Download ISLAM Brought to you by the wonderful, brilliant, beautiful people of APWH.
ISLAM Brought to you by the wonderful, brilliant, beautiful people of APWH
Sassanid Empire (224-600 C.E) History: Ardashir, a descendent of an ancestor named Sasan, defeated the Parthians around 224 C.E and established the Sassanid Empire. He established Zoroastrianism as the official religion of this empire. Ardashir I further expanded his new empire to the east and northwest, conquering the provinces of Sistan, Gorgan, Khorasan, Margiana (modern Turkmenistan), Balkh, and Chorasmia.
Sassanid Empire (224-600 C.E) Culture: Zoroastrianism was the main religion of the Sassanid Empire. Zoroastrianism is a monotheistic religion which is directed under one god: Ahura Mazda. Built fire temples to promote Zoroastrianism among the Empire. Encouraged marriage with people of the same faith, but wasnt a requirement of the religion. As expressions and aspects of Creation, Ahura Mazda emanated seven "sparks", the Amesha Spentas ("Bounteous Immortals"), that are each the hypostasis and representative of one aspect of that Creation.
Sassanid Empire (224-600 C.E) Life: Society was divided into four classes: priests, warriors, secretaries, commoners. At the center of the caste system was the Shahanshah who ruled over all the nobles in the Sassanid Empire. Created works of silver, and silk fabrics which was testify to the sedentary lifestyle of the warrior elite. Sassanid farmers pioneered in planting cotton, sugar cane, rice, citrus trees, eggplants and other crops adopted from India and China.
MUHAMMAD AND ORIGINS OF ISLAM
Muhammad (Peace Be Unto Him) The man behind the turban
Who is this mystery man? Muhammad = worthy of praise Born in 570 in Mecca to a prominent family Orphaned and lived w/ uncle Married Khadija (15 yrs older) – had lots of kids According to Islamic tradition, he received his first revelation in a cave that he retreated to for meditation in the month of Ramadan Three years later, he began publically preaching these revelations Migrated to Medina to escape persecution in 622 (This marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar) By his death in 632, he united most of Arabia under Islam frequently retreated to Mount Hira to meditate and consider his spirituality (oooh) This is Mount Hira.
How did this mystery come about? AKA the Origins of Islam Muhammad went and sat in a cave, thinking about life The Angel Gabriel gave him a message from God According to Islam, God gives Quran through angel Gabriel to prophet Muhammad. Thus, Quran is believed to be the perfect words of Allah. The followers becomes a Muslim, meaning one who makes Islam, or submission, to the will of God. Then they wrote down all the words and made the Quran.
BELIEFS OF ISLAM
Islamic Beliefs Five Pillars of Islam: –Pilgrimage (Hajj) –Fasting (Sawm) –Almsgiving (Zakat) –Prayer (Salam) –One God and Muhammad is his Messenger (Shahada)
Islamic Practices Followers of Islam and known as Muslims Varies from Sects of Islam –Sunni Namaz five times a day –Shiites (Depends on sect of Shiites) Dua three times a day Namaz five times a day Fasting –Month of Ramadan (Lunar Calendar) –Also includes acts of prayer and devotion at night.
THE CALIPHS: SUCCESSORS TO MUHAMMAD
The role of the Caliph The caliphs -political leaders of the Muslim community in the earlier eras of Islamic history: SUCCESSORS TO MUHAMMAD Unites all Muslim nations, is only system that is fully approved by Muslim theology. Caliphs are chosen differently: Sunnis believed that Caliphs should be chosen by election by Muslim representatives. Shiites believed that the Caliph should be an Imam descended in a line from the Ahl al-Bayt, or the descendents of Ali.
The origins of the Caliphate The caliphate was the result of Muhammads death. There was a need for a successor. The first 4 Caliphs were Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali After the death of Ali, Islam branched into Sunnis, Shiites, and Kharjites. Kharjites rebelled from the system itself because of Alis acceptance of arbitration. Kharjites claim righteousness for themselves. Today all three divisions of Islam still exist, though the majority of Muslims are Sunni or Shiite.
The continuation of the Caliphate The caliphate lasted from 632 to 1258 C.E. the line of Caliphs: the original 4 caliphs, followed by the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates. System inactive since 1920s; reestablishment suggested by some groups Peaceful and forceful methods have been used to push reestablishment; Al-Queda is an example of a violent activist group, and Hizb Ut-Tahrir is an example of a peaceful activist group
Continued and confirmed Five Pillars of Islam: (1) avowal of a single god and Muhammad as is messenger (2) prayer x5 every day (3) fasting during lunar month (Ramadan) (4) paying alms (5) making pilgrimage to Mecca at least once during life Father of Muhammads favorite wife and one of earliest believers of Islam Succeeded Muhammad as caliph Quelled the Bedouin revolt called the Ridda and realized the need to expand territory beyond Arabian peninsula Started hostilities against the Byzantines and Sassanids Ordered secretaries of Muhammad to organize the Prophets revelations into a book: the Quran
Another of Muhammads fathers-in-law; appointed by Abu Bakr Added title Amir al-Mu'minin, Commander of the Faithful, to his title to signify that the caliphs were spiritual as well as political leaders Focused on expanding the Islamic territory beyond the Arabian Peninsula Conquered lands: Syria, Egypt, Iraq, and much of Persia Kharaj and jizya taxes, tax on landowners and peasants and tax on non-Muslims to practice own religion, respectively
Standardized the Quran Faced many political difficulties –Some were mad that Ali did not get the caliph position –He promotion of his Umayyad kin brought about criticism –His attempt to establish a one true text of the Quran- some thought he was tampering with the words of God Assassinated by Egyptians
The majority of Muslims did not support him, but he still seized the post –Causing conflict amongst Muslims Conflicts led to formation of 3 sects –Alis supporters were Shiites Small number of the Shiites split off into another group called Kharijites –The rest majority of Muslims were Sunnis
SPREAD OF ISLAM AND GEOGRAPHY
Geographical Spread of Islam After Muhammads death, the empire began spreading beyond the Arabian Peninsula, reaching Iran and Egypt. In the 8 th century, the empire spread onto the Iberian Peninsula and Indus Valley reached the height of its power. Religious tolerance was practiced because of the wide diversity throughout the empire. Medina Located on the western Arabian Peninsula (Hejaz Region). Capital of the Islamic Empire until 661. Oasis city- in the most fertile area of the Hejaz region. Surrounded by hills and mountains. Was originally known as Yathrib and occupied by Jewish refugees. Mecca Located in the desert. No vegetation except cacti. Climate was hot and dry with limited water sources. City has less undulation- Very easy to access- for pilgrimages.
The Spread of Islam Muhammads Hometown - Mecca: Lies in barren mountain valley between Yemen, Syria, and Red Sea coast of Arabia Hijra- the flight from Mecca to Medina (the City of the Prophet) because Islam was not widely accepted -Marks turning point of Islam and is the beginning date on Islamic calendars Islam kept strong with nationalism in the Arabic world and is still rapidly spreading
Geography of the Arabian Peninsula Mostly dominated by desert. Southern end of peninsula has more rainfall because of monsoons. Has coastal plains and several oasis in the east. Mountain ranges to the southwest. Varying climate by region, but has limited rainfall and high temperatures throughout most of the area.
Arabian Peninsula Enormous seas of sand- Empty Quarter- isolating inner Arabia -Southern regions knew more about Africa, India, and Persian Gulf -Exceptions were caravan traders Geography Includes the Arabian Peninsula, the Persian Empire, Northern Africa, and the majority of Spain Called Arabian Subcontinent because on top of tectonic plates Central Plateau with fertile valleys and pastures Range of deserts in north Stretches of dry and marshy coastland with coral reefs on Red Sea Range of mountains west of Red Sea
Beginning of Islam Expansion of Islam
RISE AND FALL OF UMAYYAD AND ABBASID EMPIRES
Umayyad The first Islamic dynasty in 661-750. After an agreement with Muhammad in 630, succeeded in preserving their economic influence and gradually reintegrated into the political power structure. Abd al-Malik succeeded in consolidating Umayyad rule, and proceeded with a series of administrative reforms including the conversion of the bureaucracy from Greek to Arabic, and the minting of new currency. Abbasid eventually succeeded in toppling the last Umayyad caliph, Mar wan II, in 750.
Abbasid Rose in the year 750 to replace the Umayyad dynasty by uniting several groups which had grievances against the Umayyad. Had a direct familiar tie to Mohammed. Dynasty lasted 500 years until it was wiped out by a grandson of Genghis Khan. Major cause of fall of the dynasty was failure to find a good solution to the difficult problem of holding together a very large empire in the fairly primitive circumstances of the early middle ages.
RISE AND FALL OF OTTOMAN EMPIRE
Rise of Ottoman Empire 1299 – 1923 C.E. It was the largest and the most influential Muslim empire. Primarily located in the Mediterranean. It spread into Europe. They arose from Anatolia. Sultan Suleiman was the greatest leader because he expanded the empire and caused a lot of cultural history. Absolute power Capital: Istanbul Centralized government Large international trade center/routes- basis of economy Ghazi emirates made up Turkish Anatolia Osman I expanded his emirate towards Byzantine Decline in Serbian influence allowed Ottoman to expand Conquered Constantinople cementing its position of power
Height of power Spanned three countries (Southeastern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. ) Had 29 provinces Also had control oversea lands Constantinople (Istanbul) is the capital Had Islamic cultures Military was key in advancing the Empire Islamic state, but tolerant towards other monotheistic religions Government run by religious law Taxed on all goods passing in and out of the empire
Fall of Ottoman Empire Territorial, economic, and cultural growth stopped in 1566 The decline was because of a population increase and a refusal to modernize society (Economic structure failure) Its diverse region means that a single economy cannot meet the needs of all of them Also during World War I they sided with the central power Once the central powers were defeated, the Ottomans retreated to Anatolia Then they soon feel apart and that part became Turkey
SAFAVID EMPIRE! 1502-1722 Beginnings and Society/Religion The Monarchy was in the form of a triangle: Shah (the ruler), the bureaucracy and then the common people. The Shahs were thought to be semi- divine and was also thought to have a direct connection to the prophet Muhammad. The senior positions in the bureaucracy were appointed by merit, and were usually people from other countries. This decreased competition. The Shahs had their faces printed on cups so the common people would think they were friends The Empire started as a group of people from Turkish tribes and people of Shiite-Sufi descent. It covered most of Iran, and parts of Turkey and Georgia Theocracy structure State Religion: Shia Islam. Economic strength came from trade and location. The empire made Iran a center of art, architecture, poetry and philosophy. The Empire ended when it became corrupt. Beauracracy/Landowners Shah Commoners
A tale of two cities- Isfahan and Istanbul + Isfahan became the capital of Iran; 1598 + Both cities looked physically different + Istanbul's harbor was the primary seaport + Isfahan was far from the sea, and only received European visitors rarely +Both had similar characteristics; favored walking, women seldom appeared in public, streets were narrow, wives could retain property after marriage, and could appear in court. Everyone wore similar clothing. + Isfahan was not a true cosmopolitan capital Miniature of the Safavid Empire
Economic Crisis and Political Collapse Deep pile carpets were main source of foreign trade, but most people farmed or herded for a living In the late 16 th century, inflation from cheap silver spread to Iran, and trade declined because of silk monopoly mismanagement The country couldnt pay off the army or govt Govt lost support from the nomads, since they tried to take the nomads land to pay off taxes Govt became so weak that Afgans were able to capture Isfahan, leading to the end of Safavid rule
Mughal Empire: 1526-1858 Under the Mughal rules India became united under one rule and had very prosperous cultural and political years. Akbar- true founder of Mughal Empire. He created the establishment of an efficient administrative system that held the empire together and stimulated trade and economic development. Religion: Sunni Islam of the Hanafi Madhab. Gained significant conquests in the Deccan Plateau region.
Mughal Empire Mansabs- A system of honorific ranks that defined each officials position. Adopted Hindu political rituals and customs to be accepted into Hindu society. Arts flourished at this time; the most prominent achievements were in architecture, manuscript illustration, and painting. Empire decline: Some of the regions under the Mughals control started to experience economic growth and in time felt that they were strong enough to stand alone. They refused to cooperate therefore with the Mughals and were often at arms as well.
IBN BATTUTA AND IBN SINA
IBN BATTUTA 1304-circa 1377 Islamic scholar and explorer Famous for his travel accounts of the known Muslim world Is said to have even traveled farther than Marco Polo
IBN SINA 980-1037 One of the most famous Islamic philosopher and physician Wrote scientific and medical books/encyclopedias Considered to be one of the fathers of early medicine
ISLAMIC ARTS, MEDICINE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY
Islamic Arts and Science -Architecture: palaces, mosques. -Calligraphy: Beautiful writing -Discouraged the use of pictorial imagery -Carpet weaving -Astronomy: Unique to the Islamic faith, solve practical problems -Many great philosophers
Medicine and Technology Muslim hospitals pioneered the practices of diagnosis, cure, and future prevention. Hospitals open 24 hrs. Al-Razi: developed treatments for small pox and measles Advancement in field of pharmacology Advancement in Mathematics
Arts&Science Arts: Many artistic techniques adapted from the Romans. Made many sculptures made out of stucco Used glass for cosmetics containers and bottles. They used parchment from animals skins to write books, which were based on the format of the Qur`an. Textiles: often made with expensive materials; covered buildings, furnishings, and mosques. Science: Many schools were created, resulting in many educated scholars. Invention of paper allowed for printing of books, which spread knowledge and education. Works of philosophers such as Sophocles and Plato were translated into Arab and printed into books. Ibn Haiyan: Father of Chemistry introduced experimental investigation and wrote books on chemistry and alchemy
Medicine&Technology Medicine: Doctors recorded down observations and created cures for many diseases. Main Doctors- Ibn Riza (who wrote about measles and smallpox) and Ibn Nafis (who explained the circulatory system). Technology: Advanced water cleaning systems and water transportation that resulted in better agriculture Tar roads and pavements Acequia: a waterway introduced by Spain Built several dams Development of paper allowed for printing of books
ISLAM IN THE MODERN WORLD
ISLAM TODAY The Islamic New Year begins on the day Muhammad left Mecca to travel to Medina. Islam is the dominant religion in most Middle Eastern countries. A mosque is a place of worship for Muslims The basic unit of Islamic society is the family, and Islam defines the obligations and legal rights of family members. A man may have up to four wives if he believes he can treat them equally, while a woman may have only one husband. Starting in the 20th century, Muslim social reformers argued against these and other practices such as polygamy, with varying success.