Designing with Gamification: Tips for Creating Fun & Engaging User Experiences

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Designing with Gamification: Tips for Creating Fun & Engaging User Experiences

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Designing with GamificationDesigning with GamificationTips for creating fun and rewarding user experiencesHi, my name is Jeff Steffgen and this is my first Meetup at IDDC Tonight Ill be talking about how you can use gamification techniques to create fun and reward experiences in your apps, web sites and products.1Your Mission (if you choose to accept):Level 1: Understand GamificationLevel 2: Know the AudienceLevel 3: Think like a Game DesignerLevel 4: Planning for GamificationEnd-Goal: Apply Gamification into your own User Experiences after achieving all 5 ranks:Level 1: Understand GamificationYour starting rank:Gamification InitiateGamification What is it?Meaningful playThe use of game theory/game mechanics being applied in a non-gaming contextGame PlayGoals:Create a sticky, viral and engaging experienceInject fun into everyday mundane tasksDrive specific user behaviorsHow many think they know what gamification means? Sample some answersHeres how most people define gamificationHow many of you have ever played a game? What are some of your favorites, and why do you like them so much?How many of you have ever had a mundane task that you did not want to complete, but had to? Ask for a few examples.Wouldnt it be cool if we could take some of the same game mechanics that made our favorite game so fun and apply it to this task to make it seem more enjoyable?4Example: Hot lava gameExample of when your mom would take you to a mall and youd pretend that all the cracks in the floor were hot lavaYour mission was to make it through all of the stores (levels) without stepping on those make-believe objectsMake a boring task more fun and tolerable5Example: Star chartExample of when your mom would take you to a mall and youd pretend that all the cracks in the floor were hot lavaYour mission was to make it through all of the stores (levels) without stepping on those make-believe objectsMake a boring task more fun and tolerable6Example: Rewards programTo help us better understand the psychology of game design, we need to first take a step back to understand what defines a game7Example: Urinal Fly StickerTo help us better understand the psychology of game design, we need to first take a step back to understand what defines a game8Game PlayWhat is play?Unstructured, flexible, imaginative & freeformDriven by imaginationGoal =What is a game?Structured, rigid, stimulating & focusedDriven by rulesGoal =funWINIt is far too easy to hear game and to think play, especially for those who dont understand how game mechanics can be made to drive specific behaviors and how many already exist in the workplace.Play is freeform and imaginative with a primary goal of having fun.A game has players, rules, and a win condition. 9Game PlayGreat games are built around a narrative the players/users interact with as they complete tasks, get rewarded, level up and have fun.A game is bounded, specific problem solvingA game has a predictable resolution, whereas play may not.Work already has players and rules, so defining a win condition is all thats left.What does winning mean in the workplace? This ties neatly into the thinking around Bartles Player Types and knowing your audience10Congratulations, youve successfully completed Level 1Your rank has been upgraded to: Gamification TraineeLevel 2: Know the AudienceBegin your Gamification Training by gathering intelligence about your target audienceBartles Player TypesAchieversAttaining status & completing preset goals quickly Engaged by: AchievementsExplorersExploring and discovering the unknownEngaged by: Achieving their own goalsKillersWinning, rank & direct peer-to-peer competitionEngaged by: Leaderboards, RankingsSocializersSocializing & developing a friends/contacts networkEngaged by: Newsfeeds, Friends Lists, ChatKillers > Competing & Defeating = DestroyersAchievers > ChallengeSocializers > FellowshipExplorers > Discovery13Actions Based on Player TypeAchieversExplorersKillersSocializersActingInteractingPlayersGame SpaceEach of these player types is drawn to certain interactions and interests that may cross over to other player types. For instance, Killers and Achievers enjoy taking action, but Killers are more interested in other players than they are in the actual game world like the Explorers. And Explorers are more interested in interacting within the game much like Socializers.14Things Guys Like in GamesMastery Doesnt need meaning, just challenging Competition Love to prove we are the best Destruction We like destroying things a lotSpatial Puzzles Especially puzzles navigating 3D spacesTrial and Error Men hate reading instructions!15Things Girls Like in GamesEmotion Exploring the richness of human emotionReal World Prefer games that connect meaningfullyNurturing Relationships & healing others (vs. winning)Dialog & Verbal Puzzles Love books & cross-word puzzlesLearning by Example Appreciate tutorials that lead step-by-stepEmotion Heart icon, Romance NovelReal world House iconNurturing Nurse hat icon or Leaf iconDialog & Verbal Puzzles Crossword puzzle or book iconLearning by Example Map with 1.2.31650+Age DemographicsPreschoolers Games with parental guidanceKidsAge of reason: read, make decisions & solve problemsPreteens/tweens Age of obsession: braingrowth and passionTeens Boys: competition & mastery; Girls: real-world issues & communicationYoung adults Firmly established tastes for entertainment & gamesAdults starting families Casual gamers due to families; hardcore gamers very influentialAdults w/ children Casual gamers due to careerand families; seek family playAdults w/ older children Empty nesters lots of time for games enjoy social components4-67-910-1313-1818-2425-3536-50Level 2 training completed Your target has been identifiedCongrats! Youve been promoted to Gamification AnalystFREE Coffee Power-Up!Every analyst needs an extra boost!Earn a Starbucksgift card by being the first audience member to correctlyyell out Bartles 4 player typesLevel 3: Think like aGame Designer Game TheoryField assignment 1: Rendezvous with mLevels wise Agent M to uncover insider secrets for creating successful gamesMental Abilities:Making Gameplay PossibleModeling illusions create experiences that feel realFocus interesting enough to hold players attention as long and as intensely as possibleImagination engage as a storytelling partner and have a sense of the problems they will/wont solveEmpathy imagining or projecting yourself in the shoes of the game character(s)Human brainsare amazing!Motivation: Hierarchy of NeedsPhysical NeedsSafetyBelongingSelf-EsteemSelf-ActualizationPhysiological Food/water iconSafety lock icon?Belonging.Love heart iconSelf Esteem Badge iconSelf-Actualization Person/Mirror icon22Motivation: Hierarchy of NeedsFood, Water, Shelter, WarmthSecurity, Stability, Freedom from FearFamily, Community, LoveAchievement, Rank, Mastery, RecognitionInnerTalent, FulfillmentPeople areso needyPhysiological Food/water iconSafety lock icon?Belonging.Love heart iconSelf Esteem Badge iconSelf-Actualization Person/Mirror icon23Game PleasuresLeBlancs TaxonomySensationSight, sound & touch (game aesthetics)Fantasy Imaginary worlds (something you cannot be)NarrativeDramatic unfolding of a sequence of eventsChallengeCore pleasure of gameplay, problem solvingFellowship Enjoying friendship, cooperation & communityDiscovery Exploring game world, discovery of secret feature Expression Build & share your own things (characters, levels)Submission Leaving the real-world behind for a new, more enjoyable set of rules/meaningMaybe break this into multiple slides:Sensation show Angry Birds (graphics, music, touch interactions)Fantasy show an imaginary world (mario/Zelda)Narrative show a game that has a talking script/cut sceneChallenge Cut the RopeFellowship show Farmville, WWFDiscovery show ZeldaExpression show Ski Safari with customized items menutSubmission Minecraft, Forza24Flow TheoryBalancing Challenges & SkillsAnxietyBoredomLowHighChallengesFlowChannelLowHighSkillsFlow Activities must manage to stay in the narrow challenge that lies between boredom and frustration Repeated tension & release patterns create the pleasure of variety and anticipationDeep focus on nothing but the activity: Clear goalsDistorted sense of timeDirect and immediate feedbackBalance between ability level and challengeSense of personal control over the activity/situationIntrinsic rewardLack of awareness of bodily needs25Game DesignThe 4 Basic ElementsMechanicsProcedures and rulesStorySequence of events that unfolds, may be linear or branchingAesthetics How the game looks, sounds and feelsTechnology Any high technology, materials and/or interactions that make the game possibleAestheticsTechnologyMechanicsStoryMore VisibleLess VisibleGame MechanicsThe Game SpaceObjects, Attributes & StatesActions (What can players do?)Rules (Constraints & consequences)Define Skills NeededChance & SurpriseLets learnmore aboutmechanicsThe Game SpaceDefines the various spaces that can exist in a game and how those places are related to one anotherEither discrete or continuousHave some number of dimensionsHave bounded areas which may or may not be connected28Objects, Attributes & StatesObjects are anything that can be seen or manipulated in the game space (characters, tokens, props, etc)Objects = NOUNS, Attributes & State = ADJECTIVES29Objects, Attributes & StatesObjects are anything that can be seen or manipulated in the game space (characters, tokens, props, etc)Pac-ManPowerPelletInkyPelletsObjects = NOUNS, Attributes & State = ADJECTIVES30Objects, Attributes & StatesObjects have Attributes such as the current position in the game space, or other categories of informationPac-ManMovesIs YellowEats ObjectsCan DiePowerPelletStrategically PlacedWhite, Round & LargeEnables Power-UpInkyMovesIs BlueKills Pac-ManCan Go to CagePelletsStatic Position, Fills the MazeWhite, Round & SmallIs Worth PointsObjects = NOUNS, Attributes & State = ADJECTIVES31Objects, Attributes & StatesEach Attributes current State can be static or dynamic,as shown in the classic Pac-Man example aboveObjects = NOUNS, Attributes & State = ADJECTIVES32Operative ActionsOperative Actions are the base actions that a player can take in the game space (think VERBS)Objects = NOUNS, Attributes & State = ADJECTIVES33Operative ActionsOperative Actions are the base actions that a player can take in the game space (think VERBS)Climb UpDuck/Climb Down/Enter Warp TubeMoveLeftMoveRightJump/Swim UpDash/ThrowObjects = NOUNS, Attributes & State = ADJECTIVES34Resultant ActionsResultant Actions are strategic actions that use operative actions (or a combination of them) to achieve a goalObjects = NOUNS, Attributes & State = ADJECTIVES35Resultant ActionsResultant Actions are strategic actions that use operative actions (or a combination of them) to achieve a goalJump +Land on amushroom= Kills itJump +Hit brick= CoinsJump +Hit ? Box= Power upJump +Land on Yoshi= RideObjects = NOUNS, Attributes & State = ADJECTIVES36RulesDefines the space, objects, consequences & constraints of actions, and the overall goals of the gameConcrete players understand and can clearly state what they are supposed to achieveAchievable players must think they have a chance to achieve the goal (if it seems impossible, theyll give up)Rewarding needs the right level of challenge, but also use of Pleasures to reward players by giving them something to make them feel good/proudObjects = NOUNS, Attributes & State = ADJECTIVES37Define Skills NeededDefine the various types of skills (both real & virtual) within the game needed to engage and interest your audienceObjects = NOUNS, Attributes & State = ADJECTIVES38Define Skills NeededDefine the various types of skills (both real & virtual) within the game needed to engage and interest your audiencePhysical StrengthDexterityCoordinationPhysical Endurance MentalMemoryObservationPuzzlesProblemSolvingSocialReading OpponentsTeamworkLeadershipBanterObjects = NOUNS, Attributes & State = ADJECTIVES39Chance & SurpriseConsider interactions with other mechanics along with the human element to create uncertainty & surpriseCant always perfectly predict human behaviorPeople seek out options that create the most pleasure, but also avoid the ones that cause the most painThe human mind may inflate some risks completely out of proportionEveryone loves positive surprisesthat add delight40Balance: Skill & ChanceA balance of skill and chance, along with various levels of risk can create a great game dynamicEstimating chance is a skillEstimating an opponents skill is a skillSkills have a probability of success every action has some level of risk. Players must know when to play it safe and when to take a big risk.Predicting or controlling pure chance is an imagined skill we seek patterns, but lucky streaks and gamblers fallacy do not actually existChance concerns interactions between all of the other five mechanics, essential to create uncertainty, which means surprisesExpected Value the average of all the possible values that could resultConsider Values Carefully if you arent careful about the true values of an outcome, it can be very misleadingThe Human Element expected value calculations dont always perfectly predict human behavior (i.e., humans will not always choose what you think they will), due to regret.People not only seek out options that create the most pleasure, they also avoid the ones that cause the most pain.The human mind may inflate some risks completely out of proportion.Skill and Chance Get TangledEstimating chance is a skill often separates players skillsSkills have a probability of success every action has some level of risk. Players must know when to play it safe and when to take a big risk.Estimating an opponents skill is a skillPredicting pure chance is an imagined skill we seek patterns, but lucky streaks and gamblers fallacy do not actually existControlling pure chance is an imagined skill we also seek cause-and-effect relationships, and some people will always use lucky charms or superstitious rituals. But with pure chance there is no way to control the outcome.41You survived Level 3 field training Now participate in a top-secret assignment thats for the birdsExcellent work! Youve earned the rank of Gamification Intelligence OfficerCongratson thepromotion!Bonus Round!@_jeffgen_Be the 20th person to retweet my Designing with Gamification tweet andyoull be enjoying a coffee on me!Level 4: Planning for GamificationField assignment 2: Gather field intelligence to unlock the final keys to decoding the gamification cipher! Back to GamificationApply to Business NeedsHow can we take these psychological theories and mechanics and apply them into our businesses products, processes and services?3 Basic StepsLets take a quick look at how to get startedStep 1 Define Users & GoalWhats your Goal?Drive specific user behaviorsCreate brand loyaltyRe-engineer daily processes to make them more engaging and efficient. Note: Do not gamify within highly efficient business processes.Create sticky, viral and engaging experiences Inject fun into a mundane task to make it more manageableCreate competitionKnow your AudienceWhat are their needs/ whats holding them back?Whats the primary playing style (solo, competitive, cooperative)?Who are they playing with?What metrics do they care about?Achievement of goals v. enjoyment of experienceStructure and guidance v. freedom to exploreSelf-interest in actions v. social interest in actionsStep 2 Use Mechanics that WorkThere are typically 3 kinds of gamification worth pursuing in a business context:ValidationCompletionPrizes & RewardsValidationA strong driver of long-term, quality engagement that forms communities and allows users to share & expressAwarded by the system or other users, tells the user they are popular48CompletionGuide user progression and persuade them to make useful contributions, enhancing the experience for themselves & othersAchievements what the player achieves (different than rewards)People need to feel like they are moving forward and this can be done either through a narrative and / or levels. Benchmarking progression is another simple measurement tool both for the user and creator of the programme. Get this right and it will drive motivation plus sustain engagement.49Prizes & RewardsReward users with upgraded status, exclusive access, additional power (budget/business decisions) and money, gifts or trips Extrinsic benefits clear and popular since others have done itInvolves user actionPurchasing from only certain providersThe more involved the action becomes, the tougher it is to maintain interestYou have to be all in on prizesRewards give users the following:Statusreaching the end of the race first could be replaced by a new title or being referenced in the annual report as the main facilitator of successAccessinstead of unlocking secret levels maybe its about the opportunity to participate in real world events like conferences or invites to executive meetingsPowernot just more weapons but maybe the chance to make budget or policy and other creative decisionsStuffsometimes cash, sometimes things like gifts, trips and other real life experiences50Step 2 (contd) Tips for SuccessProvide a reason to play and way to feel progression and accomplishment.Make sure players understand the goal of the game and why they should play it.Let players set their own goals or suggest goals to help motivate masteryUse global goals that everyone can help work towards to inspire collaboration & teamworkStep 3 Analyze the DataPerformance and player behaviorHave analytics tools and goals in place to gauge your progressPinpoint where users:Drop out or lose interestHave the most funUse that data to optimize the experience by adding or removing featuresImportant: Play test & iterate before launch!Biggest problem is that companies get lots in the shiny surface mechanics, when the real wealth of gamification is actually in the data that can be produced by gamified metrics52Now youre ready to apply gamification into your own user experiences! Congratulations! Youve achieved the final rank of Gamification Field Agent.Last Chance for a FREE Coffee!Need 2 Volunteers to play a game.Each will have 2 opportunities to answer a question first earn 10 points for a correct answerIf the player answers the question wrong, the other player will have the opportunity to answer and earn 5 points for the steal.Lets Start!P1-Q: Name one thing that Men like in games P2-Q: Name one item from the motivational heirarchy of needs pyramid P1-Q: Name 3 of the 6 game mechanics that we reviewed in detailA: Mastery, competition, destruction, spatial puzzles, trial & errorA: Physical, Safety, Belonging, Self-Esteem, Self-Actualization A: Game Space, Objects/Attributes/States, Actions, Rules, Skills, Chance A: Validation, Completion, Prizes/RewardsP2-Q: Name the 3 Game Mechanics that work best in a business contextAbout MeJeff SteffgenUser Experience & Design Director @ mLevel (game-based learning app & platform)Follow me on twitter: @_jeffgen_Most of you probably have no idea who I am, so lets start with a quick intro about myself. I actually started my career about 19 years ago as a graphic designer working for a small boutique agency in the Chicago area, my accounts included the Chicago White Sox, Baxter and MCL (who developed the entire River East area here in Chicago) you might have seen my logo around town before still standing the test of time after almost 15 years! My next moves would all be to software startups, in eCommerce, CRM, and CMS where I started to make my transition from the Creative side of Marketing to Product Design. For the past 2 years, Ive been at mLevel a SaaS startup that is building game-based learning for Fortune 500 companies and Ive been learning quite a bit about how to make games and engage users using game theory and mechanics. So that made me think maybe I can gamify this presentation a bit to keep you interested in case I suck too bad. More on that in a few minutes57Q1: Name one thing that Men like in games. Q2: Name one item from the motivational heirarchy of needs pyramid. Q3: Name 3 of the 6 game mechanics that we reviewed in detail.A: Mastery, competition, destruction, spatial puzzles, trial & errorA: Physical, Safety, Belonging, Self-Esteem, Self-Actualization A: Game Space, Objects/Attributes/States, Actions, Rules, Skills, Chance A: Validation, Completion, Prizes/RewardsQ4: Name the 3 Game Mechanics that work best in a business context