Buddhist Architecture (History) (2ndSem)
1. Buddhist Architecture 2. INTRODUCTION Aryans gave birth to elite class of merchants , artists and bureacrats. Gave rise to new religion and Brahmanism - performing rituals and sacrifices which some class of people were against . In revolt there was a section of non Brahmins also Off this speculation Prince Siddhartha Gatam urenounced luxury and pleasure of princely life . Meditated for several years to reach the path of peace and happiness Gave the middle path to all non Brahmins and laid foundation of new religion BUDDHISM. (Buddha 563 BCE to 483 BCE) 3. INTRODUCTIONThe religion taught non violence , oneness and humanity. Bodh Gaya tree of enlightenment in Magadha ruled by Chandragupta Maurya , who claims to be the first emperor of India . Capital of Magadha was Patliputra . Patliputra stretched for a miles along Ganga . The kings palace is patliputra was a grand hut of village with series of barrel vaulted timber roofs supported by rows of stone columns instead of brick wall. The place is extinct , only the foundations are left . 4. INTRODUCTION After Chandragupta Maurya ,his son Bimbisara came to power and then his successor was Ashoka . Ashoka was a great warrior but victory of Kalinga turned him to be follower of AHINSA , seeing the suffering and misery caused by the war . He adopted Buddhism whole heartedly and propagated the message not only in India but in entire world. For this his architectural manifestation was to give many rubble structures which housed the relics and ashes of Budha . Ashoka built 84000 stupas , 30 pillars and started the use of stone instead of timber for religious structures . 5. MONUMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF ANCIENT ARCHITECTURE Principle structure were built over a wide base with the super structure decreasing gradually in size toward an apex to attain height , monumentality and structural stability was the soundest way of assuring a long life to edifice . The non elastic materials like stone and brick were used for construction . The load in this type of structures acts only downwards and as long as the lowest course is not crushed by its own weight , structure remains stable . Buddhist architects chose circle / square , the two purest geometric form for monumental edifices . 6. The development of various symbols representing aspects of the Buddha's life (563 - 483 BCE) was the beginning of a specifically Buddhist architecture. Traditional building styles would have been used but it was the mode of decoration which began to set these buildings apart. As support for the new religion increased so too did the need for buildings to accommodate the requirements of the expanding monastic order. Although stonework was quite common wood was still the main medium and the skill to erect stone structures enclosing appreciable space had yet to be developed. 7. The earliest Buddhist construction of significance was the stupa , but these were sculpture not structure. Probably the most significant site is at Sanchi where as well as having one of the best preserved Indian stupas, the full range of Buddhist art and architecture from the third century BC to the twelfth AD can be studied here. The other form of specifically Buddhist construction that evolved quite early was the rock-cut monastery. For about six centuries, beginning around 100 BCE, several monasteries were hewn from the cliffs and rock walls of valleys. 8. ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES Main types of architectural buildings : Stupa Stambha Chaityas Viharas / MonastriesBuddhism rejected image worship , so represented Buddha by stupa , Bodhi tree indicating enlightenment , wheel of law , Buddha s footprints . 9. There has been been a tradition of religious architecture since Vedic times (1500 700 BCE) but construction was on a small and localised scale using perishable materials like timber, mud and clay and there is scant archaeological evidence available. Suggestions are that construction centered around the sacrificial arena with the evolving form becoming a simple square cell with a conical or pyramid roof. This became the most characteristic temple structure gaining increasing detail and refinement during the Gupta period (4th-6th century AD) heavily decorated with architectural and figural ornament. This form was brought to its stylistic height during the 7th to 11th centuries AD. 10. T he stupas were large halls capped with a dome and symbols of the Buddha. Their purpose was to install awe into the minds of the common people who, at that time, lived in small wooden houses. But the stupa wasnt the only awe-inspiring monuments; it was associated with a number of additional smaller structures such as pillared gates, decorated railings , umbrellas and lion thrones. All these were first made with brick, but when Ashoka realized that they wouldnt stand the vigorous of time and weather, he switched to stone. The spherical dome symbolised the infinite space of the sky, adobe of God 11. STUPASA stupa is a type of mound-like structure found across the Indian subcontinent, other parts of Asia, and increasingly in the Western World. Also known as Relic Shrines . Stupa was planned like a Vedic Village. Spherical dome symbolized the infinite space of sky , adobe of God . 12. PARTS OF STUPAS Dome is called Anda or Egg as it contained the seed i.e. relic of the monk . Harmika: Top of dome is Harmika (Heaven of 33 gods) , square balcony in decorative form enclosing a pedestal . Chattra: A 3 tiered stone / wooden umbrella chhatrayasti raised over pedestal which was the vedic alter of sacrifice and represented the village shrine. This in later period became inverted stepped pyramid covered by an umbrella rain vase (Varsha Sthala) at top. 13. STUPASVedica: Stupa is enclosed with a wooden / stone railing called vedica . Toranas : They were cermonial gateways placed at cardial point similar to Aryan village gates . Medhi : Medhi (predestrian Path) for devotees to wave in homage to stupa. Medhi was approached by double staircase sopana . Brick work , surface of dome finished of with a thick layer of lime water . 14. The brick work surface of the dome was finished off with thick layer of lime mortar. In some stupas , the dome was coloured and also some recesses were left at the intervals for receiving small lamps to be lit at the time of festivals 15. Symbolism of the stupa relates first of all to directionality and the cosmos. Stupas are built on a hill, where their beneficial influence can radiate to all four points of the compass. The dome represents the universe, also (as in later Hindu temples) a world-mountain whose axis is defined by the mast, and finally the symbolic body of Buddha himself, decorated (on gates and railings only) with sculpted scenes from his life and Jataka stories of his previous incarnations. 16. SANCHI Sanchi became a pilgrimage site when Ashoka Maurya erected a stupa and column there in the middle of the 3d century BC. Later rulers enlarged the complex. The earliest stupas predated Buddhism and were simple funerary mounds which held the ashes of the deceased. Built of earth, they have not survived. 17. THE GREAT STUPA AT SANCHI In the 1st century BC, the Shungas built the structure that we see today, which encases a 3rd century BC Ashokan core. The toranas were added by Satavahana kings in the 1st century AD. Its dome is made of solid brick work , 32.32 m in diameter and is 12.8 m high. It is crushed at top to place harmika and chhatrayasti. Facing of dome is done with hammer dressed stones laid in even courses . Medhi is 4.87 m from ground to create 1.8 m wide passage with double staircase on both sides . It has Toranas on four sides 3 m wide and 10.36 m high .Each entrance gate is staggered from the railing to form the swastika plan 18. Life-sized sandstone statues of the meditating Buddha were the final addition to the Great Stupa. A statue was placed at each of the four cardinal points, just inside the entrances. The east statue, shown here, is in somewhat better condition than the others. The postures and mudras of all four Buddhas are identical. Each is flanked by attendants, 19. BUDDHIST ORDER About 19 surviving Stambha erected by Ashoka. Averaging between forty and fifty feet in height, and weighing up to fifty tons each These had generally, bell shaped capitals surmounted by animals sculptural such as lion , elephants carrying male and females . Sarnath pillar is 15 m high . Four lions surmounting capital; supporting metal wheel containing 24 spokes and called wheel of lane . The wheel symbolizes first summon of Buddha , which is alsoadopted as national emblem of India . Sarnath lion capital (restored) of monolithic column showing buddhist symbols. 20. Sanchilumbinivaishali 21. CHAITYAS Temples cum assembly halls used to pay homage . Opened by small rectangular doorways to vaulted hall with apisidal end . Divided longitudinally by 2 colonnades forming a broad nave in the centre and two side aisles. The roof is usually semi circular . The chaityas resemble to that of church 22. Bhaje chaitya, karle 23. VIHARAS They are residential places of Buddhist priest. Main halls entered by a doorway , it has assembly halls , dining chambers , meditation cells , walls depict figures of Buddha . There were columns , 60 m high and well chiseled . 24. Viharas, ajanta caves 25. AJANTA CAVESThese caves are 60 km from Jalgaon. The caves are situated in a horse shoe shaped valley and spread over a length of more than 500 m from east to west wherein flows the small rivulet Waghor . There are 30 caves out of which 9 , on the face of almost vertical cliff 79 m high. The caves were excavated in different periods (circa. 2nd century B.C. to 6th century A.D.) according to the necessity. Each cave was connected to the stream by a flight of steps, which are now almost obliterated, albeit traces of some could be noticed at some places. 26. AJANTA CAVES The cave walls are filled with figures of celestial beings , dancers and deities of the buddhist pantheon . In all, total 30 excavations were hewn out of rock which also include an unfinished one. Out of these, five (cave no. 9, 10, 19, 26, and 29) are chaityagrihas and the rest are viharas. 27. ELLORA CAVES These are situated at about 34 km from Aurangabad at the foot of an off-shoot of Sahyadri range . Nagarjuna , founder of the Mahayana school of Buddhism is said to have had them excavated in 1st century . And flanked by They are all adorned with images of Buddha seated on a throne and flanked by two attendants, Padmapani and Vajrapani . There are twelve Buddhist caves here and only one chaitya and the remainings of viharas. In construction these are similar to that at Ajanta .