1 LIS 204: Introduction to Library and Information Studies Week Two Kevin Rioux, PhD.
LIS 204: Introduction to Library and Information StudiesWeek TwoKevin Rioux, PhDPart 1The BasicsWorking definition of libraryOrganizations whose purpose is to collect, maintain, organize, and disseminate recorded knowledge or information where emphasis is on promoting the accessibility and utility of that knowledge or information to meet users needs (based on Rubin).Rubins Framework:Libraries are but one part of a larger information infrastructure that is enormously complex and varied.Libraries typically work in the public interestOpen access to informationCopyright and fair useInformation securityPrivacyCost of informationMetaphors commonly used to describe the information infrastructure:Flood of informationInformation explosion Information overloadBombarded with informationAn area of opportunity for librariansWe are a discipline concerned with providing access to vast amounts of accumulated knowledge and information.Likely that libraries and librarians will be in higher demand to help deal with the overabundance of information.HAVE TO BE ACTIVE AND SEIZE THE MOMENT ON THIS!!!A few words about electronic databasesNow mostly distributed onlineFull text is growing in popularity. Often licenses are restricted.Abstracted indexes keeps distribution control with publishers.In a greater sense, all electronic resources, including the Web, is an electronic databaseA few words about electronic publishingEver increasingEspecially relevant to academic libraries and scholarly researchesCosts for scholarly journals are very highCosts and delays for refereeingE-publishing gets ideas out faster and cheaper to more peoplePart 2From Past to PresentEarly librariesFirst library-like organization was established by the Sumerians in Mesopotamia, circa. 3000 BCPrimarily emerged for commercial purposesRecord keeping and organization of commercial documentsMostly clay tabletsHad special custodians (proto-librarians)Scholarly, religious and cultural records were included laterAncient Egyptian librariesEgyptians were the first to use papyrus (early paper) scrollsScribes were educated and highly esteemed men who performed librarian functionsLibraries had a larger scope: not just commercial, but governmental and religiousAssyrian LibrariesKing Ashurbanipal (circa 800 BC) was the first to put forth idea that the library should contain reference materials and be an educational resource for future generationsIdea of cultural record emergesActively sought materials on literature, history, religion, mathematics, language, etc.: another new trendThese were arranged in a standard formatKeeper of the Books = librarianAncient Greek LibrariesAround 500 BC, writings of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle made reading and writing highly esteemed in Greek culture. Heretofore, was not that large of a cultural influence.This high esteem of reading and learning was spread throughout the ancient world by Alexander the Great.Library at AlexandriaEstablished by Ptolemy (one of Alexanders generals)Very influential to this day among scholarsGoal was to collect all Greek literature, and much foreign literatureInnovations developed here:Translation of textsOrganization schemesAggressive and strategized collection developmentOpened up to a much wider audienceNew Library at Alexandriahttp://www.bibalex.org/English/index.aspxDecline of Ancient Libraries in the WestRomans picked up the Greek model, but most werent quite as successful---mostly a status symbol.Most libraries in the Roman Empire were destroyed as it declined due to corruption and Barbarian and Nordic invaders.Byzantine and Ancient Arabic World LibrariesWere not affected during the Dark Ages (beginning at about 500 AD) as Western Europe wasWestern thought was preserved in these librariesBoth Constantinople and Arabic cultures valued writing and education.Their libraries were both scholarly and religiousActively collected works from all over the ancient worldMonastic LibrariesMostly religious texts, but some secularOften monks were employed copying and illuminating manuscripts.Good example of these: Dutch National Library: http://www.kb.nl/kb/manuscripts/Dominican Friars developed some of our present tasks: spine labels, weeding, hours, collection development.Cathedral/University LibrariesLate Middle Ages, universities sprang up in the improving intellectual scene: e.g., Bologna, Paris, OxfordLibraries were set up to support the research and curriculum needsBoth religious and secular materialsRenaissanceExplosion of cultural activityInterest in sciencesArtsRenewed interest in Greek and Roman philosophyMostly private librariesPublic not invited, but did us a favor of preserving ancient textsPrinting Press1464 in Mainz, GermanyMore booksCovering more subjectsFor more peopleMore cheaplyWhich stimulated literacySpurred foundation of many new libraries18th Century American LibrariesIn the 1700s, mostly small religious or private librariesLiteracy somewhat lowFew colleges/universities, libraries were not a key component of these institutionsMostly agrarian society18th Century America, contdSocial LibrariesSet up by societies of volunteers, mostly of an emerging middle class who had the leisure to readGroup financial supportEnduring contribution: Librarys mission to promote self improvement and search for truthBelief that literature improved characterEarly public libraries are based on these collectionsPopular up through the 1800sSpecialized for women, specific technologies, interests, etc.18th Century America, contdCirculating library (rental library)At the same time as the social libraryMostly leisure reading, which some objected toFor profit, so the mission was to make customer happy and make moneyWere the first libraries to serve women, to carry periodicals, have reading rooms, have extended hours.Emergence of Special LibrariesSmall social libraries were often established for workers in the early Industrial RevolutionUpon this success, factory and technical libraries were establishedEarly 20th Century, mission was to promote the profitability of the company or office.Value-added services continue to be a characteristic of this library type.An early adopter of innovations like microfilm and the InternetEmergence of Academic LibrariesUntil after the Civil War, college & university curricula were based on the classics, which did not require many books.Changes in teaching methods--active inquiry on the part of students, seminar modelRise of the research model (University of Berlin) in the late 19th Century--faculty research agendas emerged (beginning at Johns Hopkins University).Mission of academic libraries became to support this curriculum and to support academic research.Emergence of academic libraries, contd.Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862Federal law granting land to universitiesAt first, mostly A&M or A&T schoolsProfessional education for librarians emerged around this time. ALA established in 1876First library school 1887Emergence of School LibrariesOnly since 1890 were there compulsory attendance laws in half of the states, so public schools were not universalAfter 1890, many school libraries were establishedControl was not internal, however, and teaching did not heavily depend on books1914, ALA established special school section1920 Certain report said that school libraries were quite deficientBy the 1930s it was recognized that school libraries were recognizable by modern librarians, supporting a revised and expanded curriculumEmergence of Public LibrariesIn 1880, only seven of the largest cities in the US had what we know as public librariesTax supportedGoverned by a citizen boardOpen to allVoluntaryEstablished by state lawFreeEmergence of public libraries, contd.Boston Public Library was the first major public library (1854)Emergence was dependent on Social attitudesUrbanizationEmergence of municipal servicesIncreased literacy and leisure timeBelief in the ability to improve their morals through reasonSchools and libraries were socializers of immigrantsNoblesse oblige and philanthropyShared the mission of public schools as popular education and continuing educationIdea that they buttressed democracyAndrew CarnegieFrom 1886 to 1919, Carnegie donated millions for the construction of over 2,000 libraries (the buildings) across the country, many of them public libraries. Most of them are still in use.Materials were locally developed, and local librarians and staff were hired.Very influential in increasing library use in this country.Some past and current public library issuesQuality vs. demandMission of inclusiveness of all ethnic groupsActively served turn of the century Europeans, more of an assimilation stance (melting pot)Did not do as well a job with Hispanic groups and African Americans until the Civil Rights movements of the 1960s. Ethnic self determination was underpinning (multiculturalism)1970 Social Responsibilities Roundtable created by ALAREFORMABlack CaucusToday ALA has many groups discussing and acting upon these issuesRecruitment and retention of various ethnic groups is a prominent contemporary issueHistoric and contemporary mission of public librariesSupport the education and socialization needs of societyMeet the information needs of a broad array of citizensPromote self-educationSatisfy recreational reading needs of the publicRubins Forces that will affect libraries:Attitudes towards government agenciesAttitudes toward educationAttitudes toward serving all members of societyAttitudes toward readingAttitudes toward literatureAttitudes toward technologyPrimary Library ValuesServiceRanganathans five laws are a centerpiece of service valuesReading and books are importantLiteracy programs are promoted by librariesRespect for the truth and search for the truthA tight rope to walkToleranceAs a profession, we are generally open to a variety of ideasThe public goodA community orientationJusticeAesthetics