1 LIS 205: Introduction to Information Sources & Services Unit 4: Part 1—Information Seeking Behavior and the Reference Interview Kevin Rioux, PhD and.
<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> 1 LIS 205: Introduction to Information Sources & Services Unit 4: Part 1Information Seeking Behavior and the Reference Interview Kevin Rioux, PhD and Nancy Becker, EdD Division of Library and Information Science </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> 2 Understanding the User is Crucial To recognize the discrepancy between what people do and what we think they do To develop responsive services To conduct effective reference interviews </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> 3 Information Search Model Linear model based on strategies User perceives a need in his/her environment User searches for information Uses variety of sources Information systems Human Personal Result may be successful or not Success=satisfaction Failure=Repetition and/or frustration </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> 4 Problems Associated with the Information Search Model Linear with no allowance for Re-definition of need Growth or learning Isolates information search skills from critical thinking and other higher level skills Many traditional models of reference interactions are based on this model of user behavior </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> 5 Information Search Process Model Process oriented Emphasis is on learning transferable skills Cognitive development Enhancing user effectiveness Kulthaus (Rutgers) model of information seeking process Research based Studied high school students Has been replicated with other groups Incorporates affective, cognitive, and physical components </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> 6 Kuhlthaus Model Stages Initiation Selection Exploration Formulation Collection Search closure </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> 7 How Does This Relate to Reference Interviews? User is an active participant in the information search process Cognitive processes are involved in information seeking Acknowledges an affective component of information seeking/behavior User knowledge increases with experience </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> 8 Unit 4: Part 2 The Reference Interview </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> 9 Why Do a Reference Interview? Allows the professional to reach a clear understanding of the users need Most user questions need some negotiation for clarity Some questions, as presented, may be misleading An effective interview facilitates clarification and expansion of the question </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> 10 Information Needs May differ from wants/demands Often ambiguous Not easily articulated May be poorly understood by user & information professional </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> 11 Information Seeking According to Dervin: Not objective and external But rather constructed by the user What the user finds informing Sense-making process </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> 12 The Reference Interview The user and the librarian tap into each others and their own memories to establish a similar information base, including of the query and a perception of an acceptable answer. (Marilyn White) Anomolous States of Knowledge (ASK Hypothesis)Nick Belkin (Rutgers) </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> 13 Other viewpoints Goal is to match frames to come to a common understanding (Chu) Similar to physician-patient interviews (Grover) </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> 14 Barriers to Effective Interviewing Communication errors Environmental noise Meaning differences Pronunciation variants Second-hand errors Psychological barriers Brought by the user Imposed by the librarian </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> 15 Environmental noise Volume of noise in the area Number of interruptions Privacy concerns </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> 16 Meaning Differences When you dont understand the terminology Ask the user to explain what he/she means Restate your understanding of the questions in your own words Dont confuse the user with library jargon Avoid library acronyms RLIN, OCLC, ISBN Translate terms into natural language Controlled vocabulary: Subject Citations: Author, title, etc. </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> 17 Communication Errors Homophones Encourage user to talk about the topic Elicit more contextual information (Information seeking in context very important research area in LIS) Oranges & peaches: Origin of the Species Ask open questions Ask neutral questions </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> 18 The Reference Process Bridging the gap between need and information Useful intervention in the individual sense-making process (Dervin) </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> 19 Interviewing Strategies Listen Actively and carefully Dont prejudge Consider what is said and what is NOT said </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> 20 Interviewing Strategies Pay attention to the user Make eye contact Body language counts! </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> 21 Interviewing Strategies Get the user to talk Ask questions Closed Open-ended </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> 22 Find out: Context Why is this information needed? Scope Are there any parameters, e.g., time, geographic, language, etc. Limitations What has the user already tried/done? </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> 23 After the Interview Encourage patron to return for additional help, if needed Observe patron Follow-up with Did you find what you needed? </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> 24 Termination of the Interview Knowledge-related Interpersonal communication Policy & institutional factors </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> 25 Policy Questions Is the mission of the department to educate or provide answers? Are there different levels of service for different classes of users? How much time should be spent with a user on one query? </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> 26 Policy Questions What is the minimal level of acceptable service? Are there types of questions which are not handled? </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> 27 Unit 4:Part 2Geographical Information Sources </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> 28 Geographical Sources Types Maps and atlases Gazetteers Guidebooks Use Ready reference Research Environmental analyses Historical studies </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> 29 Maps and Atlases Maps Graphic representation on a flat surface of certain boundaries of the earth, as well as the moon, the planets and the solar system Atlases Systematic collection of maps </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> 30 Types of Maps Thematic Serves a special purpose or theme, e.g., historical, economic, etc. Topographic Represents the exact physical configuration of an area Physical Shows features and the nature of the earths surface, atmosphere and climate, distribution of plant life, etc. </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> 31 Types of Maps Political Shows political boundaries, e.g., towns, cities, counties, and states Index Shows the total geographic coverage encompassed by a set or series of maps </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> 32 Cartography Definition: Art of map-making Major goal & headache: Achieving an accurate representation Major source of maps and mapping information: US Government Key publishers: Oxford University Press, Rand McNally, C.S. Hammond, Baedeker, DeLorme, John Bartholomew, Michelin, Kummerly & Frey </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> 33 Evaluation of Maps/Atlases Authority Currency (changing names) Revision policy Encyclopedia information Nationalism Topical approaches Balance/content Quality of maps Scale and projection Topographical representation Format Scale Indexing </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> 34 Evaluation of Maps/Atlases Vernacular vs. language of the country of publication (Florence vs. Firenze) Transliteration of names (Zhriev, Zchriev) Place name control Location of small towns Statistical data Subject access </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> 35 Some of the best The Times Atlas of the World Hammond: Atlas of the World Rand McNally: The New International Atlas Oxford University Press: Atlas of the World DeLorme: Street Atlas USA CD-ROM, Topo USA </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> 36 Some specialized Atlases The Historical Atlas of the United States Times Atlas of World History The Historical Atlas of Political Parties Atlas of the Second World War Atlas of the Holocaust An Atlas of World Political Flashpoints Atlas of the Arab World </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> 37 Collecting Maps and Atlases Selection Acquisition Access Storage </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> 38 Geographic Information System What is GIS? In the strictist sense, A GIS is a computer system capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations. (U.S.G.S.) USGS Geographic Information Systems http://www.usgs.gov/research/gis/title.html Your Internet Guide to Geographic Information Systems http://www.cast.uark.edu/ </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> 39 Gazetteers Geographical dictionaries, usually of place names Some atlases include gazetteers Useful for both descriptive and locational information National Gazetteer of the United States of America Merriam-Webster Geographical Dictionary </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> 40 Guidebooks Provide basic information useful to travelers about a place Popular guides, e.g., Fodors, Michelin Guides, Green Guides Aimed at a particular audience, e.g., Lets Go Europe, Lonely Planet Specialized, e.g., guides to museums Literary/armchair travel </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> 41 Online Geographic Resources Periodical Historical Atlas of Europe http://www.euratlas.com/ OSSHE Historical & Cultural Atlas http://uoregon.edu/~atlas Geography IQ World Atlas http://www.geographyiq.com Library of Congress Map Collection http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gmdhtml/gmdhome </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> 42 More Online Geographic Sources Google Maps http://maps.google.com/ Satellite imagery Street maps Hybrids MapQuest http:www.mapquest.com University of Arkansas Center for Advanced Spatial Technology http://www.cast.uark.edu/ Map Machine http://plasma.nationalgeographic.com/mapmachine/ U.S. Geological Survey http://www.usgs.gov/ Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/index.html </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> 43 Unit 4:Part 3Biographical Information Sources </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> 44 Biography One of the most common types of ready reference General curiosity Imposed search for biographical info Need to introduce a speaker Biographical sources Writings Place of birth/death Family situations Living people Deceased people (retrospective biographies) </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> 45 Biographical Directories vs. Dictionaries (not always distinct) Biographical directories tend to have Shorter entries More succinct May cover more people Biographical dictionaries Longer essays Much more detailed Narrower coverage </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> 46 Evaluating biographical materials: Scope Cover specific populations Be aware of vanity books Comprehensiveness Accuracy Biographee-based information Secondary information Currency Usually are revised every year or every other year Needs of users Cost Uniqueness </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> 47 Important biographical sources Whos Who in America (also covers Canada and Mexico) biennial Not based on just wealth and notoriety, but on achievement Government officials are usually automatically included, as are major university administrators and business leaders Includes a retiree index * indicates that the entry was created by the editors without the input of the biographee. Specialized Whos Who sources Women Regional Ethnic International Professional Etc. </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> 48 Important biographical sources, contd. Current Biography (very useful!) Biographical essays about newsworthy people in a variety of fields. Based on articles that have appeared in newspapers and magazines Family details, height, clothing, personal style and habits Available via the SJ Library OPAC Contemporary Authors Biography.com Many in the SJU Library Databases and eReference links </li> </ul>