefficiencies that are invisible to the organizationand it can find room for improvement even in well-refined procedures.Methodical Process Management can identify bottlenecks and inefficiencies that are invisible to the organizationand it can find room for improvement even in well-refined procedures.
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  • 17 Proactively managing the processes can help organisation to Eliminate flawsEliminate flaws Reduce the time spent on a specific taskReduce the time spent on a specific task Decrease costsDecrease costs Decrease resources associated with any taskDecrease resources associated with any task Improve efficiencyImprove efficiency Improve overall qualityImprove overall quality Increase customer and employee satisfactionIncrease customer and employee satisfaction
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  • 18 Techniques Very few techniques are available to quantify the quality and value of Process Documentation.Very few techniques are available to quantify the quality and value of Process Documentation.
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  • 19 Importance of Evaluating the Quality of Process Documentation In IT sectors and in other organisations where the use of processes is essentialIn IT sectors and in other organisations where the use of processes is essential The purpose of evaluating the quality of content is important:The purpose of evaluating the quality of content is important: a.) to show to what degree the material is suitable for use.a.) to show to what degree the material is suitable for use.
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  • 20 Importance of Evaluating the Quality of Process Documentation b) to show how important the documentation is to the support of the process and how important the process is to the support of the business.b) to show how important the documentation is to the support of the process and how important the process is to the support of the business. The quality of the content of documentation is evaluated with 10 common characteristics of usability:The quality of the content of documentation is evaluated with 10 common characteristics of usability:
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  • 21 Characteristics Denoting Quality Attributes of Process Documentation Ownership. This characteristic rates the degree to which the three key ownership rolesprocess owner, documentation custodian, and technical writerare clearly identified, understood, and supported. For some processes, the same individual may have all three roles.Ownership. This characteristic rates the degree to which the three key ownership rolesprocess owner, documentation custodian, and technical writerare clearly identified, understood, and supported. For some processes, the same individual may have all three roles.
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  • 22 (Cont..) Characteristics Denoting Quality Attributes of Process Documentation Readability :This characteristic rates the clarity and simplicity of the written documentation.Readability :This characteristic rates the clarity and simplicity of the written documentation. This characteristic especially looks at how well the level of the material matches the skill and experience level of the audience.
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  • 23 (Cont) Characteristics Denoting Quality Attributes of Process Documentation Accuracy. This characteristic rates the technical accuracy of the material.Accuracy. This characteristic rates the technical accuracy of the material.
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  • 24 (Cont..) Characteristics Denoting Quality Attributes of Process Documentation Format: rates the overall organization of the material; how easy it is to follow; how well it keeps a consistent level of technical depth; and to what degree it documents and describes an actual process rather than merely duplicating tables, spreadsheets, and metrics.Format: rates the overall organization of the material; how easy it is to follow; how well it keeps a consistent level of technical depth; and to what degree it documents and describes an actual process rather than merely duplicating tables, spreadsheets, and metrics.
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  • 25 (Cont) Characteristics Denoting Quality Attributes of Process Documentation Accessibility : rates the ease or difficulty of accessibility.Accessibility : rates the ease or difficulty of accessibility. Current status : rates to what degree the current version of the documentation is up to date and the frequency with which it's kept current.Current status : rates to what degree the current version of the documentation is up to date and the frequency with which it's kept current. Ease of update : rates the relative ease or difficulty with which the documentation can be updated, including revision and distribution of new versions.Ease of update : rates the relative ease or difficulty with which the documentation can be updated, including revision and distribution of new versions.
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  • 26 (Cont) Characteristics Denoting Quality Attributes of Process Documentation Effectiveness: rates the overall usability of the documentation, including the use of appropriate examples, graphics, color coding, use on multiple platforms, and compliance with existing standards (if available).Effectiveness: rates the overall usability of the documentation, including the use of appropriate examples, graphics, color coding, use on multiple platforms, and compliance with existing standards (if available). Accountability: rates to what degree the documentation is being read, understood, and effectively used; all appropriate users are identified and held accountable for proper use of the documentation.Accountability: rates to what degree the documentation is being read, understood, and effectively used; all appropriate users are identified and held accountable for proper use of the documentation.
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  • 27 The value of the documentation to the environment for which it was intended is evaluated using five common characteristics Criticality of the process: Describes how critical is the process to the success of the organisation or business of the company.Criticality of the process: Describes how critical is the process to the success of the organisation or business of the company. Frequency of use: Describes how frequently the documentation is used or referenced.Frequency of use: Describes how frequently the documentation is used or referenced. Number of users: Describes the approximate number of personnel who will likely want or need to use this documentation.Number of users: Describes the approximate number of personnel who will likely want or need to use this documentation.
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  • 28 The value of the documentation to the environment for which it was intended is evaluated using five common characteristics Variety of users: This characteristic describes the variety of different functional areas or skill levels of personnel who will likely use this documentation.Variety of users: This characteristic describes the variety of different functional areas or skill levels of personnel who will likely use this documentation. Impact of non-use: Describes the level of adverse impact that's likely to occur if the documentation is not used properly.Impact of non-use: Describes the level of adverse impact that's likely to occur if the documentation is not used properly.
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  • 29 Different Approaches to Understand Process Field-level activitiesField-level activities MeetingsMeetings NegotiationsNegotiations Decision-takenDecision-taken PlanningPlanning Implementation of decisionsImplementation of decisions Resolution of differencesResolution of differences
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  • 30 Methodology for Documenting the Process Use of existing documentary materialUse of existing documentary material RecordsRecords Structured interviewsStructured interviews Case studiesCase studies Reconstruction of eventsReconstruction of events Field-diaries of project staffField-diaries of project staff
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  • 31 Methodology for Documenting the Process Video-and audio recordingsVideo-and audio recordings Newspaper clippingsNewspaper clippings Software developmentSoftware development Participant observationParticipant observation **None of the above methods are new in themselves in the social science methodology, but what is new is the use to which they are put. (Refer PD of HISP implemented in India)**None of the above methods are new in themselves in the social science methodology, but what is new is the use to which they are put. (Refer PD of HISP implemented in India)
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  • 32 In essence Process documentation means and involves Continuous information gathering over a period of the programme / project.Continuous information gathering over a period of the programme / project. Orientation to the present-What is happening right now.Orientation to the present-What is happening right now. Monitoring which is action oriented in the sense that it is directed towards participants who are in a position to read and take immediate action.Monitoring which is action oriented in the sense that it is directed towards participants who are in a position to read and take immediate action.
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  • 33 In essence Process documentation means and involves the monitoring is inductive and open-ended thus broadening the frame of reference. Thus, the process information completely breaks away from the general image of development projects or programmes as closed, static, predictable and controllable tech-rational systems (Mosse,1998:11).the monitoring is inductive and open-ended thus broadening the frame of reference. Thus, the process information completely breaks away from the general image of development projects or programmes as closed, static, predictable and controllable tech-rational systems (Mosse,1998:11).
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  • 34 Process Documentation Learn how to design, write and organize your documentation to best suit your organisation or workLearn how to design, write and organize your documentation to best suit your organisation or work various documentation structures and access medium can be used.various documentation structures and access medium can be used. How to pay particular attention to managing and controlling the outcome of your documentation efforts (the documentation authorities, distribution, amendments, identification,...).How to pay particular attention to managing and controlling the outcome of your documentation efforts (the documentation authorities, distribution, amendments, identification,...). Ideas that evolve from the documentation and maintaining its alignment with changing needs should be paid attention. Ideas that evolve from the documentation and maintaining its alignment with changing needs should be paid attention.
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  • 35 Points to note in Developing a Process Documenatation Develop an action plan to manage the creation of a policy and process documentation system that effectively prescribes action and expedites effortsDevelop an action plan to manage the creation of a policy and process documentation system that effectively prescribes action and expedites efforts Design a documentation structure suited to your business needs and organizational size.Design a documentation structure suited to your business needs and organizational size. Analyze the potential of process documentation verses training material.Analyze the potential of process documentation verses training material.
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  • 36 Points to note in Developing a Process Documenatation Learn various ways to organize and express your organisations goals or companys expectations; for example, your company's quality policy statement (re: ISO 9001), operational policies.Learn various ways to organize and express your organisations goals or companys expectations; for example, your company's quality policy statement (re: ISO 9001), operational policies. ( The ISO organization was established by European countries as a way to certify the quality control systems of companies across international boundaries ) Examine the merits of various structures and styles to compose/access both policy and process documentation (e.g., procedures and their job aids).Examine the merits of various structures and styles to compose/access both policy and process documentation (e.g., procedures and their job aids). Discover the key criteria to keeping it simple.Discover the key criteria to keeping it simple.

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