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Industrial Report on Samsung Electronics' Processor Exynos

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  • COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ROORKEE Control Systems and Instrumentation At Samsung Electronic-Ghaziabad SUBMITTED FOR PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF B.TECH IN: ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING INDUSTRIAL INTERACTION LAB (PEC-752) SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY: Ms. ASHITA VERMANI SAGAR KHARAB ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ET-K (IVth YEAR) DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND TELECOM. CLASS ROLL NO. - 16 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ROORKEE UNIV. R.NO. -110060102087
  • CONTENTS Certificate Chapter 1: About Samsung Electronics  Introduction  Operations  Products  Mission of Company Chapter 2: Instrumentations and Control System Products  Architecture Products  Application Processors Chapter 3: Introduction to Exynos  History  Semiconductor Technology  14 nm Technology  Instruction Set  Microarchitecture  Relation to instruction set architecture Chapter IV: Exynos Family Chapter V: Exynos 5  Introduction  Exynos 5 Octa (Exynos 5422)  Internal Architecture  HKMG Transistor  big.LITTLE Processing Chapter IX: Applications  Navigation Devices  Smart Phone  Graphical performance without compromising power consumption  Low Power Multitasking  WQXGA Display in Mobile device  Incredible experience for 3D gaming References
  • Chapter I About Samsung Electronics Introduction: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. is a South Korean multinational electronics company headquartered in Suwon, South Korea. It is the flagship subsidiary of the Samsung Group, amounting to 70% of the group's revenue in 2012, and has been the world's largest information technology company by revenues since 2009. Samsung Electronics has assembly plants and sales networks in 80 countries and employs around 370,000 people. Since 2012, the CEO is Kwon Oh-Hyun. Samsung has long been a major manufacturer of electronic components such as lithium-ion batteries, semiconductors, chips, flash memory and hard drive devices for clients such as Apple, Sony, HTC and Nokia. In recent years, the company has diversified into consumer electronics. It is the world's largest manufacturer of mobile phones and smartphones fuelled by the popularity of its Samsung Galaxy line of devices.[11] The company is also a major vendor of tablet computers, particularly its Android-powered Samsung Galaxy Tab collection, and is generally regarded as pioneering the phablet market through the Samsung Galaxy Note family of devices. Samsung has been the world's largest manufacturer of LCD panels since 2002, the world's largest television manufacturer since 2006, and world's largest manufacturer of mobile phones since 2011. Samsung Electronics displaced Apple Inc. as the world's largest technology company in 2011 and is a major part of the South Korean economy. In June 2014 Samsung published the Tizen OS with the new Samsung Z.
  • Operations: The company focuses on four areas: digital media, semiconductor, telecommunication network, and LCD digital appliances. The digital-media business area covers computer devices such as laptop computers and laser printers; digital displays such as televisions and computer monitors; and consumer entertainment devices such as DVD players, MP3 players and digital camcorders; and home appliances such as refrigerators, air conditioners, air purifiers, washers, microwave ovens, and vacuum cleaners. The semiconductor-business area includes semiconductor chips such as SDRAM,SRAM, NAND flash memory ; smart cards ; mobile application processors ; mobile TV receivers; RF transceivers; CMOS Image sensors, Smart Card IC, MP3 IC, DVD/Blu-ray Disc/HD DVD Player SOC and multi-chip package (MCP); and storage devices such as optical disc drives and formerly hard disk drives. The telecommunication-network-business area includes multi–service DSLAMs and fax machines; cellular devices such as mobile phones, PDA phones, and hybrid devices called mobile intelligent terminals (MITs); and satellite receivers. The LCD business area focuses on producing TFT-LCD and organic light-emitting diode (OLED) panels for laptops, desktop monitors, and televisions. Samsung Print was established in 2009 as a separate entity to focus on B2B sales and has released a broad range of multifunctional devices and printers and more. Products: LCD and LED panels. While reducing the thickness substantially, the company maintained the performance of previous models, including full HD resolution, 120 Hz refresh rate, and 5000:1 contrast ratio. On September 6, 2013, Samsung launched its 55-inch curved OLED TV (model KE55S9C) in the United Kingdom with John Lewis. In early October 2013, the Samsung Corporation disseminated a press release for its curved display technology with the Galaxy Round smartphone model. The press release described the product as the "world’s first commercialized full HD Super AMOLED flexible display." The manufacturer explains that users can check information such as time and battery life when the home screen is off, and can receive information from the screen by tilting the device.
  • Mobile Phones At the end of the third quarter of 2010, the company had surpassed the 70 million unit mark in shipped phones, giving it a global market share of 22 percent, trailing Nokia by 12 percent. Overall, the company sold 280 million mobile phones in 2010, corresponding to a market share of 20.2 percent. Partially owing to strong sales of the Samsung Galaxy range of smartphones, the company overtook Apple in worldwide smartphone sales during the third quarter 2011, with a total market share of 23.8 percent, compared to Apple's 14.6-percent share.[73] Samsung became the world's largest cell phone maker in 2012, with the sales of 95 million smart phones in the first quarter. During the third quarter of 2013, Samsung's smartphone sales were boosted by a strong consumer reception in emerging markets such as India and the Middle East, where lower- priced handsets were popular. As of October 2013, the company offers 40 smartphone models on its US website. The smartphone market share of Samsung decreased to 24 percent in Q3 2014 from 29 percent in Q2 2014 and 32.9 percent in Q3 2013 Semiconductors A Samsung DDR-SDRAM Samsung Electronics has been the world's-largest memory chip maker since 1993. In 2009 it started mass-producing 30 nm-class NAND flash memories. It succeeded in 2010 in mass- producing 30 nm-class DRAMs and 20 nm-class NAND flashes, both of which were the first time in the world. Other Samsung produces printers for both consumers and business use, including mono-laser printers, color laser printers, multifunction printers, and enterprise-use high-speed digital multifunction printer models. In 2010, the company introduced a number of energy efficient products, including the laptop R580, netbook N210, the world's-smallest mono-laser printer ML-1660, and color laser multifunction printer CLX-3185.
  • The Samsung GX-10 digital SLR camera Samsung has introduced several models of digital cameras and camcorders including the WB550 camera, the ST550 dual-LCD-mounted camera, and the HMX-H106 (64GB SSD- mounted full HD camcorder). In 2009, the company took the third place in the compact camera segment. Since then, the company has focused more on higher-priced items. In 2010, the company launched the NX10, the next-generation interchangeable lens camera. Mission of Company: Everything we do at Samsung is guided by our mission: to be the best “digital E-Company”. It is our Quality Policy that we deliver on the basis of an effective quality system the best products and services that exceed our customers’ requirements and expectations. All executives and employees of SAMSUNG are making continuous efforts to achieve the very best quality in all our products and services. We obtained ISO/TS16949, the international standard for automotive industry, in 2004. We also achieved TL9000, the international standard for Telecommunication industry, in Oct. 2001. In addition, we are continuously upgrading the quality management system in all stages ranging from order receipt, development, production to shipment. Samsung is guided by a singular vision: to lead the digital convergence movement. Samsung believe that through technology innovation today, we will find the solutions we need to address the challenges of tomorrow. From technology comes opportunity—for businesses to grow, for citizens in emerging markets to prosper by tapping into the digital economy, and for people to invent new possibilities. It’s our aim to develop innovative technologies and efficient processes that create new markets, enrich people’s lives and continue to make Samsung a trusted market leader.
  • Chapter 2 Instrumentations and Control System Products • Architecture Products • CMOS Image Sensors: An image sensor is a device that converts an optical image into an electronic signal. It is used mostly in digital cameras, camera modules and other imaging devices. Early analog sensors were video camera tubes; currently used types are semiconductor charge-coupled devices (CCD) or active pixel sensors in complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) or N-type metal-oxide-semiconductor (NMOS, Live MOS) technologies. • Mobile Memory Solutions: mobile memory enables outstanding design flexibility. Our Mobile DRAM solutions help designers create sleek devices with heightened functionality. And, our innovative "chip-stack" MCP solutions optimize board space by combining different memory technologies on a single substrate. • DRAM: High-speed, power-saving memory for the next generation of mobile devices. Find out why leading manufacturers utilize SAMSUNG Mobile DRAM for eBooks, tablet computers, smart phones, MP3s, and PDAs. Deliver the features you need to confidently meet market demand for handheld devices with high-performance memory built specifically for the leading edge of mobile device and application design. • Application Processors: Deliver outstanding user experiences for today's ultra-small mobile devices, tablets, notebooks, and smartphones with high-performance, low-power Samsung application processors (APs). Minimize the overall size of your mobile device by using the latest system-on-a-chip (SoC) technology. We can integrate a variety of systems including CPUs, graphic accelerators, image signal processors, and storage interfaces. Samsung's flagship SoC product line, Exynos, comprises an exceptional set of APs based on highly advanced mobile technologies, including Samsung's High-K Metal Gate (HKMG) low-power process. The broad range of the Exynos line offers mobile device architects the solutions they need to meet exacting design requirements.
  • Chapter 3 Introduction to Exynos Exynos is a series of ARM-based System-on-Chips (SoCs) developed and manufactured by Samsung Electronics and is a continuation of SAMSUNG's earlier S3C, S5L and S5P line of SoCs. History: In 2010 Samsung launched the S5PC110 (now Exynos 3 single) in its Samsung Galaxy S mobile phone, which featured a licensed ARM Cortex-A8 CPU. In early 2011, Samsung first launched the Exynos 4210 SoC in its Samsung Galaxy S II mobile smartphone. The driver code for the Exynos 4210 was made available in the Linux kernel and support was added in version 3.2 in November 2011. On 29 September 2011, Samsung introduced Exynos 4212[5] as a successor to the 4210; it features a higher clock frequency and "50 percent higher 3D graphics performance over the previous processor generation". Built with a 32 nm High-K Metal Gate (HKMG) low-power process; it promises a "30 percent lower power-level over the previous process generation." On 30 November 2011, Samsung released information about their upcoming SoC with a dual-core ARM Cortex-A15 CPU, which was initially named "Exynos 5250" and was later renamed to Exynos 5 Dual. This SoC has a memory interface providing 12.8 GB/sec of memory bandwidth, support for USB 3.0 and SATA 3, can decode full 1080p video at 60fps along with simultaneously displaying WQXGA-resolution (2560x1600) on a mobile display as well as 1080p over HDMI. On 26 April 2012, Samsung released the Exynos 4 Quad, which powers the Samsung Galaxy S III and Samsung Galaxy Note II. The Exynos 4 Quad SoC uses 20% less power than the SoC in Samsung Galaxy SII. Samsung also changed the name of several SoCs, Exynos 3110 to Exynos 3 Single, Exynos 4210 and 4212 to Exynos 4 Dual 45 nm, and Exynos 4 Dual 32 nm and Exynos 5250 to Exynos 5 Dual. Semiconductor Technology: Semiconductor device fabrication is the process used to create the integrated circuits that are present in everyday electrical and electronic devices. It is a multiple-step sequence of photo lithographic and chemical processing steps during which ELECTRONIC circuits are gradually created on a wafer made of pure semiconducting material. Silicon is almost always used, but various compound semiconductors are used for specialized applications. The entire manufacturing process, from start to packaged chips ready for shipment, takes six to eight weeks and is performed in highly specialized facilities referred to as fabs.
  • Various Semiconductor Technologies: Semiconductor is generally discriminated on the basis of the width of the semiconductor wafer. Lesser the width, better the technology. Name of Technology Year of Introduction 10 µm 1971 6 µm 1974 3 µm 1977 1.5 µm 1982 1 µm 1985 800 nm 1989 600 nm 1994 350 nm 1995 250 nm 1997 180 nm 1999 130 nm 2001 90 nm 2004 65 nm 2006 45 nm 2008 32 nm 2010 22 nm 2012 14 nm 2014 10 nm 2016 7 nm 2018 5 nm 2020
  • 14 nm Technology: The 14 nanometer (14 nm) semiconductor device fabrication node is the technology node following the 22 nm/ (20 nm) node. The naming of this technology node as "14 nm" came from the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). The 14 nm technology was reached by semiconductor companies in 2014. 14 nm resolution is difficult to achieve in a polymeric resist, even with electron beam lithography. In addition, the chemical effects of ionizing radiation also limit reliable resolution to about 30 nm, which is also achievable using current state-of-the-art immersion lithography. Hardmask materials and multiple patterning are required. A more significant limitation comes from plasma damage to low-k materials. The extent of damage is typically 20 nm thick, but can also go up to about 100 nm. The damage sensitivity is expected to get worse as the low-k materials become more porous. For comparison, the lattice constant, or distance between surface atoms, of unstrained silicon is 543 pm (0.543 nm). Thus fewer than thirty atoms would span the channel length, leading to substantial leakage. Tela Innovations and Sequoia Design Systems have developed a methodology allowing double exposure for the 14 nm node. SAMSUNG and Synopsys have also begun implementing double patterning in 22 nm and 16 nm design flows. Mentor Graphics reported taping out 16 nm test chips in 2010. On January 17, 2011, IBM announced that they are teaming up with ARM to develop 14 nm chip processing technology. On February 18, 2011, Intel announced that it would construct a new $5 billion semiconductor fabrication plant in Arizona, designed to manufacture chips using the 14 nm manufacturing processes and leading-edge 300 mm wafers. The new fabrication plant was to be named Fab 42, and construction was meant to start in the middle of 2011. Intel billed the new facility as "the most advanced, high-volume manufacturing facility in the world," and said it would come on line in 2013. Intel has since decided to postpone opening this facility and instead upgrade its existing facilities to support 14-nm chips. On May 17, 2011, Intel announced a roadmap for 2014 that includes 14 nm transistors for their Xeon, Core, and Atom product lines. Instruction Set: An instruction set, or instruction set architecture (ISA), is the part of the computer architecture related to programming, including the native data types, instructions, registers, addressing modes, memory architecture, interrupt and exception handling, and external I/O. An ISA includes a specification of the set of opcodes (machine language), and the native commands implemented by a particular processor.
  • Generally we use ARM Architecture. ARM architecture forms the basis for every ARM processor. Over time, the ARM architecture has evolved to include architectural features to meet the growing demand for new functionality, high performance and the needs of new and emerging MARKETS. There are currently two ARMv8 profiles, the ARMv8-A architecture profile for high performance MARKETS such as mobile and enterprise, and the ARMv8-R architecture profile for embedded applications in automotive and industrial control. The ARM architecture supports implementations across a wide range of performance points, establishing it as the leading architecture in many MARKET segments. The ARM architecture supports a very broad range of performance points leading to very small implementations of ARM processors, and very efficient implementations of advanced designs using state of the art micro-architecture techniques. Implementation size, performance, and low power consumption are key attributes of the ARM architecture. ARM developed architecture extensions to provide support for Java acceleration (Jazelle®), security (TrustZone®), SIMD, and Advanced SIMD (NEON™) technologies. The ARMv8- architecture adds a Cryptographic extension as an optional feature. The ARM architecture is similar to a Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture, as it incorporates these typical RISC architecture features: A uniform register file load/store architecture, where data processing operates only on register contents, not directly on memory contents. Simple addressing modes, with all load/store addresses determined from register contents and instruction fields only. Evolution of various architecture
  • Architecture used in the various Exynos processors are as following: Architecture Bit width Cores designed by ARM Holdings Cores designed by third parties Cortex profile ARMv7-A 32 ARM Cortex-A5, ARM Cortex-A7,ARM Cortex- A8, ARM Cortex-A9,ARM Cortex-A12, ARM Cortex-A15,ARM Cortex- A17 Krait, Scorpion, PJ4/Sheeva, Apple A6/A6X Application ARMv8-A 64/32 ARM Cortex-A53, ARM Cortex-A57[29] X-Gene, Nvidia Project Denver, AMD K12, Apple A7/A8, Cavium Thunder X[30][31][32] Application Microarchitecture: In electronics engineering and computer engineering, microarchitecture (even sometimes abbreviated to µarch or uarch), also called computer organization, is the way a given instruction set architecture (ISA) is implemented on a processor. A given ISA may be implemented with different microarchitectures; implementations may vary due to different goals of a given design or due to shifts in technology. Computer architecture is the combination of microarchitecture and instruction set design. Relation to instruction set architecture: The ISA is roughly the same as the programming model of a processor as seen by an assembly language programmer or compiler writer. The ISA includes the execution model,processor registers, address and data formats among other things. The microarchitecture includes the constituent parts of the processor and how these interconnect and interoperate to implement the ISA.
  • Single bus organization microarchitecture The microarchitecture of a machine is usually represented as (more or less detailed) diagrams that describe the interconnections of the various microarchitectural elements of the machine, which may be everything from single gates and registers, to complete arithmetic logic units (ALUs) and even larger elements. These diagrams generally separate the datapath (where data is placed) and the control path (which can be said to steer the data).
  • Chapter 4 Exynos Family Samsung has done enormous work in the field of mobile application processors. List of all Exynos Processors is as follows: Exynos 3 Single (previously S5PC110, Hummingbird, Exynos 3110) Exynos 3 Quad(Exynos 3470) Exynos 4 Dual 45 nm(Exynos 4210) Exynos 4 Dual 32 nm(Exynos 4212) Exynos 4 Quad (Exynos 4412 Prime) Exynos 5 Dual (Exynos 5250) Exynos 5 Octa (Exynos 5410) Exynos 5 Octa (Exynos 5420) Exynos 5 Octa (Exynos 5422) Exynos 5 Octa (Exynos 5800) Exynos 5 Hexa (Exynos 5260) Exynos 5 Octa (Exynos 5430) Exynos 7 Octa (Exynos 5433/7410)
  • Chapter 5 Exynos 5 Introduction: Exynos 5 is the World’s first ARM Cortex-A15 processor. This processor was introduced in the market by Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd. in late 2011. Exynos 5 is available in various different variants which are as following: Exynos 5 Octa (Exynos 5422): This is one of the powerful and best processor of all of the Exynos 5 versions. Some of the key features of this are as follows:  ARM Cortex-A15 Quad CPU (Eagle) with NEON as high performance processor  32 KB (Instruction)/32 KB (Data) Cache and 2 MB L2 Cache  ARM Cortex-A7 Quad CPU (Kingfisher) as power-efficient performance processor  32 KB (Instruction)/32 KB (Data) Cache and 512 KB L2 Cache  128-bit Multi-layer Network-on-Chip (NoC) architecture  Cache Coherent Interface (CCI) among Cortex-A15 and Cortex-A7, G2D, G3D and SSS  Memory Subsystem: - 2-ports 32-bit up to 933 MHz LPDDR3/DDR3 Interfaces - 2-ports 32-bit up to 533 MHz LPDDR2 Interfaces  Multi-format Video Hardware codec (MFC): 1920x1080@120fps (capable of decoding and encoding MPEG- 4/H.263/H.264/VP8 and decoding of MPEG-2/VC1 video) and upto 8192x8192 H.264 and VP8 encoding/decoding  3D and 2D graphics hardware, supporting a variety of APIs  OpenGL ES 1.1/2.0/3.0, OpenCL 1.1,OpenVG 1.0.1, DirectX 11, and Google Renderscript  Image Signal Processor: Supporting BayerRGB up to 14-bit input with 16MP 30 fps through MIPI CSI2 interfaces and special functionalities such as with Dynamic Range Compression (DRC), Face Detection (FD), 3D Noise Reduction filter (3DNR) and 3AA  JPEG Hardware Codec  LCD single display, supporting max WQXGA, 24 bpp RGB, YUV formats through MIPI DSI or eDP Exynos 5 Dual (Exynos 5250) Exynos 5 Octa (Exynos 5410) Exynos 5 Octa (Exynos 5420) Exynos 5 Octa (Exynos 5422) Exynos 5 Octa (Exynos 5800) Exynos 5 Hexa (Exynos 5260) Exynos 5 Octa (Exynos 5430)
  •  HDMI 1.4a interfaces with on-chip PHY  2-ports (4/4 lanes) MIPI CSI2 interfaces for both rear and front camera  1-port (4 lanes) eDisplayPort (eDP)  2-channel USB 3.0 Host or Device (with USB2.0 backward compatibility), supporting SS (5 Gbps) with on-chip PHY  1-channel USB 2.0 Host, supporting LS/FS/HS (1.5 Mbps/12 Mbps/480 Mbps) with on-chip PHY  1-channel USB HSIC, supporting 480 Mbps with on-chip PHY  1-channel 8-bit eMMC 5.0  1-channel 8-bit SDIO 3.0  1-channel 4-bit SD 3.0  5-channel high-speed UART (up to 3 Mbps data rate for Bluetooth 2.1 EDR and IrDA 1.0 SIR)  3-channel SPI  1-channel PCM and 2-channel I2S audio interface, supporting 5.1 channel audio  1-channel S/PDIF interface support for digital audio (Tx only) 7-channel HS-I2C (up to 3.4 Mbps) for a variety of sensors (such as ambient light sensor and proximity sensor) and PMIC  4-channel I2C interface support (up to 400 kbps) for HDMI, general-purpose multi-master and ISP  Security subsystem supporting hardware crypto accelerators, ARM TrustZone and TZASC  24-channel DMA Controller (8-channel MDMA, 8 x 2 channel PDMA)  Configurable GPIOs  Real time clock, PLLs, timer with PWM, MCT (Multi-Core Timer), and Watchdog timer. Internal Architecture: Fig 4.1 Internal Architecture of Exynos 5 Octa (Exynos 5422)
  • HKMG Transistor: HKMG stands for High K Metal Gate and transistor is known to all. K is the dielectric constant for various semiconductors. The term high-κ dielectric refers to a material with a high dielectric constant κ (as compared to silicon dioxide). High-κ dielectrics are used in semiconductor manufacturing processes where they are usually used to replace a silicon dioxide gate dielectric or another dielectric layer of a device. The implementation of high-κ gate dielectrics is one of several strategies developed to allow further miniaturization of microelectronic components, colloquially referred to as extending Moore's Law. Need for high κ materials: Silicon dioxide has been used as a gate oxide material for decades. As transistors have decreased in size, the thickness of the silicon dioxide gate dielectric has steadily decreased to increase the gate capacitance and thereby drive current, raising device performance. As the thickness scales below 2 nm, leakage currents due to tunnelingincrease drastically, leading to high power consumption and reduced device reliability. Replacing the silicon dioxide gate dielectric with a high-κ material allows increased gate capacitance without the associated leakage effects. First Principle: The gate oxide in a MOSFET can be modeled as a parallel plate capacitor. Ignoring quantum mechanical and depletion effects from the Si substrate and gate, the capacitance Cof this parallel plate capacitor is given by Where  A is the capacitor area  κ is the relative dielectric constant of the material (3.9 for silicon dioxide)  ε0 is the permittivity of free space  t is the thickness of the capacitor oxide insulator Conventional silicon dioxide gate dielectric structure compared to a potential high-k dielectric structure
  • Cross-section of an N channel MOSFET transistor showing the gate oxide dielectric Since leakage limitation constrains further reduction of t, an alternative method to increase gate capacitance is alter κ by replacing silicon dioxide with a high- κ material. In such a scenario, a thicker gate oxide layer might be used which can reduce the leakage current flowing through the structure as well as improving the gate dielectric reliability. Use in Industry: The industry has employed oxynitride gate dielectrics since the 1990s, wherein a conventionally formed silicon oxide dielectric is infused with a small amount of nitrogen. The nitride content subtly raises the dielectric constant and is thought to offer other advantages, such as resistance against dopant diffusion through the gate dielectric. In early 2007, Intel announced the deployment of hafnium-based high-k dielectrics in conjunction with a metallic gate for components built on 45 nanometer technologies, and has shipped it in the 2007 processor series codenamed Penryn. At the same time, IBM announced plans to transition to high-k materials, also hafnium-based, for some products in 2008. While not identified, the most likely dielectric used in such applications are some form of nitrided hafnium silicates (HfSiON). HfO2 and HfSiO are susceptible to crystallization during dopant activation annealing. NEC ELECTRONICS has also announced the use of an HfSiON dielectric in their 55 nm UltimateLowPower technology. However, even HfSiON is susceptible to trap-related leakage currents, which tend to increase with stress over device lifetime. This leakage effect becomes more severe as hafnium concentration increases. There is no guarantee however, that hafnium will serve as a de facto basis for future high-k dielectrics. The 2006 ITRS roadmap predicted the implementation of high-k materials to be commonplace in the industry by 2010.
  • big.LITTLE Processing: ARM big.LITTLE is a heterogeneous computing architecture developed by ARM Holdings, coupling (relatively) slower, low-power processor cores with (relatively) more powerful and power-hungry ones. The intention is to create a multi-core processor that can adjust better to dynamic computing needs and use less power than clock scaling alone. In October 2011, big.LITTLE was announced along with the Cortex-A7, which was designed to be architecturally compatible with the Cortex-A15. In October 2012 ARM announced the Cortex-A53 and Cortex-A57 (ARMv8-A) cores, which are also compatible with each other to allow their use in a big.LITTLE chip. ARM later announced the Cortex-A12 at Computex 2013 followed by the Cortex-A17 in February 2014, both can also be paired in a big.LITTLE configuration with the Cortex-A7 Implementation of big.Little: SoC fab big cores LITTLE cores GPU Devices HiSilicon K3V3 28 nm 1.8 GHz dual-coreCortex-A15 1.2 GHz dual- coreCortex-A7 Mali-T658 HiSilicon Kirin 920 28 nm 1.7-2.0 GHz Cortex-A15 1.3-1.6 GHz quad-core Cortex-A7 Mali-T628MP4 Huawei Honor 6 SAMSUNG Exyn os 5 Octa (5410 model)[11][12] 28 nm 1.6-1.8 GHz quad-core Cortex- A15 1.2 GHz quad-core Cortex-A7 PowerVR SGX544MP3 Exynos 5- basedSamsung Galaxy S4 Samsung Exynos 5 Octa (5420 model) 28 nm 1.8-2.0 GHz quad-core Cortex- A15 1.3 GHz quad-core Cortex-A7 Mali-T628MP6 Exynos 5- basedSamsung Galaxy Note 3 Samsung Exynos 5 Octa (5422 model) 28 nm 2.1 GHz quad-core Cortex-A15 1.5 GHz quad-core Cortex-A7 Mali-T628MP6 Exynos 5- basedSamsung Galaxy S5,Odroid- XU3
  • Samsung Exynos 5 Hexa (5260 model) 28 nm 1.7 GHz dual-core Cortex-A15 1.3 GHz quad-core Cortex-A7 Mali-T624 Samsung Galaxy Note 3 Neo Samsung Exynos 5 Octa (5430 model) 20 nm 1.8 GHz quad-core Cortex-A15 1.3 GHz quad-core Cortex-A7 Mali-T628MP6 Samsung Galaxy Alpha[15] Samsung Exynos 5 Octa (5433 model) 20 nm 1.9 GHz quad-core Cortex-A57 1.3 GHz quad-core Cortex-A53 Mali-T760 Samsung Galaxy Note 4 (SM- N910C) Renesas Mobile MP6530[17] 28 nm 2 GHz dual-core Cortex-A15 1 GHz dual-core Cortex- A7 PowerVR SGX544 Allwinner A80 Octa 28 nm Quad-core Cortex-A15 Quad-core Cortex-A7 PowerVRG6230 MediaTek MT659 5 28 nm 2.2 GHz quad-core Cortex-A17 1.7 GHz quad-core Cortex-A7 PowerVR G6200 (600 MHz) MediaTek MT6595M 28 nm 2.0 GHz quad-core Cortex-A17 1.5 GHz quad-core Cortex-A7 PowerVR G6200 (450 MHz) MediaTek MT6595 Turbo 28 nm 2.5 GHz quad-core Cortex-A17 1.7 GHz quad-core Cortex-A7 PowerVR G6200 (600 MHz)
  • Company Promoted image of Exynos 5 Qualcomm Snapd ragon 808 (MSM8992) 20 nm 2.0 GHz dual-core Cortex-A57 Quad-core ARM Cortex- A53 Adreno 418 Qualcomm Snapdragon 810 (MSM8994) 20 nm 2.0 GHz quad-core Cortex-A57 Quad-core ARM Cortex- A53 Adreno 430
  • Chapter 6 Applications Navigation: Navigation devices are increasing in popularity everywhere, from cars to mobile phones, helping people find the correct direction to a particular location or destination from a given starting point. Advanced navigation devices also assist the disabled (such as the blind) by reading out directions and providing other useful features. Navigation devices today rely on satellite-based services, such as Global Positioning System (GPS), GLONASS, or Galileo to function, but may also use other connectivity solutions, such as 3G and Wi-Fi, depending upon the capabilities built into the device. The GPS system uses data from a network of satellites to obtain location information anywhere on or near the surface of earth. The 21st century has seen a remarkable increase in the penetration of GPS based navigation services, primarily due to advances in the ELECTRONICS and semiconductor technology space, making the availability of GPS services on devices, such as mobile phones, possible. The GPS technology has evolved significantly, from the simple devices that showed people their geographical locations, to the latest ones that possess Internet access capabilities and allow two-way communication. GPS has also been deployed in the MARKETING segment, through the concept of "GPS Advertising" - sending custom advertising messages to select GPS receivers. Block Diagram for a typical navigation device.
  • Smart Phone: Mobile (or cellular) phones have become one of the most common communications devices in everyday use. Apart from simple voice calls, today's mobile phones are capable of offering many other services, such as text and multimedia messaging, entertainment (playback of stored music and FM radio), and photography. High-end mobile phones, which run on specially designed technology platforms and contain advanced computing and connectivity features (such as Internet and email access), are generally known as smartphones. With advances in all fields of technology, the line between a normal phone and a smartphone has blurred significantly. Samsung is the industry leader when it comes to supplying components for mobile phones - from the most basic, entry-level instruments, to the most advanced, multi-functional handsets that are complete computers in themselves. OEMs and designers across the globe rely on Samsung for world-class devices and components, such as memory, processors, and displays, to bring their designs to MARKET in the shortest time and at the lowest cost. Block diagram of Smart Phone Architecture Graphical performance without compromising power consumption Low Power Multitasking WQXGA Display in Mobile device Incredible experience for 3D gaming
  • References  www.wikipedia.org  www.samsung.com  www.arm.com 
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