-stimulate existing vocab -teach new words Vocabulary Phases 1&2.

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  • Vocabulary

    -stimulate existing vocab-teach new wordsPhases 1&2

  • The 7 High Reliability Literacy Teaching Procedures (HRLTPs)This approach to literacy was developed by Prof John Munro identifies the strategies readers need to convert written text information to knowledgeuses 7 High Reliability Literacy Teaching Procedures (HRLTPs) to teach readers how to comprehend and learn from written text

  • The 7 HRLTPsGKRVocabularyRead aloud ParaphrasingWhat questions does the text answer?SummarisingReview

  • Why are we here today?Vocabulary

  • What do we mean by teaching vocabulary ? What does vocabulary look like ? When you are teaching vocabulary to students you are teaching them to

    say key words accurately.read key words accuratelyspell and write key words.understand the meanings of words. how to work out the meanings of new words.understand key words in particular contexts or in unfamiliar wayslink the words with related words in networkssee how new words came from words they already know.

  • Todays RoadmapTeach new wordsReview vocabulary for the topicStore vocabulary in memoryAutomatise new vocabularyWhy teach new vocabUse known words

  • Why is it important to teach vocab?Consider the following text

    The message had the quality of prosy. As much as we tried, we could not dilute its mind-dulling, tiresome and mediocre quality. We have no difficulty deciding its source, the brain behind the prosopopoeia. But why the need for a verbose emissary? Why the non-appearance?

    As the emanation continued, we saw both the diatribe and the day protend. Oh but to locate the promptuary for such rhetorical drivel.

    for - Not sure if this bleongs here or ealier.

  • How important is vocabulary ?A reader with low vocabulary reading a text

    Like many other ancient XXXXXXX. Egypt developed around a river; the Nile. It is the XXXXXXX of XXXXXXX. The river provided a XXXXXX supply of water in a land that had XXXXXXX no rain. Its XXXX floods XXXXXXX the fields in which the XXXXXX was planted.

    for - JOhn: we should be teaching letter clusters and emphasising the importance.

    - morphines- parts of a word that come from another languageGood words: expeditionisolate lever (lev meaning lift or raise)

    for - THis is another, and possibly complimentary approach:

  • How important is vocabulary ?A reader with better vocabulary reads the text as

    Like many other ancient civilizations Egypt developed around a river; the Nile. It is the lifeblood of Egypt. The river provided a regular supply of water in a land that had virtually no rain. Its annual floods irrigated the fields in which the crops was planted.

  • Why is it important to teach vocabulary ?A readers vocabulary for a topic is the building blocks they will use to build further knowledge in the area.

    Vocabulary teaching

    directly improves their ability to read words accurately.

    directly improves their ability to understand what they are reading..

    helps them use what they know about some words to read and understand other words.

    helps them show what they know.

    helps them learn more about the topic you are teaching.

  • Chances of Learning New Words in Context

  • How well do your students understand new vocabulary?Rate them on each scale from 0 (never) to 4 (always).

  • What did your students score?How would you have liked them to score?

  • What does a low score mean? These students are not able to

    say, read and spell key words accurately and rapidlysay what they meanwork out the meanings of new wordslink new words with related wordsremember them.

  • You want to help students learn vocabulary What do you do teach them ?

    Teach them to

    say new words accuratelyread new words accuratelyspell and write new words understand the meaning of wordswork out the meaning of new words in familiar and unfamiliar contextslink the words with related words in networks see how new words came from words they know.

  • What does the brain do to learn new vocabulary ?

    The Nile was able to sustain life in Egypt.

    The new word here is sustain . What happens in a persons brain to learn its meaning ?

  • Memory : Short term and long termShort Term Memory(Thinking Space)Long Term Memory(Existing Knowledge)SustainIdeas joined here Learn sustainNew vocabularyThe Nile was able to sustain life in Egypt.

  • Reader Short Term Memory(Thinking Space)Long Term Memory(Existing Knowledge)New VocabularyThe Nile was able to sustain life in Egypt.Joined Here (learned)Say words that sound like it: main, pain, stainlook at spelling patternsain, sustainForm new meaning - link with synonyms: last, keep going,continueainKeep goingSus- tain

    SustainJoined Here (learned sustain)How new words are learnt

  • Why teach vocabulary?It helps students toread words accurately understand what they are readinguse what they know about some words to understand other wordsbetter show what they know about the topiclearn more about the topic they are learning

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  • Todays RoadmapTeach new wordsReview vocabulary for the topicStore vocabulary in memoryAutomatise new vocabularyWhy teach new vocabUse known words

  • The five phases of teaching vocabularyStimulate known word meanings

    Teach new words or phrases

    Review and consolidate new vocabulary with the topic

    Store new vocabulary in memory

    Automatise new vocabulary, check / test key words

  • Planning the vocabulary teachingIdentify key words in the text you expect students to read and comprehendList the words you think will be unfamiliar to the student readersSelect up to 10 unfamiliar wordsSort the unfamiliar words into 2 groups;

    words that are well supported by other words in the text, have redundancywords that are introduced with little support or redundancy.

  • Planning the vocabulary teaching (cont.)

    Plan to teach explicitlywords that are introduced with little support or redundancy in the text

    Plan to have students use their meaning making motors in small groupswords that are well supported by other words in the text

  • Todays RoadmapTeach new wordsReview vocabulary for the topicStore vocabulary in memoryAutomatise new vocabularyWhy teach new vocabRecall and use known words

  • Phase 1 : stimulate existing vocabularyStudents

    name key items in pictures, imagerysuggest words they expect in the textsay, read, spell expected wordshear words from text to be read and suggest synonyms

  • Herbertia the vileSuggest words that describe

    what snakes look likehow snakes movewhat snakes dohow people react to snakes

  • When students have difficulty reading and spelling wordsWhen students have difficulty reading and spelling words they are expected to know:

    note how they read the wordscheck their phonological knowledge re wordsnote how rapidly they say the written words

  • Todays RoadmapTeach new wordsReview vocabulary for the topicStore vocabulary in memoryAutomatise new vocabularyWhy teach new vocabUse known words

  • Phase 2: Teaching new wordsStudents or teachers select unfamiliar words say each unfamiliar wordread each unfamiliar wordspell the word (perhaps say it first)work out what new word meansfind synonyms for the key wordvisualise images of the meaning of new worduse the new word

  • Meaning Making MotorExplicit TeachingTeacher selects wordsGlossary with synonyms and definitions and imagesTeacher and students say read and spell the wordsTeaching new words or phrases

  • Phase 2: Students select key wordsLook at the text in front of you. Scan down the page and identify key words and phrases..Look at the text in front of you. Scan the page and circle any words you dont understand.

  • Phase 2: Students say, read, spell aloudInundationPlease say the word: in-un-da-tion. Inundation In-un-da-tion. Inundation.

  • Phase 2: Make a spelling image To help you remember how to spell the word , make a picture of how it sounds and looks

    . Button is butt onYacht is y a ch t

  • Phase 2: Reading the wordTo help you remember how to say each word

    yachty o t Thoughtth or t thortButtonbutt on buttnDoctordoc ta

  • Phase 2: The Meaning Making MotorWhat is it?Readers work out what words mean

  • Using the meaning making motor The trees in the orchard were bacciferous. Their branches were weighed down with their heavy loads. The berry pickers worked without stopping. As they picked the berries, they put them in baskets made of baft. The baft scratched and cut their bare arms. If only the farmer had given them containers made of softer fabric.

    Two steps:work out what the words in bold mean

    Say what you do to work them out

  • Phase 2: The Meaning Making Motor What the word means What could bacciferous mean ? It means having / holding lots of fruit.

    What are some other words or phrases we could use for it ?What is an image we can link with it ?What are actions / feelings we could link with it ?

    What could baft mean ?

    What are some other words or phrases we could use for it ?What is an image we can link with it ?What are actions / feelings we could link with it ?

  • Phase 2: The Meaning Making MotorWhat actions help us work out the meaning ?1. Say the word6. Say to yourself what the word does in this sentence4. Use the context to work out meaning of the word5. Note any graphics that go with the new word2. Look at the letter patterns in the new word. 7. Substitute8. Check your guess and modify guess if needed3.Visualise the sentence9. Check your dictionary meaning

  • Phase 2: Working out what new words mean using your meaning making motor (1)What do you think the word delta means? How can you work it out?The ancient Egyptian civilization developed around the Nile. It flows from the wet highlands of central Africa through the desert red lands and finally empties into the sea through a long delta.

  • Phase 1: Work out what new words mean using your meaning making motor (2)Use the context to figure out the meaning of the new word:

    As the man reached the top of the ladder he suddenly felt vertigo. He quickly climbed down and felt better.

    What might vertigo mean? What words are related?VerticalGo

  • To find the location of the forest fire we had to triangulate from the peaks of nearby mountains.

    How do we work out the meanings of new words?ate=the action??

    tri=three??angul=angle??

    How could drawing angles help me find a fire??

  • Triangulation is the process of pinpointing the location of something by taking bearings to it from three remote points. Forest fire lookout towers use triangulation to locate spot fires.

  • Phase 2: Write key words and meanings in glossaryWrite the words sustain/ fertile/ inundate in your glossary. write your definition for each In your own words. write the class definitions we worked out.

  • Phase 2: Find synonyms and antonymsWhat is a synonym for environment ?What is the antonym for extinct ?Another word for environment is habitat. An opposite to extinct is living.

  • Phase 2: Visualise what new words meanWhen you say the word treacherous what picture do you see in your mind ?In my picture I am paddling down the river. There is a dangerous part ahead but you cant see the danger. This part is treacherous?

  • Phase 2: Use the new words in a sentenceSay the word habitat in a meaningful sentence.Where else could you use this word? Say it in a different sentence.Write a short story using the words weve just added to our glossary. You have 10 minutes.

    Its habitat had lots of food.

    The habitats of many wild animals is threatened by industry.

  • Phase 2: Apply MMM to ancient EgyptHow would you teach students to work out the meanings of script and inscription ?If you cannot read Arabic, the script above will be meaningless. Egyptian was also meaningless to historians for a long time. Then, in 1799, an inscribed stone was found that allowed scholars to interpret them. Much was then learnt about the world of ancient Egypt.

  • Phase 2: Apply MMM to ancient EgyptHow would you teach students to work out the meaning of flax ?Its banks provided reeds to make boats, roofs, baskets and papyrus. The flax that grew in the riverside fields provided the material needed to make fabric.

  • Phase 2: Apply MMM to ancient Egypt

    How would you teach students to work out the meaning of Inundation ?Its banks provided reeds The rivers annual flood cycle helped to set the calendar. The Inundation, or flood season, was regarded as the start of each year. This period from about July to September was seen as a time of rebirth a time when fertile new soil washed down from the highlands was dumped on farmlands as a base for the next years crops.

  • What actions can you teach students to use ?

    say to themselves what the word does in the sentence; flax was a plant that grew on the banks and was used to make material.

    visualize the sentence that have the new word and other ideas; they put as much of the sentence as they can into the image..

    note any pictures or visual features that go with new word.

    look at the letter patterns in the word, guess at what each part might mean by linking them with other words they know. They can link script and inscribed with reading and writing.

  • What actions can you teach students to use ?

    try to put other words or phrases in place of it and see which one/s fit best.

    check their guess by re-reading the sentences with the other words in them and modify their guess if necessary.

    consolidate their guess: I think inundation means flooding; the students visualize the Nile overflowing its banks and covering all the land beside the river.

    check their guess with a dictionary definition.

  • You can teach students to do these meaning-making actions one at a time and to practise using them. They also need to learn how to apply them to more complex text.

  • To teach each meaning-making actionsTeach students to

    do each action one at a timesay what they did; they describe the actionpractise using itlearn how to apply it to more complex text.

  • Students learn self talk to use their MMMTeach students to talk to themselves about working out the new vocabulary:

    ask themselves questions : Could it / does it mean ? tell themselves what to do :I tell myself what I think it means, I need to try possible synonyms and see how they fit, I need to fine tune my first try at its meaning.

  • GKR: Know in experiences, images

    Know in experiences, images

    What does pictures show ? What does it tell you it is about ? What does it remind you of ?

    How might picture be different in an hour ?

    What do you already know about this topic ?

    .

  • GKR: Know in words, sentences

    Know in words, sentences

    Say title in other ways. Say in sentences what pictures show ? What questions might it answer ? What words might come up in text Words for how worms move, breathe ?If you were a worm what would you want to say about ?Why do you think giant worms in Gippsland grow so big ? Article.

  • Planning how to teach vocabularyLook at the text and select the new vocabulary. Which terms are defined within the text ?

    New terms defined in the text New terms not defined in the textorganic materialshatch from eggsburrowscellsegg case

  • Planning how to teach vocabularyLook at the text and select the new vocabulary. Which terms are defined within the text ?

    New terms defined in the text New terms not defined in the textorganic materialshatch from eggsburrowscellsegg case

  • Order for teaching vocabulary

    GKR

    Retrieve known words, how to say, read, spell them, suggest meanings, synonymsWhile reading +learning

    Teach new vocabularyTeach how to work out new vocabulary -MMM

    Review

    Review new meanings, link with synonyms and imagesStore in memoryAutomatise recall , use of meanings

  • Teaching vocabulary

    Using your meaning making motor.Work out the meaning of organic material.

    What do you do to work it out ?

  • Teaching vocabulary

    Read page 4.

    What does hatch mean ? How do you work it out ?

  • Teaching vocabulary

    Read page 6.

    Teach the meaning of egg case.Visualize how the egg case changes.

  • Teaching vocabulary : review and consolidate new meaningsAsk students to select and collate the new vocabulary.

    New termssynonymImage /iconorganic materialsMade from animals and plantshatch from eggsGrow burrowsHole egg caseShell or covercells

    The High Reliability tutors:Are teachers from a variety of KLA backgrounds and this is supplemented by John Munros background as a math teacher.They are from a range of NMR schools which have implemented the programHave completed the full High Reliability training program and worked with these strategies both in own classes and in support roles to colleagues in successful school-wide programs

    We want to share with you the things that have worked for us. We hope you will have an open mind to the ideas and that we will interest you enough to go back to your school and give the ideas a try

    The approach we will be guiding you through in this program, works across all domains, not just English/ Humanities, and is compatible with VELS outcomes.

    The approach to literacy is based on work done by Prof John Munro. John has looked at successful literacy strategies from a range of models and collected them into a general approachThese strategies were first developed by John Munro as a means for fostering literacy learning in the content areas.They were trialed in the mid 1990s and published first in late 1990s.Activity: Youve all tried some of the GKR tools. How did it go? What can you share with us about your experiences? What risks did you take? What went well?What else do we need to know?Suggest 10 minutes to do this.

    Are there any examples of worksheets you have that we could share with the group?This is all about spending time with the words of your topic. This results in:better recallbetter spellingmore understanding of the meaning better links between the known words and new words

    Spending time with the words is really Learning the Key Concepts that you want students to know from this written text. It is in your interests as a teacher to invest the time with the words. Read this passage.Why is it important to teach vocab ? Your vocab knowledge provides you with a garden bed for comprehending the text.

    What sorts of things did you do to try to understand this passage with multiple unfamiliar vocabulary?

    Skim read for general pictureLook for words we do knowThink of words they remind us of . Eg. Prosy=prose proSwitch off and wait for someone else to think of somethingMake guessesSay the difficult word in syllablesSay the word aloudWhat the word does in the sentence.

    These are the strategies we have learned to use but do the students have these sort of strategies when dealing with difficult words.

    Imagine reading a page of that? What are the missing words?Thats what it would look like to a student who didnt know the meaning of the following words:CivilisationsAncientLifebloodRegularVirtuallyAnnualIrrigatedCrops. These are not words used regularly by our students so we have to teach them.

    This slide shows the importance of having prior knowledge activated.

    Need to talk about the ratio of words that the average person can read without understanding before they stop reading. 10 in 150 words Without teaching vocab, there can be no engagement, because they cant understand the work. When youre learning to drive managing all the tasks: checking the gauges, gears, brakes, rear mirror etc your cognitive load is too great. What happens?

    Imagine reading a page of that? What are the missing words?Thats what it would look like to a student who didnt know the meaning of the following words:CivilisationsAncientLifebloodRegularVirtuallyAnnualIrrigatedCrops. These are not words used regularly by our students so we have to teach them.

    This slide shows the importance of having prior knowledge activated.

    Need to talk about the ratio of words that the average person can read without understanding before they stop reading. 10 in 150 words Without teaching vocab, there can be no engagement, because they cant understand the work. When youre learning to drive managing all the tasks: checking the gauges, gears, brakes, rear mirror etc your cognitive load is too great. What happens?

    Robert Marzanos research reveals the odds of students learning the meanings of new words from the context. It varies according to ability and age and the density of the text. This helps people understand the importance of teaching vocabulary rather than assuming that students learn from the context. Can take this slide out if you think it confuses rather than assists.

    The number of unfamiliar words in a passage has a huge impact on the chances of learning a new word. If students know most of the words in the passage they are more likely to be able to work out the meaning from the context.

    Even at Year 11 if students only have a 33% chance of independently learning the new word from the context then clearly it implies that the teacher must directly instruct students on strategies to use to make new words meaningful.

    The NMR Language Support Program (Oral Language) tells us that readers must understand 95% of words in a text before they comprehend meaning.

    Give out handout (of slide): Do this as Think Pair ShareWe want you to think about the behaviours that students show when you give them reading or learning tasks so you can decide how important teaching vocabulary is for your students.How often do your students show the following behaviors when you ask them to read or to learn by reading ?

    Do the survey activity

    ACTIVITY: Think Pair Share?What is an acceptable score?What is low score? Think of those students who you scored low in terms of Vocabulary behaviorhow effectively are they learning? How would you describe them as learners?How do you explain the link between teaching vocabulary and further learning?

    Some students arent confident they can work out new wordsCant remember them? Havent been taught them systematically?

    This is the core message. This may be repeated but Ramon Lewis says learners need to hear the message several times before recall and understanding really takes place, This is how the process might look as students try to convert the new vocabulary to personal knowledge. This is how the process might look as students try to convert the new vocabulary to personal knowledge. This is how the process might look as students try to convert the new vocabulary to personal knowledge.

    Vocabulary underpins comprehension: the richer the vocabulary networks , the better the comprehension.Word meanings are the building blocks of oral language. 40 % of incorrect AIM test answers in the Math test come from poor literacy ( ACER 2007)The richer a students vocabulary of a topic, the more they know about it and the better they can display their knowledge. A specific vocabulary is necessary for every subject area/topic area.The teacher of that subject/ area has the responsibility to teach the skills to acquire the specific vocabulary.Thats why every teacher needs to be a teacher of literacy.

    To deal effectively with learning new vocabulary we need to address these 3 areas at all stages of learning the topic- introduction, while reading and testing.

    The teaching process may take different directions depending on the word or phrase. You cant treat all words or phrases in the same way. Sometimes there are few clues in a word to unpack the meaning while others have many features that give students an entry point into the meaning. Eg. Yacht has few clues to help work out how to say it and what it means. For this you need explicit teaching. For others it is helpful to use the Meaning Making Motor.

    Activity: Display drug wordsMethamphetaminesAmyl NitrateLoratabsVenlafaxineCarisoprodol

    Say the word aloudSay it in syllablesSpell the wordWrite the wordVisualise some images to help you remember this word

    Key words are the main building blocks of the topic.

    Show students that sometimes these key words are bold.

    They are usually the words that are used to talk about the main ideas or processes being taught. Knowing these meanings unlocks the meaning of the rest of the text.

    This is for phonological knowledge. Phonemes are the smallest units of sound Phonemic awareness is the knowledge of the 44 individual sounds in the English language.

    Phonological knowledge is knowledge of onset and rime, morphemes and syllables : the building blocks of words.

    Listen to the word.

    Say it in unison. This helps students to learn the words sound pattern.This in turn helps spelling and recall of the word. The more students listen to the words, the more they will remember them.

    Say it in syllables

    Activity: once a range of key words have been said, syllabified and spelt, remove one of the syllables from each word and ask the students to recall the missing letters.

    Venlafaxine MetamphetaminesCarisoprodol

    Playing with and manipulating the syllables will assist visualising the parts of the word, recalling the sound and remembering the meaning. Explicit teaching is necessary for some words where there are no clues or rules.

    GlossaryInitially it really needs to be the words they already know.It can also be words that students select as relevant from the text. It could be the names of characters and a word to describe them.

    Say the word in syllables. When syllables are blended, a stress is placed on one of the syllables.

    A glossary for pronunciation could be useful for some students. Eg. ESL studentsIt could also be appropriate for subjects with very difficult words. MMM What is it?It is the ability to make sense of new wordsIf there is no fuel in the motor it wont work. The teaching of saying, spelling, pronouncing words is the fuel.Doing these things will fuel the motor. This is scaffolding the learning of words to support the learning of ideas. Kinaesthetic Activity: Each person has a cardPut them in order that you might use them. Discuss why you chose this order.

    Kinaesthetic Activity: Each person has a cardPut them in order that you might use them. Discuss why you chose this order.

    Suggesting links with other familiar words that sound the same as the new word helps students to see the common sound patterns.

    Once they begin to see the similarities they will be better able to remember both the word and the spelling.New words should be taught by examples rather than by definitions.

    To arrive at the meaning of vertigo we need to scaffold some questions to help students to get to the idea that this is a sick feeling that you may get in some circumstances. Vertigo reminds us of vertical. What happens when we go up really high or in an elevator? What happens when you look down from a tall building?

    Show some pictures that show the key features of what the word means. Ask the students to discuss the features that are common to the images. Ask the students to visualise what the word means.

    Give students 3 familiar contexts in which the word is used. Then ask them to say what is common about the 3 examples:The fish live in a watery environment. In the lizards dry environment there is little vegetation. Our environment is changing as more and more factories release waste into the air. When we come across unfamiliar/tough words how do we make them meaningful?Reflect on strategies we used to work out the meaning of the wordWhich strategies do you use?Say the word. Look at the letter patterns in the new word. Break the word into Syllables or chunks (breaking it down into units they can say/ recognise) sound it out. What is the words purpose in the sentence eg. Verb, adjective etc.Look at the other words in the sentence - Context of sentenceThink of similar words eg.Tri - three (break the words into smaller words to work out the meaning)Look at any graphics that go with the new word.6. Say to yourself what the word does in this sentence7. Check if guessed meaning makes sense.8.Visualise what the sentence might mean the three lines being drawn between the landmarks9. Check guess with a dictionary

    Another Example:Spelling - yr 11 HomonymsBrainstorm metre/ meter, thermometer, kilometre, barometer, meteorology, Put the er words in 1 list and re words in another. Whats the pattern? er =object that measuresre = unit of measurementThen come up with a rule if it ends in er its an object that measures and if it ends in re its a unit of measurement.

    Make a Word Wall/Poster of the process of learning the wordWordsThe rules or patterns we have learned.

    Think Pair Share to come up with student definitions. Give many examplesACTIVITY: Using the Meaning Making Motor (slide 25) how would you teach students to work out the meanings of the following words as they read each paragraph?10 minutes Think Pair Share

    Early Egyptian cultures along the Nile.script and inscribed If you cannot read Arabic, the script above will be meaningless. Egyptian was also meaningless to historians for a long time. Then, in 1799, an inscribed stone was found that allowed scholars to interpret them. Much was then learnt about the world of ancient Egypt.delta. Like many other ancient civilisations, the civilisation of ancient Egypt developed around a river the Nile. It flows from the wet highlands of central Africa through the desert Red Lands, and finally empties through a long delta into the Mediterranean Sea.sustain. The Niles water, the plants and palms that grew on its banks, and the birds, fish and mammals that lived in and around it all helped to sustain the society of the ancient Egyptians. The river provided a regular supply of water in a land that had virtually no rain. Its annual floods irrigated the fields in which crops were planted. The creatures it supported provided an extra food source.Flax Its banks provided reeds to make boats, roofs, baskets and papyrus. The flax that grew in the riverside fields provided the material needed to make fabric. Inundation. The rivers annual flood cycle helped to set the calendar. The Inundation, or flood season, was regarded as the start of each year. This period from about July to September was seen as a time of rebirth a time when fertile new soil washed down from the highlands was dumped on farmlands as a base for the next years crops.

    For each word students can say to themselves what the word does in the sentenceflax was a plant that grew on the banks and was used to make material. visualize the sentence/s that have the new word and other ideas; they put as much of the sentence as they can into the image. To work out the meaning of delta they visualize the river Nile just before it enters the sea; the ground might be sandy or muddy. note any pictures or visual features that go with new word. look at the letter patterns in the word, guess at what each part might mean by linking them with other words they know. They can link script and inscribed with reading and writing. Paraphrase. Try to put other words or phrases in place of it and see which one/s fit best. check their guess by re-reading the sentences with the other words in them and modify their guess if necessary. consolidate their guess: I think inundation means flooding; the students visualize the Nile overflowing its banks and covering all the land beside the river.check their guess with a dictionary definition.

    You can teach students to do these meaning-making actions one at a time and to practise using them. They also need to learn how to apply them to more complex text.

    ACTIVITY: Using the Meaning Making Motor (slide 25) how would you teach students to work out the meanings of the following words as they read each paragraph?10 minutes Think Pair Share

    Early Egyptian cultures along the Nile.script and inscribed If you cannot read Arabic, the script above will be meaningless. Egyptian was also meaningless to historians for a long time. Then, in 1799, an inscribed stone was found that allowed scholars to interpret them. Much was then learnt about the world of ancient Egypt.delta. Like many other ancient civilisations, the civilisation of ancient Egypt developed around a river the Nile. It flows from the wet highlands of central Africa through the desert Red Lands, and finally empties through a long delta into the Mediterranean Sea.sustain. The Niles water, the plants and palms that grew on its banks, and the birds, fish and mammals that lived in and around it all helped to sustain the society of the ancient Egyptians. The river provided a regular supply of water in a land that had virtually no rain. Its annual floods irrigated the fields in which crops were planted. The creatures it supported provided an extra food source.Flax Its banks provided reeds to make boats, roofs, baskets and papyrus. The flax that grew in the riverside fields provided the material needed to make fabric. Inundation. The rivers annual flood cycle helped to set the calendar. The Inundation, or flood season, was regarded as the start of each year. This period from about July to September was seen as a time of rebirth a time when fertile new soil washed down from the highlands was dumped on farmlands as a base for the next years crops.

    For each word students can say to themselves what the word does in the sentenceflax was a plant that grew on the banks and was used to make material. visualize the sentence/s that have the new word and other ideas; they put as much of the sentence as they can into the image. To work out the meaning of delta they visualize the river Nile just before it enters the sea; the ground might be sandy or muddy. note any pictures or visual features that go with new word. look at the letter patterns in the word, guess at what each part might mean by linking them with other words they know. They can link script and inscribed with reading and writing. Paraphrase. Try to put other words or phrases in place of it and see which one/s fit best. check their guess by re-reading the sentences with the other words in them and modify their guess if necessary. consolidate their guess: I think inundation means flooding; the students visualize the Nile overflowing its banks and covering all the land beside the river.check their guess with a dictionary definition.

    You can teach students to do these meaning-making actions one at a time and to practise using them. They also need to learn how to apply them to more complex text.

    ACTIVITY: Using the Meaning Making Motor (slide 25) how would you teach students to work out the meanings of the following words as they read each paragraph?10 minutes Think Pair Share

    Early Egyptian cultures along the Nile.script and inscribed If you cannot read Arabic, the script above will be meaningless. Egyptian was also meaningless to historians for a long time. Then, in 1799, an inscribed stone was found that allowed scholars to interpret them. Much was then learnt about the world of ancient Egypt.delta. Like many other ancient civilisations, the civilisation of ancient Egypt developed around a river the Nile. It flows from the wet highlands of central Africa through the desert Red Lands, and finally empties through a long delta into the Mediterranean Sea.sustain. The Niles water, the plants and palms that grew on its banks, and the birds, fish and mammals that lived in and around it all helped to sustain the society of the ancient Egyptians. The river provided a regular supply of water in a land that had virtually no rain. Its annual floods irrigated the fields in which crops were planted. The creatures it supported provided an extra food source.Flax Its banks provided reeds to make boats, roofs, baskets and papyrus. The flax that grew in the riverside fields provided the material needed to make fabric. Inundation. The rivers annual flood cycle helped to set the calendar. The Inundation, or flood season, was regarded as the start of each year. This period from about July to September was seen as a time of rebirth a time when fertile new soil washed down from the highlands was dumped on farmlands as a base for the next years crops.

    For each word students can say to themselves what the word does in the sentenceflax was a plant that grew on the banks and was used to make material. visualize the sentence/s that have the new word and other ideas; they put as much of the sentence as they can into the image. To work out the meaning of delta they visualize the river Nile just before it enters the sea; the ground might be sandy or muddy. note any pictures or visual features that go with new word. look at the letter patterns in the word, guess at what each part might mean by linking them with other words they know. They can link script and inscribed with reading and writing. Paraphrase. Try to put other words or phrases in place of it and see which one/s fit best. check their guess by re-reading the sentences with the other words in them and modify their guess if necessary. consolidate their guess: I think inundation means flooding; the students visualize the Nile overflowing its banks and covering all the land beside the river.check their guess with a dictionary definition.

    You can teach students to do these meaning-making actions one at a time and to practise using them. They also need to learn how to apply them to more complex text.

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