The Early Middle Ages7th to the 10th Century
Roman Empire DeclineGerman Invasions Affecting Artistic Development and Other Radical Changes in Social & Political OrganizationsIn addition to the German invasions were those from Islam.
Islamic ArtIdolatry forbiddenConsisted mainly of abstracts, floral patterns, or other geometric objectsSculpture almost nonexistentAbundance of monumental architecture & architectural decorations
Islamic Art ExpressionsMosque:A place to pray and face towards MeccaSahn: enclosed courtyard that all mosques have.Qibla: prayer wallMihrab: small nitche to indicate the direction of Mecca. Exterior:Tall minaretsLarge and elaborate
Hagia Sophia changed into a mosque
IslamIslam means submission to Gods willFounded by the prophet MuhammedMessage is brotherhood of Man & equality before God (Allah)Differs from Christianity No priesthood, no religious hierarchy, sacraments or requirements of literagyDoes include rulers and leaders in prayer
Islamic InstructionFaithfully conduct their daily livesCircumcise male infants Pray to Allah five times a day facing Mecca.Worship in the mosque on FridaysGive to the poor, Fast and practice abstinence in the daylight during RamadenAllowed multiple wives
The Great Mosque, CordobaMosque built in capital cityStriking example of Islamic artDouble arches first used here were duplicated in additions. (11.1,11.2, 11.3 & 11.4)Christians later turned this into a cathedral but it still conveys the original orientation of Islam.
Northern European ArtInfluenced by the Germanic tribesNew focus on artistic and political activitiesNo monumental structure, paintings or sculpture was done to the constant invasionsInvaders stimulated a new craft. . . Metalwork designs and techniques
Anglo-Saxon MetalworkPurse cover from the 17th century.Found among a pagan ship wreckage treasures suggesting royalty Is of gold decoration; cloisonne enamel originally on ivory or bone & dark red garnets.Early Christian intelace designs and Near Eastern motifsSuttonHoo purse cover from East Anglia, England, 630 AD Merging animal forms suggest invasion
BeowulfEarliest surviving European epic German folklore with strong Christian morality.A strange king child found adrift Denmark Scyld Scefing
Famed was this Beowulf: far flew the boast of him, son of Scyld, in the Scandian lands. So becomes it a youth to quit him well with his father's friends, by fee and gift, that to aid him, aged, in after days, come warriors willing, should war draw nigh, liegemen loyal: by lauded deeds shall an earl have honor in every clan.
Hiberno-Saxon ArtIreland escaped invasions at this timeSt. Patrick spread Christianity throughout Ireland and for years later it became a haven for scholars, missionaries, monasteries, . .Christian art also prevailed across Ireland.Style has been called Insular and Hiberno-Saxon (Hiberno is Latin for Ireland)
Manuscript IlluminationIlluminated manuscripts produced by monks in monasteries. Illustrated the Word of God; Visual pleasuresUsed a strict unity of color and form.Crisp, clear sometines contrasting colors; flat surfaces; patterningLion Symbol of St. John, from the Book of Durrow, After AD650. Represents St. John, Evangelist as a lion . . . .later an eagle.
Carolingian PeriodBook of KellsCorresponds with the crowning of Charles the Great-Roman empr. Charlemagne ruled over the Holy Roman Empire and surrounding territories and revived culture.Network of learning was createdLatin manuscript texts. . .7LibArts
11.7 Tunc Crucifixerant XPI, from the Book of Kells (Matthew 27:38) Then they crucified Christ & with him two thieves
ManuscriptsCharlemagnes rule involved the Roman revival of culture with manuscripts Manuscripts worked towards development of a practical form of portable artistic and educational communicationThey continued after Charlemagnes death but more apocalyptic approachFlatter space, figures connected by geometric design rather than landscapes.
Revelation & the Four Symbols of EvangelsitsRevelation-last book of the New Testament Written by St. JohnJohns account of Christs word in his appearance to him.Visionary work with scripture, literary tradition and symbols: lion, bull, man, eagle. Lion: St. Mark; Bull: St. Luke; Man: St. Matthew, Eagle: St. John.11.8 Four Evangelists, from a Carolingian Gospel Book
MonasteriesEach monastery:SchoolNetwork for artists and scholars to communicate.Religious and Administrative Center for economic functionsCommunal living quarters for MonksPlans for monstery of St.Gall, Switzerland; plan placed church in the center; building around in order of importance of education
Ottonian PeriodCharlemagnes grandsons were ineffective rulers of the European reign & fell to invaders.After the Vikings takeover, the Saxons crowned Otto I as Otto the Great, emperor.Ottonian refers to rulers named Otto who worked to continue Charlemagnes revival of Classical antiquity.
Major Works of the Ottonian PeriodArchitectural work: Benedictine abbey church of St. MichaelsMetalwork at Hildesheim