Gameful Design: Creating Engaging Experiences

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  • gameful design creating engaging experiences Sebastian Deterding (@dingstweets) Northeastern University May 19, 2015

    cb

  • what?

  • we are all game designers

  • Story Rules, Challenge

    Safe space Shared toys

    Goals Feedback

  • Gamification The use of game design elements in non-game contexts

  • Appeared in 2010

    Gamification

    Serious Games

  • In business books

  • and business media

  • health

  • Sustainability

  • Education

  • work

  • Life

  • The blueprint (still)

    points Tracking, Feedback

    badges Goals, surprise

    leaderboards Competition

    incentives Rewards

  • why?

  • AB

    from utility and usability

  • to motivation

  • Buy!new value chains

    Upload!

    Comment!

    Tag!

    Digg!Forward!

    Invite!

    Bookmark!Retweet!

    Share!

    Add friend!

    Design!

    Mark as Spam!

    Like!

    Answer!Vote!

    Register Now!

    Subscribe!

  • new markets

    health self-improvement green tech

  • new productivity factors

    Towers Perrin Global Workforce Study (2011)

  • loyalty programs!

  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/diego_rivera/4261964210

    extrinsic motivation

  • Win 1,000,000,000,000 points

    Score: 964,000,000,000,000 (You rock!)

  • intrinsic motivationhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/areyoumyrik/308908967

  • what intrinsic motivation drives the most

    passionate customers?

  • Pop Quiz!

    The product is awesome!

    The company is awesome!

    The experience is awesome!

    A B C

  • Pop Quiz!

    I am awesome!D

  • Better X

    Better user of X** aka competence

  • Learning is one of the fundamental reasons games are so engaging. The more you learn, the better you are at something. The better you are, the more engaging it is. If you can help people have more of that feeling, they won't talk about how good you are they'll talk about how much they kick ass. And that's a powerful formula for creating passionate users.

    Kathy Sierraupgrade your users, not your product (2005)

  • Raph Koster

    Fun is just another word for learning.

    a theory of fun for game design (2005)

  • Fun from games arises out of mastery. It arises out of comprehension. It is the act of solving puzzles that makes games fun. With games, learning is the drug.

    Raph Kostera theory of fun for game design (2005)

  • Edward Deci, Richard Ryan

    An understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness.

    the what and why of goal pursuit (2000)

  • This pattern is what we call the progress principle: of all the positive events that influence inner work life, the single most powerful is progress in meaningful work.

    Teresa M. Amabilethe progress principle (2012: 76)

  • Teresa M. Amabile

    Truly effective video game designers know how to create a sense of progress for players within all stages of the game. Truly effective managers know how to do the same for their subordinates.

    the progress principle (2012: 88)

  • how?

  • 1 competence

  • Autonomy2

  • relatedness3

  • https://www.flickr.com/photos/benimoto/2084853203

    design4

  • 1 competence

  • Not fun Funhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/sulamith/1342528771/sizes/o/

    http://www.flickr.com/photos/photonquantique/3364593945/sizes/l/

  • Raph Koster

    Fun is just another word for learning.

    through interesting challenges

    a theory of fun for game design (2005)

  • Goals ...

  • + Rules ...

  • = Interesting challenges

  • + Feedback ...http://www.flickr.com/photos/bodgerbrooks/1315419080

  • = Experiences of competence

  • Earn 1,000,000,000,000 points

    Score: 964,000,000,000,000 (You rock!)

    feedback without challenge

  • Danger

    Stand in the users way

  • Ticket

    For ticket, drag red dot through labyrinth

  • Level 2

    Ticket

    For ticket, drag red dot through labyrinth

  • Core challenge of E-Mail?

    Maximum output?

    Correct, polite, actionable?

    Prioritized?

    Fast answers?

    Check less often?

    Inbox Zero?

  • Prioritization

  • Procrastination

  • find the inherent challenge

    Princi

    ple

    #1

  • juicy feedback

    Princi

    ple

    #2

  • Autonomy2

  • Danger

  • Johan Huizinga

    First and foremost, all play is a voluntary activity.

    homo ludens (1938/1950: 7)

  • Edward Deci, Richard Ryan

    An understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness.

    the what and why of goal pursuit (2000)

  • Fun Voluntary

    Voluntary Fun

  • the undermining effect

  • feedback

    perceived as

    controllingthwarts

    autonomy

    motivation

    perceived as

    informingsupports

    competence

    +

    Deci & Ryan 2012

  • vs. Quality and Variety

    Princi

    ple

    #1

    safe from consequence

  • meaningful choicehttp://ascottallison.files.wordpress.com/2009/12/p1030286.jpg

    Princi

    ple

    #2

  • relatedness3

  • You look especially lovely tonight.

    http://www.flickr.com/photos/beigeinside/50122570/

    Now I feel like youre just doing it for the points.

    Danger

  • Donald T. Campbell

    The more a quantitative social indicator is used for social decision-making, the more subject it will be to corruption pressures and the more apt it will be to distort and corrupt the social processes it is intended to monitor.

    assessing the impact of planned social change (1976)

  • http://www.rasmusen.org/x/images/pd.jpg

    reframing as strategic action

  • creates myopic focus

  • So you also played EcoChallengeTM?

  • vs. Quality and Varietycreates side effects

  • what values underlie play?

  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/docentjoyce/3138887652

    exploration ...

  • mastery, ...http://www.flickr.com/photos/paulgorman/1392988135

  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/iboy/5709372593

    and mutual care.

  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/iboy/5709372593

  • It is the nature of a fun community to care more about the players than about the game. ... We are having fun. We are caring. We are safe with each other. This is what we want.

    Bernie de Koventhe well-played game (1978: 19-20)

  • Edward Deci, Richard Ryan

    An understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness.

    the what and why of goal pursuit (2000)

  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/mrlerone/405730185/sizes/o/

    What we usually design

  • Who decides how this is used

  • model the values you wish to see

    Princi

    ple

    #1

  • http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2047684/Dangerous-drivers-silent-treatment-Venezuela-employs-mimes-traffic-police.html

    the spirit of the rules

  • work play

    Other-determined Self-determined

    Means to an end End in itself

    Consequential Inconsequential

    Regulated Open

    Care for results Care for each other

    Motivation serves function Function serves motivation

    work play playful work

    Other-determined Self-determined Autonomy-supporting

    Means to an end End in itself Learning and quality-oriented

    Consequential InconsequentialInviting risk-taking and

    failure

    Regulated Open Open, trust-based

    Care for results Care for each other Socially oriented

    Motivation serves function Function serves motivation Value-oriented

    Princi

    ple

    #2

  • https://www.flickr.com/photos/benimoto/2084853203

    design4

  • the inherent-additive model of experience

  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/8147452@N05/2913356030/sizes/o/

    experience is emergent

  • AestheticsMechanics Dynamics

    Hunicke, LeBlanc & Zubekmda: a formal approach to game design (2004)

  • Monopoly

    aesthetic

    Frustrating end game

    mechanic dynamic

    Slow poverty gap

    +$ !+-$ !-

  • the systemic-emergent model of experiencehttps://www.flickr.com/photos/benimoto/2084853203

  • easily exportable surface features ...

  • instead of systemic architectures

  • easily exportable surface features ...

    points Tracking, Feedback

    badges Goals, surprise

    leaderboards Competition

    incentives Rewards

  • instead of ?

  • your mission, should you choose to accept ithttps://www.flickr.com/photos/benimoto/2084853203

  • A possible joint agenda

    Government, enterprise, end users: explore game design for well-being, productivity, learning, engagement,

    Industry and university researchers: Identify and validate systemic architectures for motivation, methods for designing them

    Design agencies, software houses: Develop and deploy methods and tools

  • in summary

  • in an age of motivation ...

  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/diego_rivera/4261964210

    move from extrinsic ...

  • to Intrinsic motivations ...

    http://www.flickr.com/photos/areyoumyrik/308908967

  • to create truly engaging experiences.

    I am awesome!

  • Earn 1,000,000,000,000 points

    Score: 964,000,000,000,000 (You rock!)

    Instead of shallow progress wars...

  • build systems to master,

  • and a free space to play ...

  • that are truly meaningful.

  • vs. Quality and Varietydont just set up point systems:

  • to model the values you wish to see.

  • and this cake does need many bakers.https://www.flickr.com/photos/benimoto/2084853203

  • sebastian@codingconduct.cc

    @dingstweets

    codingconduct.cc

    Thank you.

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